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  • Weinhold, Niels, et al. (författare)
  • The CCND1 c.870G > A polymorphism is a risk factor for t(11;14)(q13;q32) multiple myeloma
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 45:5, s. 522-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A number of specific chromosomal abnormalities define the subgroups of multiple myeloma. In a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of multiple myeloma including a total of 1,661 affected individuals, we investigated risk for developing a specific tumor karyotype. The t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation in which CCND1 is placed under the control of the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer was strongly associated with the CCND1 c.870G>A polymorphism (P = 7.96 x 10(-11)). These results provide a model in which a constitutive genetic factor is associated with risk of a specific chromosomal translocation.
  • Weires, Marianne, et al. (författare)
  • Clustering of concordant and discordant cancer types in Swedish couples is rare
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0852. ; 47:1, s. 98-106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Spouses are exposed to common environmental cancer risk factors during adulthood. Investigating the aggregation of cancer in couples might provide valuable insights into cancer development. Methods: The 2008 update of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database includes over 2 million couples with at least one child in common with one single partner. We quantified the contribution of shared adulthood environment by standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and population attributable fractions (PAFs). Estimated SIRs were used to build an etiological map reflecting the similarity of cancers by adult environmental exposures. Results: Increased risks of concordant types amongst spouses were found for lung, upper aerodigestive tract and skin cancers (SIRs from 1.24 to 1.97), which are probably related to shared exposure to smoking and UV radiation. PAFs were low with the highest value of 1.46% for uterus cancer in wives of men affected by prostate cancer. Further analysis, based on all non-sex-specific concordant and discordant types, revealed a clustering of lung, stomach, pancreas and bladder cancers sharing smoking as a risk factor. This aggregation was used as a cut-point to identify further "novel" clusters. Conclusion: Shared lifestyles including smoking and drinking habits as well as human papilloma virus infection (HPV) might be associated with an excess of cancer incidence amongst spouses. We observed significantly an increased risk for smoking-related cancers such as lung, upper aerodigestive tract and oesophageal cancers. The present population-based study confirms that the lifestyle shared by spouses plays a minor role in cancer causation. Only strong environmental risk factors such as smoking seem to influence cancer development in adulthood. The proposed etiological map based on 24 cancer types identifies novel clusters - for example, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukaemia, bone cancer and myeloma - that are not completely explained by established risk factors. Some of the identified clusters relied on reproduced associations between cancer risks amongst husband and wives; however, the role of chance cannot be excluded. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Went, Molly, et al. (författare)
  • Search for multiple myeloma risk factors using Mendelian randomization
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Blood Advances. - : American Society of Hematology. - 2473-9529. ; 4:10, s. 2172-2179
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The etiology of multiple myeloma (MM) is poorly understood. Summary data from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of multiple phenotypes can be exploited in a Mendelian randomization (MR) phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to search for factors influencing MM risk. We performed an MR-PheWAS analyzing 249 phenotypes, proxied by 10 225 genetic variants, and summary genetic data from a GWAS of 7717 MM cases and 29 304 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) per 1 standard deviation increase in each phenotype were estimated under an inverse variance weighted random effects model. A Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P 5 2 3 1024 was considered significant, whereas P,.05 was considered suggestive of an association. Although no significant associations with MM risk were observed among the 249 phenotypes, 28 phenotypes showed evidence suggestive of association, including increased levels of serum vitamin B6 and blood carnitine (P 5 1.1 3 1023) with greater MM risk and v-3 fatty acids (P 5 5.4 3 1024) with reduced MM risk. A suggestive association between increased telomere length and reduced MM risk was also noted; however, this association was primarily driven by the previously identified risk variant rs10936599 at 3q26 (TERC). Although not statistically significant, increased body mass index was associated with increased risk (OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.22), supporting findings from a previous meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Our study did not provide evidence supporting any modifiable factors examined as having a major influence on MM risk; however, it provides insight into factors for which the evidence has previously been mixed.
