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1.
  • Allen, Hana Lango, et al. (författare)
  • Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 1476-4687. ; 467:7317, s. 832-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits(1), but these typically explain small fractions of phenotypic variation, raising questions about the use of further studies. Here, using 183,727 individuals, we show that hundreds of genetic variants, in at least 180 loci, influence adult height, a highly heritable and classic polygenic trait(2,3). The large number of loci reveals patterns with important implications for genetic studies of common human diseases and traits. First, the 180 loci are not random, but instead are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways (P = 0.016) and that underlie skeletal growth defects (P<0.001). Second, the likely causal gene is often located near the most strongly associated variant: in 13 of 21 loci containing a known skeletal growth gene, that gene was closest to the associated variant. Third, at least 19 loci have multiple independently associated variants, suggesting that allelic heterogeneity is a frequent feature of polygenic traits, that comprehensive explorations of already-discovered loci should discover additional variants and that an appreciable fraction of associated loci may have been identified. Fourth, associated variants are enriched for likely functional effects on genes, being over-represented among variants that alter amino-acid structure of proteins and expression levels of nearby genes. Our data explain approximately 10% of the phenotypic variation in height, and we estimate that unidentified common variants of similar effect sizes would increase this figure to approximately 16% of phenotypic variation (approximately 20% of heritable variation). Although additional approaches are needed to dissect the genetic architecture of polygenic human traits fully, our findings indicate that GWA studies can identify large numbers of loci that implicate biologically relevant genes and pathways.
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2.
  • Kainu, T, et al. (författare)
  • Somatic deletions in hereditary breast cancers implicate 13q21 as a putative novel breast cancer susceptibility locus
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 97:17, s. 9603-9608
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A significant proportion of familial breast cancers cannot be explained by mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We applied a strategy to identify predisposition loci for breast cancer by using mathematical models to identify early somatic genetic deletions in tumor tissues followed by targeted linkage analysis. Comparative genomic hybridization was used to study 61 breast tumors from 37 breast cancer families with no identified BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Branching and phylogenetic tree models predicted that loss of 13q was one of the earliest genetic events in hereditary cancers. In a Swedish family with five breast cancer cases, all analyzed tumors showed distinct 13q deletions, with the minimal region of loss at 13q21-q22. Genotyping revealed segregation of a shared 13q21 germ-line haplotype in the family. Targeted linkage analysis was carried out in a set of 77 Finnish, Icelandic, and Swedish breast cancer families with no detected BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. A maximum parametric two-point logarithm of odds score of 2.76 was obtained for a marker at 13q21 (D13S1308, theta = 0.10). The multipoint logarithm of odds score under heterogeneity was 3.46. The results were further evaluated by simulation to assess the probability of obtaining significant evidence in favor of linkage by chance as well as to take into account the possible influence of the BRCA2 locus, located at a recombination fraction of 0.25 from the new locus. The simulation substantiated the evidence of linkage at D13S1308 (P < 0.0017). The results warrant studies of this putative breast cancer predisposition locus in other populations.
3.
  • Möller, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Mediterranean Diet Score and prostate cancer risk in a Swedish population-based case-control study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nutritional Science. - 2048-6790. ; 2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several individual components of the Mediterranean diet have been shown to offer protection against prostate cancer. The present study is the first to investigate the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the relative risk of prostate cancer. We also explored the usefulness of the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) in a non-Mediterranean population. FFQ data were obtained from 1482 incident prostate cancer patients and 1108 population-based controls in the Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS) study. We defined five MDS variants with different components or using either study-specific intakes or intakes in a Greek reference population as cut-off values between low and high intake of each component. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of prostate cancer for high and medium v. low MDS, as well as potential associations with the individual score components. No statistically significant association was found between adherence to the Mediterranean diet based on any of the MDS variants and prostate cancer risk (OR range: 0·96-1·19 for total prostate cancer, comparing high with low adherence). Overall, we found little support for an association between the Mediterranean diet and prostate cancer in this Northern European study population. Despite potential limitations inherent in the study or in the build-up of a dietary score, we suggest that the original MDS with study-specific median intakes as cut-off values between low and high intake is useful in assessing the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean populations.
4.
