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51.
  • Kivimäki, Mika, et al. (författare)
  • Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes : a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from 222 120 individuals.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. - 2213-8587 .- 2213-8595. ; 3:1, s. 27-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.METHODS: We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort study); investigation of the effect of working hours or overtime work; incident diabetes as an outcome; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222 120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis.FINDINGS: During 1·7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per 10 000 person-years). The minimally adjusted summary risk ratio for long (≥55 h per week) compared with standard working hours (35-40 h) was 1·07 (95% CI 0·89-1·27, difference in incidence three cases per 10 000 person-years) with significant heterogeneity in study-specific estimates (I(2)=53%, p=0·0016). In an analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, the association between long working hours and diabetes was evident in the low socioeconomic status group (risk ratio 1·29, 95% CI 1·06-1·57, difference in incidence 13 per 10 000 person-years, I(2)=0%, p=0·4662), but was null in the high socioeconomic status group (1·00, 95% CI 0·80-1·25, incidence difference zero per 10 000 person-years, I(2)=15%, p=0·2464). The association in the low socioeconomic status group was robust to adjustment for age, sex, obesity, and physical activity, and remained after exclusion of shift workers.INTERPRETATION: In this meta-analysis, the link between longer working hours and type 2 diabetes was apparent only in individuals in the low socioeconomic status groups.FUNDING: Medical Research Council, European Union New and Emerging Risks in Occupational Safety and Health research programme, Finnish Work Environment Fund, Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research, German Social Accident Insurance, Danish National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Academy of Finland, Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment (Netherlands), Economic and Social Research Council, US National Institutes of Health, and British Heart Foundation.
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52.
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53.
  • McEvoy, Brian P., et al. (författare)
  • Geographical structure and differential natural selection among North European populations
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 19:5, s. 804-814
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Population structure can provide novel insight into the human past, and recognizing and correcting for such stratification is a practical concern in gene mapping by many association methodologies. We investigate these patterns, primarily through principal component (PC) analysis of whole genome SNP polymorphism, in 2099 individuals from populations of Northern European origin (Ireland, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and HapMap European-American). The major trends (PC1 and PC2) demonstrate an ability to detect geographic substructure, even over a small area like the British Isles, and this information can then be applied to finely dissect the ancestry of the European-Australian and European-American samples. They simultaneously point to the importance of considering population stratification in what might be considered a small homogeneous region. There is evidence from FST-based analysis of genic and nongenic SNPs that differential positive selection has operated across these populations despite their short divergence time and relatively similar geographic and environmental range. The pressure appears to have been focused on genes involved in immunity, perhaps reflecting response to infectious disease epidemic. Such an event may explain a striking selective sweep centered on the rs2508049-G allele, close to the HLA-G gene on chromosome 6. Evidence of the sweep extends over a 8-Mb/3.5-cM region. Overall, the results illustrate the power of dense genotype and sample data to explore regional population variation, the events that have crafted it, and their implications in both explaining disease prevalence and mapping these genes by association.
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54.
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55.
