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41.
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42.
  • Genovese, Giulio, et al. (författare)
  • Clonal hematopoiesis and blood-cancer risk inferred from blood DNA sequence.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The New England journal of medicine. - 1533-4406. ; 371:26, s. 2477-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancers arise from multiple acquired mutations, which presumably occur over many years. Early stages in cancer development might be present years before cancers become clinically apparent.
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43.
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44.
  • Glimelius, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in rectal cancer.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - 0284-186X. ; 42:5-6, s. 476-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately (Acta Oncol 2003; 42: 357-365). This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for rectal cancer is based on data from 42 randomized trials and 3 meta-analyses. Moreover, data from 36 prospective studies, 7 retrospective studies and 17 other articles were used. A total of 131 scientific articles are included, involving 25 351 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 15 042 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized thus: The results after rectal cancer surgery have improved during the past decade. It is likely that local failure rates after 5 years of follow-up at hospitals adopting the TME-concept (TME = total mesorectal excision) have decreased from about 28% to 10-15%. Preoperative radiotherapy at biological effective doses above 30 Gy decreases the relative risk of a local failure by more than half (50-70%). Postoperative radiotherapy decreases the risk by 30-40% at doses that generally are higher than those used preoperatively. There is strong evidence that preoperative radiotherapy is more effective than postoperative. There is moderate evidence that preoperative radiotherapy significantly decreases the local failure rate (from 8% to 2% after 2 years) also with TME. There is strong evidence that preoperative radiotherapy improves survival (by about 10%). There is no evidence that postoperative radiotherapy improves survival. There is some indication that survival is prolonged when postoperative radiotherapy is combined with concomitant chemotherapy. Preoperative radiotherapy at adequate doses can be given with low acute toxicity. Higher, and unacceptable acute toxicity has been seen in some preoperative radiotherapy trials using suboptimal techniques. Postoperative radiotherapy can also be given with acceptable acute toxicity. The long-term consequences of radiotherapy appear to be limited with adequate radiation techniques, although they have been less extensively studied. Longer follow-up periods are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. Peroperative radiotherapy, preferably preoperative since it is more effective, is routinely recommended for most patients with rectal cancer since it can substantially decrease the risk of a local failure and increases survival. In a primarily non-resectable tumour, preoperative radiotherapy can cause tumour regression allowing subsequent radical surgery. This therapy is routinely indicated. Whether radiochemotherapy is more efficient than radiotherapy alone is not clear, since the results of four small randomized trials are partly conflicting. Preoperative radiotherapy, frequently combined with chemotherapy, has been used to increase the chances of sphincter-preserving surgery in low-lying tumours. The literature is inconclusive with respect to how frequently this occurs. Radiotherapy frequently produces symptom relief in patients with rectal cancer not amendable to surgery.
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45.
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46.
  • Glimelius, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer : A joint analysis of randomised trials by the Nordic Gastrointestinal Tumour Adjuvant Therapy Group
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 44:8, s. 904-912
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Due to uncertainties regarding clinically meaningful gains from adjuvant chemotherapy after colorectal cancer surgery, several Nordic Groups in the early 1990s initiated randomised trials to prove or reject such gains. This report gives the joint analyses after a minimum 5-year follow-up. Between October 1991 and December 1997, 2 224 patients under 76 years of age with colorectal cancer stages II and III were randomised to surgery alone (n = 1 121) or adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 1 103) which varied between trials (5FU/levamisole for 12 months, n = 444, 5FU/leucovorin for 4-5 months according to either a modified Mayo Clinic schedule (n = 262) or the Nordic schedule (n = 397). Some centres also randomised patients treated with 5FU/leucovorin to ±levamisole). A total of 812 patients had colon cancer stage II, 708 colon cancer stage III, 323 rectal cancer stage II and 368 rectal cancer stage III. All analyses were according to intention-to-treat. No statistically significant difference in overall survival, stratified for country or region, could be found in any group of patients according to stage or site. In colon cancer stage III, an absolute difference of 7% (p = 0.15), favouring chemotherapy, was seen. The present analyses corroborate a small but clinically meaningful survival gain from adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer stage III, but not in the other presentations. © 2005 Taylor &amp; Francis.</p>
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47.
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48.
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49.
  • Grönberg, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • BRCA2 mutation in a family with hereditary prostate cancer
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1045-2257. ; 30:3, s. 299-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hereditary prostate cancer is a genetically heterogeneous disease, and so far four different susceptibility loci have been identified. Reports of associated cancers are few, and it is generally considered a sire-specific disease. However, some reports have shown an elevated risk for prostate cancer among BRCA2 mutation carriers. In this report, we present a family in which the father and four of his sons were diagnosed with prostate cancer at exceptionally early ages (51, 52, 56, 58, and 63 years, respectively). In addition, three daughters were diagnosed with breast cancer between the ages of 47 and 61. In this family, a truncating mutation in exon 11, 6051delA of the BRCA2 gene, leading to an early termination of the protein (codon 1962), was identified. Although BRCA2 is probably responsible only for a very small fraction of hereditary prostate cancers, this finding supports previous reports of an increased risk of prostate cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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50.
  • Grönberg, Henrik, 1961- (författare)
  • Prostate cancer epidemiological studies
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: digitalisering@umu. - Umeå : Umeå Universitet. - 91-7191-006-9
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Prostate cancer is a large and increasing medical problem both in Sweden and in the rest of the developed world, with about 300.000 new cases diagnosed world wide annually. Despite the high incidence of this disease, little is known about the aetiology of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to try to understand more about the natural history and to find possible a etiological risk factors for this tumour.</p><p>In a population based study of prostate cancer cases in northern Sweden it was found that the large increase in prostate cancer during the last two decades was mainly caused by well (Gl) and moderately (G2) differentiated tumours. However, the incidence of poorly differentiated (G3) tumours remained unchanged. The introduction of new diagnostic methods is the most plausible explanation for the increase of these low grade tumours.</p><p>The relative survival in prostate cancer was found to be independent of patient age at diagnosis, indicating that tumour proliferation and the aggressiveness of this disease is equal in all ages. However, due to the increasing occurrence of concurrent diseases with growing age the number of lost years caused by prostate cancer decreases dramatically in older age groups. The overall cause specific mortality for prostate cancer was found to be around 50%. In accordance with most other cancer tumours, the annual mortality rate decreased with longer survival also for prostate cancer patients.</p><p>In a study from the Swedish Twin Register it was found that the proband concordance rates for prostate cancer were 4,5 time greater among monozygotic compared to dizygotic twins. In a large nation-wide cohort study of men who had a father with prostate cancer, the overall standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.70 for prostate cancer. Younger age at diagnosis among the fathers were associated with an increased risk among sons. This cohort study and the twin study indicates that both inherited and familial factors are of importance in a subgroup of prostate cancer patients.</p><p>In a prospective case-control study, both a high body mass index (BMI) and a high food intake were found to be independent risk factors for prostate cancer. Both BMI and a high food intake might be indicators of a high fat diet, which so far is the most consistent exogenous risk factor for prostate cancer. The use of tobacco or alcoholic beverages were not associated with prostate cancer risk.</p>
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