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11.
  • Lundkvist, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Economic evaluation of proton radiation therapy in the treatment of breast cancer
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology. - 0167-8140 .- 1879-0887. ; 75:2, s. 179-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Proton beam therapy offers potential clinical advantages compared with conventional radiation therapy for many cancer patients. The benefits are mainly a result of a more favourable dose distribution. The treatment cost with proton radiation is higher than for conventional radiation, mainly due to the large investment cost of building a proton therapy facility. It is therefore important to evaluate whether the medical benefits of proton therapy are large enough to justify the higher treatment costs, compared with conventional radiation therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The cost-effectiveness of proton therapy in the treatment of 55-year old women with left-sided breast cancer was assessed. A Markov cohort simulation model was used to simulate the life of patients diagnosed with breast cancers and treated with radiation. Cost and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were the primary outcome measures. RESULTS: The study found a cost per QALY gained of 67,000 Euro for the base case analysis of an average breast cancer patient. The cost per QALY gained would, however, be considerably lower if a population with high-risk of developing cardiac disease was treated. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were stable and that the risk of cardiac disease was the most important parameter. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that proton therapy for breast cancer can be cost-effective if appropriate risk groups are chosen as targets for the therapy.
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12.
  • Lundkvist, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Proton therapy of cancer : potential clinical advantages and cost-effectiveness
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 44:8, s. 850-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Proton therapy may offer potential clinical advantages compared with conventional radiation therapy for many cancer patients. Due to the large investment costs for building a proton therapy facility, however, the treatment cost with proton radiation is higher than with conventional radiation. It is therefore important to evaluate whether the medical benefits of proton therapy are large enough to motivate the higher costs. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of proton therapy in the treatment of four different cancers: left-sided breast cancer, prostate cancer, head and neck cancer, and childhood medulloblastoma. A Markov cohort simulation model was created for each cancer type and used to simulate the life of patients treated with radiation. Cost and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were used as primary outcome measures. The results indicated that proton therapy was cost-effective if appropriate risk groups were chosen. The average cost per QALY gained for the four types of cancer assessed was about pounds 10,130. If the value of a QALY was set to pounds 55,000, the total yearly net benefit of treating 925 cancer patients with the four types of cancer was about pounds 20.8 million. Investment in a proton facility may thus be cost-effective. The results must be interpreted with caution, since there is a lack of data, and consequently large uncertainties in the assumptions used.
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13.
  • Molin, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Mast cell infiltration correlates with poor prognosis in Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - 0007-1048 .- 1365-2141. ; 119:1, s. 122-124
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is characterized by a few Hodgkin, Reed-Sternberg cells (HRS) surrounded by benign cells. We recently reported that mast cells were the predominant CD30L-positive cells in HL tumours, and that they activate HRS in vitro through CD30L-CD30 interaction. Here, we investigated the clinical importance of mast cell infiltration in the tumours of 123 patients. Tumour specimens were stained with a mast-cell-specific antibody that detects tryptase. Mast cells were detected in virtually every case and increasing numbers of mast cells correlated to nodular sclerosis histology (P = 0.008). Patients with higher mast cell infiltration had a worse relapse-free survival (P = 0.01).
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14.
  • ter Veer, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Consensus statement on mandatory measurements in pancreatic cancer trials (COMM-PACT) for systemic treatment of unresectable disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - 1470-2045 .- 1474-5488. ; 19:3, s. E151-E160
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Variations in the reporting of potentially confounding variables in studies investigating systemic treatments for unresectable pancreatic cancer pose challenges in drawing accurate comparisons between findings. In this Review, we establish the first international consensus on mandatory baseline and prognostic characteristics in future trials for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer. We did a systematic literature search to find phase 3 trials investigating first-line systemic treatment for locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer to identify baseline characteristics and prognostic variables. We created a structured overview showing the reporting frequencies of baseline characteristics and the prognostic relevance of identified variables. We used a modified Delphi panel of two rounds involving an international panel of 23 leading medical oncologists in the field of pancreatic cancer to develop a consensus on the various variables identified. In total, 39 randomised controlled trials that had data on 15 863 patients were included, of which 32 baseline characteristics and 26 prognostic characteristics were identified. After two consensus rounds, 23 baseline characteristics and 12 prognostic characteristics were designated as mandatory for future pancreatic cancer trials. The COnsensus statement on Mandatory Measurements in unresectable PAncreatic Cancer Trials (COMM-PACT) identifies a mandatory set of baseline and prognostic characteristics to allow adequate comparison of outcomes between pancreatic cancer studies.
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15.