  • Wilkening, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin promoter polymorphisms and prognosis in colorectal cancer
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - : Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334 .- 1460-2180. ; 29:6, s. 1202-1206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is strong evidence that cancer-associated inflammation promotes tumor growth and progression. This is especially true for colorectal cancer (CRC). Interleukins (ILs) are important modulators for inflammation. We examined whether promoter polymorphisms in key IL genes (IL4, IL4R, IL6, IL8 and IL10) are associated with the risk or clinical outcome of CRC. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in genomic DNA from a cohort including 308 Swedish incident cases of CRC with data on Dukes' stage and up to 16 years of follow-up and 585 healthy controls. The selected SNPs have previously been shown to be functional and/or associated with cancer. None of the analyzed SNPs associated with the risk of CRC. When stratifying by tumor stage, significantly more patients carrying at least one G allele of IL10-1082 had tumors with Dukes' stages A + B than with stages C + D (P(trend) = 0.035 for genotype distribution). Analyzing associations with overall survival time, we found the rare T allele of IL4-590 to be related to a longer survival [CT versus CC Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.69, 95% confidence intervals 0.46-1.03, TT versus CC 0.32 (0.10-1.03)]. For IL6-174, the CG genotype was associated with a longer survival when compared with the CC genotype [0.64 (0.40-1.01)]. The present study was particularly suitable for survival analysis because all patients were sampled before the diagnosis of CRC. Our results suggest that the SNPs IL4-590 and IL6-174 may be useful markers for CRC prognosis. The predicted biological effect of these SNPs in relation to promotion of cancer progression is consistent with the observed increased survival time.
  • Woltmann, Andrea, et al. (författare)
  • Systematic pathway enrichment analysis of a genome-wide association study on breast cancer survival reveals an influence of genes involved in cell adhesion and calcium signaling on the patients' clinical outcome.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 9:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) may help to understand the effects of genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer (BC) progression and survival. However, they give only a focused view, which cannot capture the tremendous complexity of this disease. Therefore, we investigated data from a previously conducted GWAS on BC survival for enriched pathways by different enrichment analysis tools using the two main annotation databases Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The goal was to identify the functional categories (GO terms and KEGG pathways) that are consistently overrepresented in a statistically significant way in the list of genes generated from the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. The SNPs with allelic p-value cut-offs 0.005 and 0.01 were annotated to the genes by excluding or including a 20 kb up-and down-stream sequence of the genes and analyzed by six different tools. We identified eleven consistently enriched categories, the most significant ones relating to cell adhesion and calcium ion binding. Moreover, we investigated the similarity between our GWAS and the enrichment analyses of twelve published gene expression signatures for breast cancer prognosis. Five of them were commonly used and commercially available, five were based on different aspects of metastasis formation and two were developed from meta-analyses of published prognostic signatures. This comparison revealed similarities between our GWAS data and the general and the specific brain metastasis gene signatures as well as the Oncotype DX signature. As metastasis formation is a strong indicator of a patient's prognosis, this result reflects the survival aspect of the conducted GWAS and supports cell adhesion and calcium signaling as important pathways in cancer progression.
  • Xie, Huaping, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping of deletion breakpoints at the CDKN2A locus in melanoma: detection of MTAP-ANRIL fusion transcripts.
