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Sökning: WFRF:(Fox Keith A. A.)

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  • Föregående 12345[6]
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  • Rinne, Juha O, et al. (författare)
  • 11C-PiB PET assessment of change in fibrillar amyloid-beta load in patients with Alzheimer's disease treated with bapineuzumab: a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose study.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Lancet neurology. - 1474-4465. ; 9:4, s. 363-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Carbon-11-labelled Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) PET is a marker of cortical fibrillar amyloid-beta load in vivo. We used (11)C-PiB PET to investigate whether bapineuzumab, a humanised anti-amyloid-beta monoclonal antibody, would reduce cortical fibrillar amyloid-beta load in patients with Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease were randomly assigned to receive intravenous bapineuzumab or placebo in a ratio of seven to three in three ascending dose groups (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg). Each dose group was enrolled after safety review of the previous group. Randomisation was by interactive voice response system; masking was achieved with numbered kit allocation. Patients, investigators, study site personnel, sponsor staff, and carers were masked to treatment. Patients received up to six infusions, 13 weeks apart, and had (11)C-PiB PET scans at baseline and at weeks 20, 45, and 78. The primary outcome was the difference between the pooled bapineuzumab group and the pooled placebo group in mean change from screening to week 78 in (11)C-PiB cortical to cerebellar retention ratio averaged across six cortical regions of interest. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. This study is registered with EudraCT, number 2004-004120-12; ISRCTN17517446. FINDINGS: 28 patients were assigned to bapineuzumab (n=20) or placebo (n=8). 19 patients in the bapineuzumab group and seven in the placebo group were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Estimated mean (11)C-PiB retention ratio change from baseline to week 78 was -0.09 (95% CI -0.16 to -0.02; p=0.014) in the bapineuzumab group and 0.15 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.28; p=0.022) in the placebo group. Estimated mean difference in (11)C-PiB retention ratio change from baseline to week 78 between the bapineuzumab group and the placebo group was -0.24 (95% CI -0.39 to -0.09; p=0.003). Differences between the bapineuzumab group and the placebo group in the individual regions of interest were similar to the overall mean difference. Adverse events were typically mild to moderate in severity and transient. Two patients in the 2.0 mg/kg bapineuzumab group had transient cerebral vasogenic oedema. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with bapineuzumab for 78 weeks reduced cortical (11)C-PiB retention compared with both baseline and placebo. (11)C-PiB PET seems to be useful in assessing the effects of potential Alzheimer's disease treatments on cortical fibrillar amyloid-beta load in vivo. FUNDING: Elan Pharmaceuticals and Wyeth Research.
  • Yusuf, Salim, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of fondaparinux on mortality and reinfarction in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction : the OASIS-6 randomized trial
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 295:13, s. 1519-1930
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Despite many therapeutic advances, mortality in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains high. The role of additional antithrombotic agents is unclear, especially among patients not receiving reperfusion therapy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of fondaparinux, a factor Xa inhibitor, when initiated early and given for up to 8 days vs usual care (placebo in those in whom unfractionated heparin [UFH] is not indicated [stratum 1] or unfractionated heparin for up to 48 hours followed by placebo for up to 8 days [stratum 2]) in patients with STEMI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized double-blind comparison of fondaparinux 2.5 mg once daily or control for up to 8 days in 12,092 patients with STEMI from 447 hospitals in 41 countries (September 2003-January 2006). From day 3 through day 9, all patients received either fondaparinux or placebo according to the original randomized assignment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite of death or reinfarction at 30 days (primary) with secondary assessments at 9 days and at final follow-up (3 or 6 months). RESULTS: Death or reinfarction at 30 days was significantly reduced from 677 (11.2%) of 6056 patients in the control group to 585 (9.7%) of 6036 patients in the fondaparinux group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.96; P = .008); absolute risk reduction, 1.5%; 95% CI, 0.4%-2.6%). These benefits were observed at 9 days (537 [8.9%] placebo vs 444 [7.4%] fondaparinux; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73-0.94; P = .003, and at study end (857 [14.8%] placebo vs 756 [13.4%] fondaparinux; HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.97; P = .008). Mortality was significantly reduced throughout the study. There was no heterogeneity of the effects of fondaparinux in the 2 strata by planned heparin use. However, there was no benefit in those undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. In other patients in stratum 2, fondaparinux was superior to unfractionated heparin in preventing death or reinfarction at 30 days (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66-1.02; P = .08) and at study end (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.93; P = .008). Significant benefits were observed in those receiving thrombolytic therapy (HR, 0.79; P = .003) and those not receiving any reperfusion therapy (HR, 0.80; P = .03). There was a tendency to fewer severe bleeds (79 for placebo vs 61 for fondaparinux; P = .13), with significantly fewer cardiac tamponade (48 vs 28; P = .02) with fondaparinux at 9 days. CONCLUSION: In patients with STEMI, particularly those not undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention, fondaparinux significantly reduces mortality and reinfarction without increasing bleeding and strokes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00064428.
