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31.
  • Mälarstig, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Variants of the interferon regulatory factor 5 gene regulate expression of IRF5 mRNA in atherosclerotic tissue but are not associated with myocardial infarction
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 28:5, s. 975-982
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Signaling events after activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important mechanisms promoting inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque. INF regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is one of the mediators of downstream effects of TLRs. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IRF5 gene have been found to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined IRF5 mRNA expression in carotid atherosclerotic tissue (n=99) and the case-control association between SNPs in the IRF5 gene with myocardial infarction (MI) (n=376+387) and unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) (n=3101+445). Among unstable CAD patients, association of IRF5 SNPs with recurrent coronary events (n=401) was also investigated. The IRF5 mRNA expression was increased in atherosclerotic tissue compared with control tissue (P<0.001). Significant associations with IRF5 expression was observed for 6 of 10 SNPs in the study. However, the IRF5 SNPs examined were neither associated with the risk of precocious MI, nor with unstable CAD or risk of recurrent cardiovascular events in unstable CAD patients. CONCLUSIONS: IRF5 mRNA is expressed in cells in atherosclerotic tissue and its expression is modified by SNPs in the IRF5 gene. Genetic variation at the IRF5 locus was, however, not associated with CAD or related phenotypes.
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32.
  • Nastase Mannila, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of a Functional Apolipoprotein E Promoter Polymorphism Regulating Plasma Apolipoprotein E Concentration
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 33:5, s. 1063-1069
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE:There is compelling evidence that the plasma apolipoprotein E (APOE) concentration, in addition to the APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 genotype, influences plasma lipoprotein levels, but the functional genetic variants influencing the plasma APOE concentration have not been identified.APPROACH AND RESULTSGenome-wide association studies in 2 cohorts of healthy, middle-aged subjects identified the APOE locus as the only genetic locus showing robust associations with the plasma APOE concentration. Fine-mapping of the APOE locus confirmed that the rs7412 ε2-allele is the primary genetic variant responsible for the relationship with plasma APOE concentration. Further mapping of the APOE locus uncovered that rs769446 (-427T/C) in the APOE promoter is independently associated with the plasma APOE concentration. Expression studies in 199 human liver samples demonstrated that the rs769446 C-allele is associated with increased APOE mRNA levels (P=0.015). Transient transfection studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays in human hepatoma HepG2 cells corroborated the role of rs769446 in transcriptional regulation of APOE. However, no relationships were found between rs769446 genotype and plasma lipoprotein levels in 2 cohorts (n=1648 and n=1039) of healthy middle-aged carriers of the APOE ε3/ε3 genotype.CONCLUSIONS:rs769446 is a functional polymorphism involved in the regulation of the plasma APOE concentration.
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33.
  • Olofsson, Louise, 1977, et al. (författare)
  • Preliminary report: Zn-alpha2-glycoprotein genotype and serum levels are associated with serum lipids.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Metabolism. - 1532-8600. ; 59:9, s. 1316-1318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Zn-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a serum protein implicated in cancer cachexia and lipolysis. Our aim was to investigate serum levels of ZAG and polymorphisms in the ZAG gene in relation to serum lipids in man. Serum levels of ZAG correlated with serum levels of cholesterol (P = .00088) in healthy subjects and during weight loss (P = .059). The ZAG genotype was associated with total cholesterol (P = .014) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .026) in healthy subjects, and the associations were replicated in an additional cohort (P = .0017 and P = .060, respectively). Our data indicate that ZAG plays a role in lipid metabolism.
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34.
  • Paloschi, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Impaired Splicing of Fibronectin Is Associated With Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Formation in Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - : American Heart Association. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 31:3, s. 691-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE:Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a common complication in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Alternatively spliced extra domain A (EDA) of fibronectin (FN) has an essential role in tissue repair. Here we analyze the expression of FN spliceforms in dilated and nondilated ascending aorta of tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) and BAV patients.METHODS AND RESULTS:The mRNA expression was analyzed in the ascending aorta by Affymetrix Exon arrays in patients with TAV (n=40) and BAV (n=69). EDA and extra domain B (EDB) expression was increased in dilated aorta from TAV patients compared with nondilated aorta (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). In contrast, EDA expression was not increased in dilated aorta from BAV patients (P=0.25), whereas EDB expression was upregulated (P<0.01). The expression of EDA correlated with maximum aortic diameter in TAV (ρ=0.58) but not in BAV (ρ=0.15) patients. Protein analyses of EDA-FN showed concordant results. Transforming growth factor-β treatment influenced the splicing of FN and enhanced the formation of EDA-containing FN in cultured medial cells from TAV patients but not in cells derived from BAV patients. Gene set enrichment analysis together with multivariate and univariate data analyses of mRNA expression suggested that differences in the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway may explain the impaired EDA inclusion in BAV patients.CONCLUSIONS:Decreased EDA expression may contribute to increased aneurysm susceptibility of BAV patients.
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35.
