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151.
  • Nikpay, Majid, et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive 1000 Genomes-based genome-wide association meta-analysis of coronary artery disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 47:10, s. 1121-1121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Existing knowledge of genetic variants affecting risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is largely based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of common SNPs. Leveraging phased haplotypes from the 1000 Genomes Project, we report a GWAS meta-analysis of similar to 185,000 CAD cases and controls, interrogating 6.7 million common (minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.05) and 2.7 million low-frequency (0.005 < MAF < 0.05) variants. In addition to confirming most known CAD-associated loci, we identified ten new loci (eight additive and two recessive) that contain candidate causal genes newly implicating biological processes in vessel walls. We observed intralocus allelic heterogeneity but little evidence of low-frequency variants with larger effects and no evidence of synthetic association. Our analysis provides a comprehensive survey of the fine genetic architecture of CAD, showing that genetic susceptibility to this common disease is largely determined by common SNPs of small effect size.
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152.
  • Palmer, Nicholette D, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - San Francisco : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 7:1, s. e29202-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
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153.
  • Peacock, Rachel E., et al. (författare)
  • Associations between lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms and plasma correlations of lipids, lipoproteins and lipase activities in young myocardial infarction survivors and age-matched healthy individuals from Sweden
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - : Elsevier. - 1879-1484. ; 97:2-3, s. 171-185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Association studies were carried out on a sample of 87 patients from Sweden who had survived a myocardial infarction (MI) at a young age and 93 age-matched healthy individuals, to compare the impact of polymorphisms (PvuII, HindIII and Serine447-Stop) at the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene locus on among-individual differences in plasma lipid traits and progression of atherosclerosis. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between any two of these polymorphisms, with the Stop447 allele being only found on the same chromosome as the rare alleles (no cutting sites) of the PvuII and HindIII polymorphisms. In the healthy individuals, weak associations were found between genotypes of the HindIII polymorphism and triglycerides and the PvuII polymorphism and high density lipoprotein cholesterol explaining 7.4% and 5.6% of sample variance (P = 0.03 and 0.09), respectively. No associations were found between these traits and genotypes of the Serine447-Stop substitution, and thus it is unlikely to be the cause of the associations seen with the PvuII and HindIII polymorphisms even though it truncates the enzyme amino acid sequence. The presence of the rare allele, H-, of the HindIII polymorphism was associated with a smaller variance in triglycerides and both cholesterol and triglycerides in the very low density lipoprotein fraction, and with larger interdependent variation between these lipid traits, and also between LPL activity and these lipid traits. This implies that the H- allele, rather than the Stop447 allele, has the major impact on interdependence between traits which are directly or indirectly influenced by LPL activity. In the healthy individuals who were carriers of the apolipoprotein E2 allele, the inter-dependence between LPL activity and lipid traits was significantly smaller, and that between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and both cholesterol and triglycerides in the very low density lipoprotein fraction was much larger compared with non-carriers (P < 0.05). No significant associations were found between lipid traits or lipase activity and genotypes of the Serine447-Stop substitution. However, in the patients, global severity of coronary atherosclerosis at the first angiography was significantly associated with haplotype combinations of the HindIII and the Serine447-Stop polymorphisms, with the H-Stop haplotype being associated with the highest median score (P = 0.02). The data suggest that variation at the LPL gene locus is associated with a pleiotropic effect, that is not directly mediated by changes in lipids, on severity of coronary atherosclerosis.
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154.