  • Fox, Keith A., et al. (författare)
  • Influence of renal function on the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux relative to enoxaparin in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Annals of Internal Medicine. - 0003-4819 .- 1539-3704. ; 147:5, s. 304-310
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: A recent randomized, controlled trial, the Fifth Organization to Assess Strategies in Acute Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS 5) trial, reported that major bleeding was 2-fold less frequent with fondaparinux than with enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Renal dysfunction increases the risk for major bleeding. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux and enoxaparin over the spectrum of renal dysfunction observed in the OASIS 5 trial. DESIGN: Subgroup analysis of a randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Patients presenting to the hospital with non-ST-segment elevation ACS. PATIENTS: 19,979 of the 20,078 patients in the OASIS 5 trial in whom creatinine was measured at baseline. MEASUREMENTS: Death, myocardial infarction, refractory ischemia, and major bleeding were evaluated separately and as a composite end point at 9, 30, and 180 days. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. RESULTS: The absolute differences in favor of fondaparinux (efficacy and safety) were most marked in patients with a GFR less than 58 mL/min per 1.73 m2; the largest differences occurred in major bleeding events. At 9 days, death, myocardial infarction, or refractory ischemia occurred in 6.7% of patients receiving fondaparinux and 7.4% of those receiving enoxaparin (hazard ratio, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.73 to 1.11]); major bleeding occurred in 2.8% and 6.4%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.42 [CI, 0.32 to 0.56]). Statistically significant differences in major bleeding persisted at 30 and 180 days. The rates of the composite end point were lower with fondaparinux than with enoxaparin in all quartiles of GFR, but the differences were statistically significant only among patients with a GFR less than 58 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Limitations: Subgroup analyses warrant caution; the study was powered to detect noninferiority at 9 days. Fondaparinux is not approved for use in patients with ACS in the United States. CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of fondaparinux over enoxaparin when administered for non-ST-segment elevation ACS are most marked among patients with renal dysfunction and are largely explained by lower rates of major bleeding with fondaparinux.
  • Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between plasma neurofilament light, in vivo brain pathology, and cognition in non-demented individuals with autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurofilament light (NfL) is a promising biomarker of early neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined whether plasma NfL was associated with in vivo amyloid beta and tau, and cognitive performance in non-demented presenilin-1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers.Twenty-five mutation carriers and 19 non-carriers (age range: 28 to 49 years) were included in this study. Participants underwent 11C Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET (positron emission tomography), flortaucipir-PET, blood sampling, and cognitive testing.Mutation carriers exhibited higher plasma NfL levels than non-carriers. In carriers, higher NfL levels were related to greater regional tau burden and worse cognition, but not amyloid beta load. When we adjusted for age, a proxy of disease progression, elevated plasma NfL levels were only correlated with worse memory recall.Findings support an association between plasma NfL, cognition, and tau pathology in non-demented individuals at genetic risk for developing AD dementia. Plasma NfL may be useful for selecting individuals at increased risk and tracking disease progression in AD.