  • Sabater-Lleal, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic determinants of lung function, subclinical atherosclerosis and risk of coronary artery disease.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 9:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) independently associates with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but it has not been fully investigated whether this co-morbidity involves shared pathophysiological mechanisms. To identify potential common pathways across the two diseases, we tested all recently published single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human lung function (spirometry) for association with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 3,378 subjects with multiple CAD risk factors, and for association with CAD in a case-control study of 5,775 CAD cases and 7,265 controls. SNPs rs2865531, located in the CFDP1 gene, and rs9978142, located in the KCNE2 gene, were significantly associated with CAD. In addition, SNP rs9978142 and SNP rs3995090 located in the HTR4 gene, were associated with average and maximal cIMT measures. Genetic risk scores combining the most robustly spirometry-associated SNPs from the literature were modestly associated with CAD, (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI95) = 1.06 (1.03, 1.09); P-value = 1.5×10-4, per allele). In conclusion, our study suggests that some genetic loci implicated in determining human lung function also influence cIMT and susceptibility to CAD. The present results should help elucidate the molecular underpinnings of the co-morbidity observed across COPD and CAD.
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36.
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37.
  • Scott, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 44:9, s. 991-991
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes risk (q < 0.05). Loci influencing fasting insulin concentration showed association with lipid levels and fat distribution, suggesting impact on insulin resistance. Gene-based analyses identified further biologically plausible loci, suggesting that additional loci beyond those reaching genome-wide significance are likely to represent real associations. This conclusion is supported by an excess of directionally consistent and nominally significant signals between discovery and follow-up studies. Functional analysis of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control.
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38.
  • Sennblad, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Genome- wide association study with additional genetic and post-transcriptional analyses reveals novel regulators of plasma factor XI levels
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 26:3, s. 637-649
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coagulation factor XI (FXI) has become increasingly interesting for its role in pathogenesis of thrombosis. While elevated plasma levels of FXI have been associated with venous thromboembolism and ischemic stroke, its deficiency is associated with mild bleeding. We aimed to determine novel genetic and post-transcriptional plasma FXI regulators. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for plasma FXI levels, using novel data imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel. Individual GWAS analyses, including a total of 16,169 European individuals from the ARIC, GHS, MARTHA and PROCARDIS studies, were meta-analysed and further replicated in 2,045 individuals from the F5L family, GAIT2 and MEGA studies. Additional association with activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was tested for the top SNPs. In addition, a study on the effect of miRNA on FXI regulation was performed using in silico prediction tools and in vitro luciferase assays. Three loci showed robust, replicating association with circulating FXI levels: KNG1 (rs710446, P-value = 2.07 x 10(-302)), F11 (rs4253417, P-value = 2.86 x 10(-193)), and a novel association in GCKR (rs780094, P-value = 3.56 x 10(-09)), here for the first time implicated in FXI regulation. The two first SNPs (rs710446 and rs4253417) also associated with aPTT. Conditional and haplotype analyses demonstrated a complex association signal, with additional novel SNPs modulating plasma FXI levels in both the F11 and KNG1 loci. Finally, eight miRNAs were predicted to bind F11 mRNA. Over-expression of either miR-145 or miR-181 significantly reduced the luciferase activity in cells transfected with a plasmid containing FXI-3'UTR. These results should open the door to new therapeutic targets for thrombosis prevention.
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39.
  • Shungin, Dmitry, et al. (författare)
  • New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 518:7538, s. 187-378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
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40.
  • Strawbridge, Rona J., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Identifies Nine Common Variants Associated With Fasting Proinsulin Levels and Provides New Insights Into the Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 60:10, s. 2624-2634
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-Proinsulin is a precursor of mature insulin and C-peptide. Higher circulating proinsulin levels are associated with impaired beta-cell function, raised glucose levels, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies of the insulin processing pathway could provide new insights about T2D pathophysiology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-We have conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association tests of similar to 2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and fasting proinsulin levels in 10,701 nondiabetic adults of European ancestry, with follow-up of 23 loci in up to 16,378 individuals, using additive genetic models adjusted for age, sex, fasting insulin, and study-specific covariates. RESULTS-Nine SNPs at eight loci were associated with proinsulin levels (P < 5 x 10(-8)). Two loci (LARP6 and SGSM2) have not been previously related to metabolic traits, one (MADD) has been associated with fasting glucose, one (PCSK1) has been implicated in obesity, and four (TCF7L2, SLC3OA8, VPS13C/C2CD4A/B, and ARAP1, formerly CENTD2) increase T2D risk. The proinsulin-raising allele of ARAP1 was associated with a lower fasting glucose (P = 1.7 x 10(-4)), improved beta-cell function (P = 1.1 x 10(-5)), and lower risk of T2D (odds ratio 0.88; P = 7.8 x 10(-6)). Notably, PCSK1 encodes the protein prohormone convertase 1/3, the first enzyme in the insulin processing pathway. A genotype score composed of the nine proinsulin-raising alleles was not associated with coronary disease in two large case-control datasets. CONCLUSIONS-We have identified nine genetic variants associated with fasting proinsulin. Our findings illuminate the biology underlying glucose homeostasis and T2D development in humans and argue against a direct role of proinsulin in coronary artery disease pathogenesis. Diabetes 60:2624-2634, 2011
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