  • Peacock, Rachel E, et al. (författare)
  • Associations of genotypes at the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein lipase gene loci with coronary atherosclerosis and high density lipoprotein subclasses
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Clinical Genetics. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0009-9163. ; 46:4, s. 273-282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Association studies were carried out in a sample of 86 patients from Sweden who had survived a myocardial infarction (MI) at a young age and 93 age-matched healthy individuals, to compare the impact of polymorphisms at the apolipoprotein (apo) AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster on among-individual differences in plasma lipid and lipoprotein traits, the five high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses (2b to 3c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and presence and progression of atherosclerosis. Individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms; 5'apoAI (G/A-75), 3'apoAI (PstI; P +/-), apoCIII (C/T1100) and apoCIII (PvuII; V +/-), using PCR-based techniques. Allele frequencies were similar in healthy individuals and patients (frequencies of alleles in combined population: 5'apoAI-A-75 = 0.14, 3'apoAI-P- = 0.05, apoCIII-T1100 = 0.27 and apoCIII-V- = 0.18). In the healthy individuals, levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) triglycerides were significantly associated with genotypes of the apoCIII-PvuII polymorphism (p = 0.02), but no other associations were found between lipids or HDL subclasses and single polymorphisms in the apoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster. Levels of triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides were significantly higher in the presence of the haplotype defined by the presence of apoCIII-T1100 and common alleles of the other three polymorphisms, explaining 5.8% and 7.8% (p = 0.03 and 0.01), respectively, of sample variance. In the patients, no associations were found between lipids or HDL subclasses and variation at the apoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster. Associations were also examined between levels of HDL subclasses and variation at the apoE (common isoforms), apoB (signal peptide and XbaI polymorphisms) and lipoprotein lipase (PvuII, HindIII and Serine447/Stop polymorphisms) gene loci. In the patient group only, levels of protein in HDL2b, HDL2a and HDL3b subclasses were significantly associated with genotypes of the LPL-HindIII polymorphism (22.1, 19.3 and 11.4%, respectively, of sample variance; p < 0.05). Finally, associations were examined between genotypes at the apoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. Global severity of atherosclerosis at the first angiography was weakly associated with genotypes of the apoCIII-C/T1100 polymorphism, presence of the T1100 allele being associated with 53% lower median score (1.6 vs 0.75; p = 0.09).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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155.
  • Persson, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Sex-Specific Effects of Adiponectin on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Incident Cardiovascular Disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 4:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Plasma adiponectin levels have previously been inversely associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we used a sex-stratified Mendelian randomization approach to investigate whether adiponectin has a causal protective influence on IMT. Methods and Results-Baseline plasma adiponectin concentrationwas tested for association with baseline IMT, IMT progression over 30 months, and occurrence of cardiovascular events within 3 years in 3430 participants (women, n=1777; men, n=1653) with high cardiovascular risk but no prevalent disease. Plasma adiponectin levels were inversely associated with baseline mean bifurcation IMT after adjustment for established risk factors (beta=-0.018, P<0.001) in men but not in women (beta=-0.006, P=0.185; P for interaction=0.061). Adiponectin levels were inversely associated with progression of mean common carotid IMT in men (beta=-0.0022, P=0.047), whereas no association was seen in women (0.0007, P=0.475; P for interaction=0.018). Moreover, we observed that adiponectin levels were inversely associated with coronary events in women (hazard ratio 0.57, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.87) but not in men (hazard ratio 0.82,95% CI0.54 to 1.25). Agenescore of adiponectin-raisingalleles in6loci, reported recently inalarge multi-ethnic metaanalysis, was inversely associated with baseline mean bifurcation IMT in men (beta=-0.0008, P=0.004) but not in women (beta=-0.0003, P=0.522; P for interaction=0.007). Conclusions-This report provides some evidence for adiponectin protecting against atherosclerosis, with effects being confined to men; however, compared with established cardiovascular risk factors, the effect of plasma adiponectin was modest. Further investigation involving mechanistic studies is warranted.
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156.
  • Skogsberg, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome expression profiling of human plaques to identify genes relevant for atherosclerosis : the Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression Study, Stockholm Söder Hospital, Sweden (SöS-STAGE)
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • ObjectiveTo reveal relevant genes for atherosclerosis by whole-genome expression analyses of plaques from patients undergoing carotid endorectomy.Methods and ResultsWhole-genome expression measurements (WGEM) using Affymetrix HG-U133_Plus_2 chip of carotid plaques in patients undergoing carotid endorectomy at Stockholm Söder Hospital, Sweden. Patients were screened for conventional risk factors at a three-month follow-up visit and atherosclerosis burden in the common carotid artery (CCA) was measured by intima-media thickness (IMT). An unsupervised coupled two-way clustering approach identified genderspecific genes and 55 genes associated to degree of IMT in these patients.ConclusionsCoupled two-way clustering of carotid lesion expression profiles from a well-characterized clinical cohort is useful for identification of novel genes that may be relevant for atheroscleroris.
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157.
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