  • Travis, Lois B, et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer following radiotherapy and chemotherapy among young women with Hodgkin disease
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 290:4, s. 465-475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Second cancer is the leading cause of death in long-term survivors of Hodgkin disease (HD), with exceptionally high risks of breast cancer among women treated at a young age. Quantitative associations between radiotherapy dose delivered to the breast and administered chemotherapy have not been reported to date in large series, nor has the influence of ovarian exposures on subsequent risk.OBJECTIVE: To quantify the long-term risk of breast cancer associated with use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy to treat young women with HD.DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: Matched case-control study of breast cancer within a cohort of 3817 female 1-year survivors of HD diagnosed at age 30 years or younger, between January 1, 1965, and December 31, 1994, and within 6 population-based cancer registries. The study was conducted March 1, 1996, through September 30, 1998.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risk (RR) of breast cancer associated with radiation dose delivered to site of breast cancer or to ovaries and with cumulative dose of alkylating agents.RESULTS: Breast cancer occurred in 105 patients with HD who were matched to 266 patients with HD but without breast cancer. A radiation dose of 4 Gy or more delivered to the breast was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-8.2) increased risk, compared with the risk in patients who received lower doses and no alkylating agents. Risk increased to 8-fold (95% CI, 2.6-26.4) with a dose of more than 40 Gy (P<.001 for trend). Radiation risk did not vary appreciably by age at exposure or reproductive history. Increased risks persisted for 25 or more years following radiotherapy (RR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.5-16.5; P =.03 for trend with dose). Treatment with alkylating agents alone resulted in a reduced risk (RR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.2-2.0) of breast cancer, and combined alkylating agents and radiotherapy in a 1.4-fold (95% CI, 0.6-3.5) increased risk. Risk of breast cancer decreased with increasing number of alkylating agent cycles (P =.003 for trend). Risk also was low (RR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.1) among women who received 5 Gy or more delivered to ovaries compared with those who received lower doses.CONCLUSIONS: Hormonal stimulation appears important for the development of radiation-induced breast cancer, as evidenced by the reduced risk associated with ovarian damage from alkylating agents or radiation. The high radiation-related risk, which did not diminish at the highest doses or the longest follow-up, however, suggests the need for lifetime surveillance and programs of patient and public awareness.
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16.
  • Travis, Lois B, et al. (författare)
  • Lung cancer following chemotherapy and radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 94:3, s. 182-192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a frequent cause of death in patients cured of Hodgkin's disease, but the contributions of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and smoking are not well described. We quantified the risk of treatment-associated lung cancer, taking into account tobacco use.METHODS: Within a population-based cohort of 19 046 Hodgkin's disease patients (diagnosed from 1965 through 1994), a case-control study of lung cancer was conducted. The cumulative amount of cytotoxic drugs, the radiation dose to the specific location in the lung where cancer developed, and tobacco use were compared for 222 patients who developed lung cancer and for 444 matched control patients. All statistical tests were two-sided.RESULTS: Treatment with alkylating agents without radiotherapy was associated with increased lung cancer risk (relative risk [RR] = 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1 to 8.8), as was radiation dose of 5 Gy or more without alkylating agents (RR = 5.9; 95% CI = 2.7 to 13.5). Risk increased with both increasing number of cycles of alkylating agents and increasing radiation dose (P for trend <.001). Among patients treated with mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP), risk increased with cumulative amounts of mechlorethamine and procarbazine (P<.001) when evaluated separately. Statistically significantly elevated risks of lung cancer were apparent within 1-4 years after treatment with alkylating agents, whereas excess risk after radiotherapy began 5 years after treatment and persisted for more than 20 years. Risk after treatment with alkylating agents and radiotherapy together was as expected if individual excess risks were summed. Tobacco use increased lung cancer risk more than 20-fold; risks from smoking appeared to multiply risks from treatment.CONCLUSIONS: Past treatments with alkylating agents and radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in a dose-dependent and additive fashion. The precise risk estimates, however, should be interpreted cautiously, given the possible residual and enhancing effects of tobacco.
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17.
  • Aasebö, Kristine Ö., et al. (författare)
  • Consequences of a high incidence of microsatellite instability and BRAF-mutated tumors A population-based cohort of metastatic colorectal cancer patients
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - WILEY. - 2045-7634 .- 2045-7634. ; 8:7, s. 3623-3635
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Immunotherapy for patients with microsatellite-instable (MSI-H) tumors or BRAF-inhibitors combination treatment for BRAF-mutated (mutBRAF) tumors in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is promising, but the frequency of these molecular changes in trial patients are low. Unselected population-based studies of these molecular changes are warranted.Methods: A population-based cohort of 798 mCRC patients in Scandinavia was studied. Patient and molecular tumor characteristics, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated.Results: Here, 40/583 (7%) tumor samples were MSI-H and 120/591 (20%) were mutBRAF; 87% of MSI-H tumors were mutBRAF (non-Lynch). Elderly (>75 years) had more often MSI-H (10% vs 6%) and MSI-H/mutBRAF (9% vs 4%) tumors. Response rate (5% vs 44%), PFS (4 vs 8 months), and OS (9 vs 18 months) after first-line chemotherapy was all significantly lower in patients with MSI-H compared to patients with microsatellite stable tumors. MSI-H and mutBRAF were both independent poor prognostic predictors for OS (P = 0.049, P < 0.001) and PFS (P = 0.045, P = 0.005) after first-line chemotherapy. Patients with MSI-H tumors received less second-line chemotherapy (15% vs 37%, P = 0.005).Conclusions: In unselected mCRC patients, MSI-H and mutBRAF cases were more common than previously reported. Patients with MSI-H tumors had worse survival, less benefit from chemotherapy, and they differed considerably from recent third-line immunotherapy trial patients as they were older and most had mutBRAF tumor (non-Lynch).