  • Mehta, Shamir R., et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy and safety of fondaparinux versus enoxaparin in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention : results from the OASIS-5 trial
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 50:18, s. 1742-1751
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: This study reports a prospectively planned analysis of patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent early percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the OASIS-5 (Fifth Organization to Assess Strategies in Ischemic Syndromes) trial. BACKGROUND: In the OASIS-5 trial, fondaparinux was similar to enoxaparin for short-term efficacy, but reduced major bleeding by one-half and 30-day mortality by 17%. METHODS: The OASIS-5 trial was a double-blind, randomized comparison of fondaparinux and enoxaparin in 20,078 patients with acute coronary syndrome. A total of 12,715 patients underwent heart catheterization during the initial hospitalization, and 6,238 patients underwent PCI. In the fondaparinux group, intravenous fondaparinux was given for PCI. In the enoxaparin group, no additional anticoagulant was given if PCI was <6 h from last subcutaneous dose, and additional intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH) was given if PCI was >6 h. RESULTS: Fondaparinux compared with enoxaparin reduced major bleeding by more than one-half (2.4% vs. 5.1%, hazard ratio [HR] 0.46, p < 0.00001) at day 9, with similar rates of ischemic events, resulting in superior net clinical benefit (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, major bleeding: 8.2% vs. 10.4%, HR 0.78, p = 0.004). Fondaparinux reduced major bleeding 48 h after PCI irrespective of whether PCI was performed <6 h of the last enoxaparin dose (1.6% vs. 3.8%, HR 0.42, p < 0.0001) or >6 h when UFH was given (1.3% vs. 3.4%, HR 0.39, p < 0.0001). Catheter thrombus was more common in patients receiving fondaparinux (0.9%) than enoxaparin alone (0.4%), but was largely prevented by using UFH at the time of PCI, without any increase in bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Upstream therapy with fondaparinux compared with upstream enoxaparin substantially reduces major bleeding while maintaining efficacy, resulting in superior net clinical benefit. The use of standard UFH in place of fondaparinux at the time of PCI seems to prevent angiographic complications, including catheter thrombus, without compromising the benefits of upstream fondaparinux.
  • Peters, Ron J. G., et al. (författare)
  • The role of fondaparinux as an adjunct to thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction : a subgroup analysis of the OASIS-6 trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 29:3, s. 324-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: No antithrombotic therapy has been shown to reduce mortality when used with thrombolytics in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the OASIS-6 trial, fondaparinux significantly reduced mortality and reinfarction without increasing bleeding in 12 092 patients with acute ST elevation MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report the results of a subgroup analysis in the 5436 patients (45%) receiving thrombolytics. According to local practice, 4415 patients did not have an indication for unfractionated heparin (stratum 1) and 1021 did (stratum 2). Fondaparinux reduced the primary study outcome of death or MI at 30 days [Hazard ratio (HR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.92] with consistent reductions in both mortality (HR and CI) and reinfarction (HR and CI). There was a non-significantly lower rate of stroke (HR 0.77, CI 0.48-1.25). The risk of severe bleeding was significantly reduced (HR 0.62, CI 0.40-0.94), and thus the balance of benefit and risk (death, MI and severe haemorrhage) was clearly reduced by fondaparinux (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.67-0.90). Results were consistent in the two strata, by the different types of thrombolytics and across various time intervals from symptom onset to treatment. CONCLUSION: In STEMI patients treated with thrombolytic agents (predominantly streptokinase), fondaparinux significantly reduced the risk of death, re-MI and severe bleeds.
  • Woudstra, Pier, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic relevance of PCI-related myocardial infarction
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Reviews Cardiology. - 1759-5002 .- 1759-5010. ; 10:4, s. 231-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Procedure-related myocardial infarction (pMI) is directly associated with a coronary revascularization procedure, such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or CABG surgery. In contrast to spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI), the prognostic relevance of pMI is the subject of ongoing debate. Data from retrospective analyses of large, randomized clinical trials, and large, contemporary cohort studies have several shortcomings that limit their extrapolation to clinical practice. In our opinion, the currently available evidence is insufficient to conclude that pMI during PCI, as currently defined, always has important prognostic implications. Until further evidence is available, we recommend adopting the definition for MI given in the third universal definition of MI, which differentiates between pMI and spontaneous MI. This is important not only for clinical decision-making but also for the interpretation of pMI as a surrogate end point in clinical trials. Further studies are essential to understand the pathophysiology and consequences of pMI.
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