  • Ström, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Pathologist-Level Grading of Prostate Biospies with Artificial intelligence
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Background: An increasing volume of prostate biopsies and a world-wide shortage of uro-pathologists puts a strain on pathology departments. Additionally, the high intra- and inter-observer variability in grading can result in over- and undertreatment of prostate cancer. Artificial intelligence (AI) methods may alleviate these problems by assisting pathologists to reduce workload and harmonize grading. </p><p>Methods: We digitized 6,682 needle biopsies from 976 participants in the population based STHLM3 diagnostic study to train deep neural networks for assessing prostate biopsies. The networks were evaluated by predicting the presence, extent, and Gleason grade of malignant tissue for an independent test set comprising 1,631 biopsies from 245 men. We additionally evaluated grading performance on 87 biopsies individually graded by 23 experienced urological pathologists from the International Society of Urological Pathology. We assessed discriminatory performance by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and tumor extent predictions by correlating predicted millimeter cancer length against measurements by the reporting pathologist. We quantified the concordance between grades assigned by the AI and the expert urological pathologists using Cohen's kappa. </p><p>Results: The performance of the AI to detect and grade cancer in prostate needle biopsy samples was comparable to that of international experts in prostate pathology. The AI achieved an area under the ROC curve of 0.997 for distinguishing between benign and malignant biopsy cores, and 0.999 for distinguishing between men with or without prostate cancer. The correlation between millimeter cancer predicted by the AI and assigned by the reporting pathologist was 0.96. For assigning Gleason grades, the AI achieved an average pairwise kappa of 0.62. This was within the range of the corresponding values for the expert pathologists (0.60 to 0.73).</p>
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5.
  • von Wachenfeldt, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • A hypothesis-generating search for new genetic breast cancer syndromes - a national study in 803 Swedish families
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice. - Termedia Publishing House. - 1897-4287. ; 5:1, s. 17-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Among Swedish families with an inherited predisposition for breast cancer, less than one third segregate mutations in genes known to be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in combination with other types of tumours. In a search for new putative familial breast cancer syndromes we studied Swedish families undergoing genetic counselling during 1992-2000. Four thousand families from counselling clinics in Sweden were eligible for study. Families with breast cancer only were excluded, as were families with mutations in genes already known to be associated with malignant diseases. We identified 803 families with two or more cases of breast cancer and at least one other type of cancer. The observed proportion of different types of non-breast cancer was compared with the percentage distribution of non-breast cancer tumours in Sweden in 1958 and 1999. We found tumours in the colon, ovary, endometrium, pancreas and liver, as well as leukaemia in a significantly larger proportion of the study population than in the general population in both years. These tumours were also seen among families where several members had one additional tumour, suggesting that malignancies at these sites, in combination with breast tumours, could constitute genetic syndromes. Endometrial carcinoma has not previously been described in the context of breast cancer syndromes and the excess of malignancies at this site could not be explained by secondary tumours. Thus, we suggest that endometrial carcinoma and breast cancer constitute a new breast cancer syndrome. Further investigation is warranted to categorize phenotypes of both breast and endometrial tumours in this subgroup.
6.
  • Adams, Charleen, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Metabolic Biomarkers of Screen-Detected Prostate Cancer in the ProtecT Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).</p><p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p &lt;0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk.</p><p><strong>IMPACT:</strong> The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.</p>
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7.
  • Alexeyev, Oleg, et al. (författare)
  • Association between the presence of bacterial 16S RNA in prostate specimens taken during transurethral resection of prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer (Sweden)
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 17:9, s. 1127-1133
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To study bacterial 16S RNA in archival prostate samples from 352 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and evaluate whether the presence of bacterial DNA was different in those who later developed prostate cancer (<em>n</em> = 171) and in the matched controls that did not progress to cancer (<em>n</em> = 181).</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: 16S DNA PCR followed by cloning and sequencing the positive samples.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: In 96/352 (27%) of the prostate tissue specimens 16S RNA were detected. Sequence analysis revealed <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em> as the predominant microorganism (23% of 16S RNA positive patients). The second most frequent isolate—<em>Escherichia coli</em> was found in 12 (12%) patients. The other isolates included <em>Pseudomonas</em> sp. (3 patients), <em>Actinomyces</em> sp. (2), <em>Streptococcus mutans</em> (1), <em>Corynebacterium</em> sp. (2),<em>Nocardioides</em> sp. (1), <em>Rhodococcus</em> sp. (1) <em>Veillonella</em> sp. (2). In <em>P. acnes</em> positive samples 62% exhibited severe histological inflammation versus 50% in the bacteria-negative group (<em>p</em> = 0.602). The presence of <em>P. acnes</em> in the prostate was associated with prostate cancer development (OR 2.17, 95% CI 0.77–6.95).</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study has revealed <em>P. acnes</em> as the most common bacteria in the prostate in BPH. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in contributing to the development of prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer.</p>
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10.
  • Bergh, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • No link between viral findings in the prostate and subsequent cancer development
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - London : Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 96:1, s. 137-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In an investigation of 201 prostate tissue samples from patients with benign prostate hyperplasia that later progressed to prostate cancer and 201 matched controls that did not, there were no differences in the prevalence of adenovirus, herpesvirus, papilloma virus, polyoma virus and Candida albicans DNA.</p>
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