  • Nyberg, Solja T., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Healthy Lifestyle with Years Lived without Major Chronic Diseases
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA Internal Medicine. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6106 .- 2168-6114. ; 180:5, s. 760-768
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: It is well established that selected lifestyle factors are individually associated with lower risk of chronic diseases, but how combinations of these factors are associated with disease-free life-years is unknown. Objective: To estimate the association between healthy lifestyle and the number of disease-free life-years. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective multicohort study, including 12 European studies as part of the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium, was performed. Participants included 116043 people free of major noncommunicable disease at baseline from August 7, 1991, to May 31, 2006. Data analysis was conducted from May 22, 2018, to January 21, 2020. Exposures: Four baseline lifestyle factors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and alcohol consumption) were each allocated a score based on risk status: Optimal (2 points), intermediate (1 point), or poor (0 points) resulting in an aggregated lifestyle score ranging from 0 (worst) to 8 (best). Sixteen lifestyle profiles were constructed from combinations of these risk factors. Main Outcomes and Measures: The number of years between ages 40 and 75 years without chronic disease, including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results: Of the 116043 people included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age was 43.7 (10.1) years and 70911 were women (61.1%). During 1.45 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up, 12.5 years; range, 4.9-18.6 years), 17383 participants developed at least 1 chronic disease. There was a linear association between overall healthy lifestyle score and the number of disease-free years, such that a 1-point improvement in the score was associated with an increase of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.83-1.08) disease-free years in men and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.75-1.02) years in women. Comparing the best lifestyle score with the worst lifestyle score was associated with 9.9 (95% CI 6.7-13.1) additional years without chronic diseases in men and 9.4 (95% CI 5.4-13.3) additional years in women (P <.001 for dose-response). All of the 4 lifestyle profiles that were associated with the highest number of disease-free years included a body-mass index less than 25 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and at least 2 of the following factors: Never smoking, physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption. Participants with 1 of these lifestyle profiles reached age 70.3 (95% CI, 69.9-70.8) to 71.4 (95% CI, 70.9-72.0) years disease free depending on the profile and sex. Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicohort analysis, various healthy lifestyle profiles appeared to be associated with gains in life-years without major chronic diseases. 
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56.
  • Nyberg, S. T., et al. (författare)
  • Job strain in relation to body mass index : pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 272:1, s. 65-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Job strain in relation to body mass index: pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studies. J Intern Med 2012; 272: 6573. Background. Evidence of an association between job strain and obesity is inconsistent, mostly limited to small-scale studies, and does not distinguish between categories of underweight or obesity subclasses. Objectives. To examine the association between job strain and body mass index (BMI) in a large adult population. Methods. We performed a pooled cross-sectional analysis based on individual-level data from 13 European studies resulting in a total of 161 746 participants (49% men, mean age, 43.7 years). Longitudinal analysis with a median follow-up of 4 years was possible for four cohort studies (n = 42 222). Results. A total of 86 429 participants were of normal weight (BMI 18.524.9 kg m-2), 2149 were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg m-2), 56 572 overweight (BMI 25.029.9 kg m-2) and 13 523 class I (BMI 3034.9 kg m-2) and 3073 classes II/III (BMI = 35 kg m-2) obese. In addition, 27 010 (17%) participants reported job strain. In cross-sectional analyses, we found increased odds of job strain amongst underweight [odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.001.25], obese class I (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.021.12) and obese classes II/III participants (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.011.28) as compared with participants of normal weight. In longitudinal analysis, both weight gain and weight loss were related to the onset of job strain during follow-up. Conclusions. In an analysis of European data, we found both weight gain and weight loss to be associated with the onset of job strain, consistent with a U-shaped cross-sectional association between job strain and BMI. These associations were relatively modest; therefore, it is unlikely that intervention to reduce job strain would be effective in combating obesity at a population level.
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57.
  • Saharil, Farizah, et al. (författare)
  • LOW-TEMPERATURE CMOS-COMPATIBLE 3D-INTEGRATION OF MONOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON BASED PZT RF MEMS SWITCH ACTUATORS ON RF SUBSTRATES
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: MEMS 2010. - New York : Ieee. - 9781424457649 ; , s. 47-50
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents a low temperature (200 degrees C) CMOS-compatible fabrication process for integrating high-temperature deposited lead zirconate titanate (PZT) on this film monocrystalline-silicon piezoelectric actuators, onto an RF substrate, and successful demonstration of this process for fabrication of metal-contact RF-MEMS switches. The patterned PZT/silicon multi-layer stack is transfer-bonded from a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) donor wafter to AF-45 glass RF substrate using adhesive wafer transfer bonding. Furthermore, several strategies have been investigate to drastically reduce the post bonding misalignment created by the shear forces between the bonding chucks during wafer bonding.
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