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - : Impact Journals, LLC. - 1949-2553. ; 7:13, s. 16490-16504
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genomic locus at chromosome 9p21 that contains the CDKN2A and CDKN2B tumor suppressor genes is inactivated through mutations, deletions and promoter methylation in multiple human cancers. Additionally, the locus encodes an anti-sense RNA (ANRIL). Both hemizygous and homozygous deletions at the locus targeting multiple genes are fairly common in different cancers. We in this study investigated breakpoints in five melanoma cell lines, derived from metastasized tumors, with previously identified homozygous deletions using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). For breakpoint mapping, we used primer approximation multiplex PCR (PAMP) and inverse PCR techniques. Our results showed that three cell lines carried complex rearrangements. In two other cell lines, with focal deletions of 141 kb and 181 kb, we identified fusion gene products, involving MTAP and ANRIL. We also confirmed the complex rearrangements and focal deletions in DNA from tumor tissues corresponding to three cell lines. The rapid amplification of 3'cDNA ends (3'RACE) carried out on transcripts resulted in identification of three isoforms of MTAP-ANRIL fusion gene. Screening of cDNA from 64 melanoma cell lines resulted in detection of fusion transcripts in 13 (20%) cell lines that involved exons 4-7 of the MTAP and exon 2 or 5 of the ANRIL genes. We also detected fusion transcripts involving MTAP and ANRIL in two of the seven primary melanoma tumors with focal deletion at the locus. The results from the study, besides identifying complex rearrangements involving CDKN2A locus, show frequent occurrence of fusion transcripts involving MTAP and ANRIL genes.
  • Yang, Rongxi, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide analysis associates familial colorectal cancer with increases in copy number variations and a rare structural variation at 12p12.3
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - : Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 35:2, s. 315-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancer worldwide. However, a large number of genetic risk factors involved in CRC have not been understood. Copy number variations (CNVs) might partly contribute to the missing heritability of CRC. An increased overall burden of CNV has been identified in several complex diseases, whereas the association between the overall CNV burden and CRC risk is largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide investigation of CNVs on genomic DNA from 384 familial CRC cases and 1285 healthy controls by the Affymetrix 6.0 array. An increase of overall CNV burden was observed in familial CRC patients compared with healthy controls, especially for CNVs larger than 50kb (case/control ratio 1.66, P 0.025). In addition, we discovered for the first time a novel structural variation at 12p12.3 and determined the breakpoints by strategic PCR and sequencing. This 12p12.3 structural variation was found in four of 2862 CRC cases but not in 6243 healthy controls (P 0.0098). RERGL gene (RERG/RAS-like), the only gene influenced by the 12p12.3 structural variation, sharing most of the conserved regions with its close family member RERG tumor suppressor gene (RAS-like, estrogen-regulated, growth inhibitor), might be a novel CRC-related gene. In conclusion, this is the first study to reveal the contribution of the overall burden of CNVs to familial CRC risk and identify a novel rare structural variation at 12p12.3 containing RERGL gene to be associated with CRC.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao, et al. (författare)
  • Borderline Ovarian Tumors Share Familial Risks with Themselves and Invasive Cancers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 27:11, s. 1358-1363
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) are a subgroup of ovarian malignancies with low malignant potential. Very limited earlier data are available on familial clustering of BOTs with other cancers. We aim to explore histology-specific familial associations among BOTs and associations between BOTs and any invasive cancers.Methods: On the basis of 16.1 million individuals in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we estimated familial risks for overall or histology-specific patients with BOT considering both BOT and any invasive cancers in first-degree relatives (parents or siblings), as well as familial risks for invasive cancers considering family history of BOTs.Results: A total of 4,199 BOT cases were found in the offspring generation; among them, 34 (0.8%) cases had first-degree relatives diagnosed with any BOT, and 2,489 (59.3%) cases with any invasive cancers. A family history of BOT was associated with risks for all BOTs (RR = 2.20, P < 0.001). Papillary BOT in first-degree relatives was associated with the increased risk of having the same type of BOT (RR = 10.10, P < 0.001). BOTs showed familial associations with some invasive cancers, most consistently with colorectal, ovarian, pancreatic, lung, and bone cancers, and with leukemia. In histologic analyses, associations of BOT with even rare cancers of the anus, thyroid, and endocrine glands were noted.Conclusions: BOTs may share susceptibility with themselves and a number of invasive cancers.Impact: These results provide insight into familial associations of BOT for the first time, which may help with the etiologic mechanism and preventive strategy of BOTs, as well as the genetic counseling for patients with BOT. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(11); 1358-63.
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