18.
  • Adami, Hans-Olov, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy and risk of non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma : a prospective study
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 70:2, s. 155-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), is likely to be related to immune function. In the light of the established immunologic effects of a pregnancy, we decided to examine the risk of NHL and CLL in relationship to full-term pregnancies. Within a nationwide cohort we identified 1,546 women with NHL and 198 women with CLL, all 15 years or older, born 1925-1972. Five age-matched controls were selected for each case patient. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios after mutual adjustment for number of births and age at first birth. We found a weak, negative association between parity and risk of NHL (p for trend 0.11) and a transient, 10-40% decrease in risk within 5-14 years after the last birth among women with various parity status. The risk of CLL decreased more markedly, and orderly with increasing parity, but the trend was not significant (p = 0.18). Small numbers of cases with CLL prevented more detailed analyses of temporal relationships. Age at first birth appeared unrelated to the risk of both NHL and CLL. We conclude that the immunologic alterations associated with a pregnancy have limited, if any, relevance to the etiology of NHL and CLL; changing reproductive pattern is an unlikely contributor to the marked increase in incidence of NHL seen in many populations.
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19.
  • Adami, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Blood transfusion and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: : Lack of association
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE. - AMER COLL PHYSICIANS. - 0003-4819. ; 127:5, s. 365-&
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the seventh most commonly diagnosed malignant condition worldwide, and its incidence has increased markedly in recent decades. Blood transfusions have been implicated as a possible risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether blood transfusions are associated with an elevated risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. DESIGN: Population-based, nested case-control study. SETTING: Nationwide cohort in Sweden. PATIENTS: 361 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 705 matched controls, nested within a population-based cohort of 96795 patients at risk for blood transfusion between 1970 and 1983. Prospectively collected information on exposure was retrieved from computerized transfusion registries. MEASUREMENTS: Odds ratios obtained from conditional logistic regression models were used as measures of relative risks. RESULTS: No association was found between blood transfusions and the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma when patients who had received transfusions were compared with patients who had not received transfusions (odds ratio, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.71 to 1.23]). A reduction in risk was seen among persons who received transfusion of blood without leukocyte depletion (odds ratio, 0.72 [CI, 0.53 to 0.97]). Risk was not related to number of transfusions, and no interaction was seen with latency after transfusion. CONCLUSION: The findings in this study do not support previous observations of an association between blood transfusions and the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
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20.
  • Adami, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risk following organ transplantation : a nationwide cohort study in Sweden
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 89:7, s. 1221-1227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A substantial excess risk of lymphomas and nonmelanoma skin cancer has been demonstrated following organ transplantation. Large sample size and long follow-up time may, however, allow more accurate risk estimates and detailed understanding of long-term cancer risk. The objective of the study was to assess the risk of cancer following organ transplantation. A nationwide cohort study comprising 5931 patients who underwent transplantation of kidney, liver or other organs during 1970-1997 in Sweden was conducted. Complete follow-up was accomplished through linkage to nationwide databases. We used comparisons with the entire Swedish population to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), and Poisson regression for multivariate internal analyses of relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, we observed 692 incident first cancers vs 171 expected (SIR 4.0; 95% CI 3.7-4.4). We confirmed marked excesses of nonmelanoma skin cancer (SIR 56.2; 95% CI 49.8-63.2), lip cancer (SIR 53.3; 95% CI 38.0-72.5) and of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (SIR 6.0; 95% CI 4.4-8.0). Compared with patients who underwent kidney transplantation, those who received other organs were at substantially higher risk of NHL (RR 8.4; 95% CI 4.3-16). Besides, we found, significantly, about 20-fold excess risk of cancer of the vulva and vagina, 10-fold of anal cancer, and five-fold of oral cavity and kidney cancer, as well as two- to four-fold excesses of cancer in the oesophagus, stomach, large bowel, urinary bladder, lung and thyroid gland. In conclusion, organ transplantation entails a persistent, about four-fold increased overall cancer risk. The complex pattern of excess risk at many sites challenges current understanding of oncogenic infections that might become activated by immunologic alterations.
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