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  • Yoshimi, N., et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid metabolomics identifies a key role of isocitrate dehydrogenase in bipolar disorder: evidence in support of mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184. ; 21:11, s. 1504-1510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) has been reported, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. In this study, we performed metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from male BD patients (n = 54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n = 40). Subsequently, postmortem brain analyses, genetic analyses, metabolomics of CSF samples from rats treated with lithium or valproic acid were also performed. After multivariate logistic regression, isocitric acid (isocitrate) levels were significantly higher in the CSF from BD patients than healthy controls. Furthermore, gene expression of two subtypes (IDH3A and IDH3B) of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from BD patients was significantly lower than that of controls, although the expression of other genes including, aconitase (ACO1, ACO2), IDH1, IDH2 and IDH3G, were not altered. Moreover, protein expression of IDH3A in the cerebellum from BD patients was higher than that of controls. Genetic analyses showed that IDH genes (IDH1, IDH2, IDH3A, IDH3B) and ACO genes (ACO1, ACO2) were not associated with BD. Chronic (4 weeks) treatment with lithium or valproic acid in rats did not alter CSF levels of isocitrate, and mRNA levels of Idh3a, Idh3b, Aco1 and Aco2 genes in the rat brain. These findings suggest that abnormality in the metabolism of isocitrate by IDH3A in the mitochondria plays a key role in the pathogenesis of BD, supporting the mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis of BD. Therefore, IDH3 in the citric acid cycle could potentially be a novel therapeutic target for BD.
  • Zetterberg, Henrik, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier dysfunction in patients with bipolar disorder in relation to antipsychotic treatment
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research. - 0165-1781 .- 1872-7123. ; 217:3, s. 143-146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Blood-cerebrospinal barrier (BCB) dysfunction has previously been shown in subjects with schizophrenia and depressed patients with attempted suicide. Bipolar disorder (BPD) shares clinical features with both these disorders, but it is unknown if the integrity of the BCB is altered also in BPD. To assess if BCB function in BPD we surveyed 134 mood-stabilized BPD patients and 86 healthy controls. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected and analyzed for albumin concentration by immunonephelometry. CSF/serum albumin ratio, an established measure of BCB function, was significantly elevated in BPD patients as compared to controls. After stratifying patients according to diagnostic subtype, BPD I patients had the highest CSF/serum albumin ratios. Moreover, BPD patients on antipsychotic treatment had higher CSF/serum albumin ratio than BPD patients on other treatments. When excluding BPD patients on antipsychotic treatment the difference in CSF/serum albumin ratio between the BPD and control groups disappeared. In conclusion, antipsychotic treatment in BPD is associated with elevated CSF/serum albumin ratio, tentatively as a sign of impaired BCB function. Whether this elevation is caused by antipsychotic treatment or is associated with a certain subtype of BPD, requiring antipsychotic treatment, remains to be determined. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland 'Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ölvander, J., et al. (författare)
  • Preface
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of NordDesign : Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018. - Linköping : Design Research Society. - 9789176851852
  • Konferensbidrag (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Ölvander, J., et al. (författare)
  • Preface
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: 13th Biennial Norddesign Conference, NordDesign 2018. - The Design Society.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Acosta Navarro, J. C., et al. (författare)
  • Amplification of Arctic warming by past air pollution reductions in Europe
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Geoscience. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1752-0894 .- 1752-0908. ; 9:4, s. 277-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The Arctic region is warming considerably faster than the rest of the globe(1), with important consequences for the ecosystems(2) and human exploration of the region(3). However, the reasons behind this Arctic amplification are not entirely clear(4). As a result of measures to enhance air quality, anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter and its precursors have drastically decreased in parts of the Northern Hemisphere over the past three decades(5). Here we present simulations with an Earth system model with comprehensive aerosol physics and chemistry that show that the sulfate aerosol reductions in Europe since 1980 can potentially explain a significant fraction of Arctic warming over that period. Specifically, the Arctic region receives an additional 0.3Wm(-2) of energy, and warms by 0.5 degrees C on annual average in simulations with declining European sulfur emissions in line with historical observations, compared with a model simulation with fixed European emissions at 1980 levels. Arctic warming is amplified mainly in fall and winter, but the warming is initiated in summer by an increase in incoming solar radiation as well as an enhanced poleward oceanic and atmospheric heat transport. The simulated summertime energy surplus reduces sea-ice cover, which leads to a transfer of heat from the Arctic Ocean to the atmosphere. We conclude that air quality regulations in the Northern Hemisphere, the ocean and atmospheric circulation, and Arctic climate are inherently linked.</p>
