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101.
  • Nichols, Hazel B., et al. (författare)
  • The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration : A Pooling Project of Studies Participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 26:9, s. 1360-1369
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individuallevel data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This article describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations.</p>
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102.
  • Nichols, Hazel B, et al. (författare)
  • The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration : A Pooling Project of Studies Participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 26:9, s. 1360-1369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individual-level data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This article describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1360-9. ©2017 AACR.</p>
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103.
  • O'Reilly, Éilis J, et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnostic body size and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis death in 10 studies
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration. - 2167-8421 .- 2167-9223. ; 19:5-6, s. 396-406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>OBJECTIVES AND METHODS:</strong> Using pooled multivariable-adjusted rate ratios (RR), we explored relationships between prediagnostic body-mass-index (BMI), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR), and weight-gain during adulthood, and ALS in 419,894 women and 148,166 men from 10 community-based cohorts in USA, Europe, and Australia; 428 ALS deaths were documented in women and 204 in men.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> , limiting power. Weight-gain during adulthood was strongly associated with lower ALS; for an additional 1kg gain in weight/year, the RR = 0.43 (95% CI: 0.28-0.65; p &lt; 0.001). Associations persisted when adjusted for diabetes at enrollment, restricted to never-smokers, and ALS deaths in the 5 years after enrollment were excluded (accounting for recent weight loss).</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> These findings confirm somewhat conflicting, underpowered evidence that adiposity is inversely associated with ALS. We newly demonstrate that weight-gain during adulthood is strongly predictive of lower ALS risk.</p>
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104.
  • Schoemaker, Minouk J., et al. (författare)
  • Association of body mass index and age With subsequent breast cancer risk in premenopausal women
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - American Medical Assocation. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 4:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>IMPORTANCE The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as wei ght in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation.</p><p>OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics.</p><p>DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1,1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1.2013, through December 31, 2017.</p><p>EXPOSURES Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34,35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years.</p><p>MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer.</p><p>RESULTS Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m(2) [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI &gt;= 35.0 vs &lt;17.0) at ages 18 to 24 years (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.14-0.40). Hazard ratios did not appreciably vary by attained age or between strata of other breast cancer risk factors. Associations were stronger for estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive than for hormone receptor-negative breast cancer for BMI at every age group (eg, for BMI at age 18 to 24 years: HR per 5.0-U difference for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.70-0.81] vs hormone receptor-negative tumors, 0.85 [95% CI: 0.76-0.95]); BMI at ages 25 to 54 years was not consistently associated with triple-negative or hormone receptor-negative breast cancer overall.</p><p>CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.</p>
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105.
  • Schoemaker, Minouk J, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Body Mass Index and Age With Subsequent Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 4:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Importance:</strong> The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation.</p><p><strong>Objective:</strong> To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics.</p><p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants:</strong> This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1, 1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1, 2013, through December 31, 2017.</p><p><strong>Exposures:</strong> Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34, 35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years.</p><p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures:</strong> Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m2 [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI≥35.0 vs &lt;17.0) at ages 18 to 24 years (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.14-0.40). Hazard ratios did not appreciably vary by attained age or between strata of other breast cancer risk factors. Associations were stronger for estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive than for hormone receptor-negative breast cancer for BMI at every age group (eg, for BMI at age 18 to 24 years: HR per 5.0-U difference for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.70-0.81] vs hormone receptor-negative tumors, 0.85 [95% CI: 0.76-0.95]); BMI at ages 25 to 54 years was not consistently associated with triple-negative or hormone receptor-negative breast cancer overall.</p><p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance:</strong> The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.</p>
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106.
  • Stanesby, Oliver, et al. (författare)
  • Women's role in the rise in drinking in Australia 1950-80 : an age-period-cohort analysis of data from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - 0965-2140 .- 1360-0443. ; 113:12, s. 2194-2202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background and Aims In Australia, as in many countries, alcohol consumption increased dramatically during the second half of the 20th century, with increased availability of alcohol, relaxation of attitudes towards drinking and shifting roles and opportunities for women as facilitating factors. We sought to investigate drinking trends by gender and birth cohort in Australia during this period. Design Setting, Participants and Measurements Retrospective cohort study. Using the usual frequency and quantity of beverage-specific alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20, reported retrospectively from 40 789 participants aged 40-69 years (born 1920-49) at recruitment to the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study in 1990-94, we compared trends in alcohol consumption by sex in Australia between 1950 and 1990. Participants' average daily consumption for age decades were transformed to estimated intakes for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990. Findings Conclusions Alcohol consumption was higher for men than women during each decade. Alcohol consumption increased for both sexes in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, and fell after 1980. The rise before 1980 was roughly equal in absolute terms for both sexes, but much greater relative to 1950 for women. Women born during 1930-39 and 1940-49 drank more alcohol during early-middle adulthood (ages 20-40) than women born during 1920-29. In the 1980s, the fall was greater in absolute terms for men, but roughly equal relative to 1950 for both sexes. In both sexes, the decline in drinking in the 1980s for birth-decade cohorts was roughly in parallel. Specific birth cohorts were influential in the rise in alcohol consumption by Australian women born in 1920-49 after World War II. Much of the convergence with men's drinking after 1980 reflects large reductions in drinking among men.</p>
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107.
  • Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina, et al. (författare)
  • Impaired functional vitamin B6 status is associated with increased risk of lung cancer
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 142:12, s. 2425-2434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Circulating vitamin B6 levels have been found to be inversely associated with lung cancer. Most studies have focused on the B6 form pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), a direct biomarker influenced by inflammation and other factors. Using a functional B6 marker allows further investigation of the potential role of vitamin B6 status in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. We prospectively evaluated the association of the functional marker of vitamin B6 status, the 3-hydroxykynurenine:xanthurenic acid (HK:XA) ratio, with risk of lung cancer in a nested case–control study consisting of 5,364 matched case–control pairs from the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between HK:XA and lung cancer, and random effect models to combine results from different cohorts and regions. High levels of HK:XA, indicating impaired functional B6 status, were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, the odds ratio comparing the fourth and the first quartiles (OR4th vs. 1st) was 1.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.10–1.41). Stratified analyses indicated that this association was primarily driven by cases diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. Notably, the risk associated with HK:XA was approximately 50% higher in groups with a high relative frequency of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., men, former and current smokers. This risk of squamous cell carcinoma was present in both men and women regardless of smoking status.
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108.
  • Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina, et al. (författare)
  • Impaired functional vitamin B6 status is associated with increased risk of lung cancer
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 142:12, s. 2425-2434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Circulating vitamin B6 levels have been found to be inversely associated with lung cancer. Most studies have focused on the B6 form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), a direct biomarker influenced by inflammation and other factors. Using a functional B6 marker allows further investigation of the potential role of vitamin B6 status in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. We prospectively evaluated the association of the functional marker of vitamin B6 status, the 3-hydroxykynurenine:xanthurenic acid (HK:XA) ratio, with risk of lung cancer in a nested case-control study consisting of 5,364 matched case-control pairs from the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between HK:XA and lung cancer, and random effect models to combine results from different cohorts and regions. High levels of HK:XA, indicating impaired functional B6 status, were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, the odds ratio comparing the fourth and the first quartiles (OR4th vs. 1st) was 1.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.41). Stratified analyses indicated that this association was primarily driven by cases diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. Notably, the risk associated with HK:XA was approximately 50% higher in groups with a high relative frequency of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., men, former and current smokers. This risk of squamous cell carcinoma was present in both men and women regardless of smoking status.</p>
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109.
  • Vijai, Joseph, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study of marginal zone lymphoma shows association to the HLA region
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is the third most common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here we perform a two-stage GWAS of 1,281 MZL cases and 7,127 controls of European ancestry and identify two independent loci near BTNL2 (rs9461741, P - 3.95 x 10(-15)) and HLA-B (rs2922994, P - 2.43 x 10(-9)) in the HLA region significantly associated with MZL risk. This is the first evidence that genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex influences MZL susceptibility.</p>
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110.
  • Voros, Z., et al. (författare)
  • MMS Observation of Magnetic Reconnection in the Turbulent Magnetosheath
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics. - American Geophysical Union (AGU). - 2169-9380 .- 2169-9402. ; 122:11, s. 11442-11467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In this paper we use the full armament of the MMS (Magnetospheric Multiscale) spacecraft to study magnetic reconnection in the turbulent magnetosheath downstream of a quasi-parallel bow shock. Contrarily to the magnetopause and magnetotail cases, only a few observations of reconnection in the magnetosheath have been reported. The case study in this paper presents, for the first time, both fluid-scale and kinetic-scale signatures of an ongoing reconnection in the turbulent magnetosheath. The spacecraft are crossing the reconnection inflow and outflow regions and the ion diffusion region (IDR). Inside the reconnection outflows D shape ion distributions are observed. Inside the IDR mixing of ion populations, crescent-like velocity distributions and ion accelerations are observed. One of the spacecraft skims the outer region of the electron diffusion region, where parallel electric fields, energy dissipation/conversion, electron pressure tensor agyrotropy, electron temperature anisotropy, and electron accelerations are observed. Some of the difficulties of the observations of magnetic reconnection in turbulent plasma are also outlined.</p>
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