  • Acosta Navarro, J. C., et al. (författare)
  • Global emissions of terpenoid VOCs from terrestrial vegetation in the last millennium
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 2169-897X .- 2169-8996. ; 119:11, s. 6867-6885
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We investigated the millennial variability (1000 A.D.-2000 A.D.) of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene, and Lund-Potsdam-Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission trends were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have significant short-term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively), and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1(15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1(10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1(10% and 4% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.</p>
  • Andersson, Lise-Lotte, et al. (författare)
  • Gamma-ray Spectroscopy of Excited States in 61Zn
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal A. Hadrons and Nuclei. - Springer. - 1434-6001. ; 30:2, s. 381-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Zn-61(30)31 isotope has been produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the fusion-evaporation reaction Ca-40(Mg-24, 2pn)Zn-61 at 104 MeV. The experimental set-up allowed gamma-rays to be detected in the CLARION Ge detector array in coincidence with the detection of recoiling nuclei in the focal plane at the end of the recoil mass spectrometer. This provides a unique identification of gamma-rays belonging to Zn-61. The excited states have been explored by means of recoil-gamma gamma coincidences, and the resulting decay scheme comprises almost 70 transitions. The data reveal numerous non-yrast states and suggest a revised spin and parity assignment for a previously observed superdeformed band. The resulting decay scheme is compared to predictions from different sets of large-scale shell model calculations.
  • Asplund Samuelsson, Johannes, et al. (författare)
  • Diversity and expression of bacterial metacaspases in an aquatic ecosystem
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology. - Frontiers Research Foundation. - 1664-302X .- 1664-302X. ; 7:JUL
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Metacaspases are distant homologs of metazoan caspase proteases, implicated in stress response, and programmed cell death (PCD) in bacteria and phytoplankton. While the few previous studies on metacaspases have relied on cultured organisms and sequenced genomes, no studies have focused on metacaspases in a natural setting. We here present data from the first microbial community-wide metacaspase survey; performed by querying metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets from the brackish Baltic Sea, a water body characterized by pronounced environmental gradients and periods of massive cyanobacterial blooms. Metacaspase genes were restricted to ~4% of the bacteria, taxonomically affiliated mainly to Bacteroidetes, Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The gene abundance was significantly higher in larger or particle-associated bacteria (&lt;0.8 μm), and filamentous Cyanobacteria dominated metacaspase gene expression throughout the bloom season. Distinct seasonal expression patterns were detected for the three metacaspase genes in Nodularia spumigena, one of the main bloom-formers. Clustering of normalized gene expression in combination with analyses of genomic and assembly data suggest functional diversification of these genes, and possible roles of the metacaspase genes related to stress responses, i.e., sulfur metabolism in connection to oxidative stress, and nutrient stress induced cellular differentiation. Co-expression of genes encoding metacaspases and nodularin toxin synthesis enzymes was also observed in Nodularia spumigena. The study shows that metacaspases represent an adaptation of potentially high importance for several key organisms in the Baltic Sea, most prominently Cyanobacteria, and open up for further exploration of their physiological roles in microbes and assessment of their ecological impact in aquatic habitats.</p>
  • Bosworth, H. B., et al. (författare)
  • Medication adherence: a call for action
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American heart journal. - 1097-6744. ; 162:3, s. 412-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Poor adherence to efficacious cardiovascular-related medications has led to considerable morbidity, mortality, and avoidable health care costs. This article provides results of a recent think-tank meeting in which various stakeholder groups representing key experts from consumers, community health providers, the academic community, decision-making government officials (Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, etc), and industry scientists met to evaluate the current status of medication adherence and provide recommendations for improving outcomes. Below, we review the magnitude of the problem of medication adherence, prevalence, impact, and cost. We then summarize proven effective approaches and conclude with a discussion of recommendations to address this growing and significant public health issue of medication nonadherence.
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