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  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Familial Risks for Type 2 Diabetes in Sweden
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 33:2, s. 293-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE - Our aim was to characterize familial risks for type 2 diabetes by the type and number of affected family members, including half-siblings, adoptees, and spouses, to quantify risks and estimate the contribution of environmental effect. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Families were identified from the Multigeneration Register, and type 2 diabetic patients were obtained from the Hospital Discharge Register. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated for offspring with type 2 diabetes whose family members were hospitalized for type 2 diabetes at ages >39 years compared With those lacking affected family members. RESULTS - The number of hospitalized type 2 diabetic patients was 157,549. Among 27,895 offspring, 27.9% had a parent or sibling also hospitalized for type 2 diabetes. The familial relative risk (RR) ranged from 2.0 to >30, depending on the number and type of probands. The highest RRs of type 2 diabetes were found in individuals who had at least two siblings affected by type 2 diabetes, irrespective of the parental disease. Adoptees showed no risk from adopted parents. CONCLUSIONS - The Study, the largest yet published, showed that familial RRs varied by the number and type Of affected family member. However, much Of the familial clustering remains yet to be genetically explained. The high risk should be recognized in clinical genetic counseling. The data from adoptees confirmed the genetic basis Of the familial associations, but those from half siblings and Spouses Suggested that a smaller part of familial Clustering may be accounted for by environmental factors.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Familial risks in and between stone diseases : Sialolithiasis, urolithiasis and cholelithiasis in the population of Sweden
  • Ingår i: BMC Nephrology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2369. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: According to the literature the three stone diseases, sialolithiasis (SL), urolithiasis (UL) and cholelithiasis (CL) share comorbidities. We assess familial and spouse risks between these stone disease and compare them to familial risks for concordant (same) stone disease. Methods: Study population including familiar relationships was obtained from the Swedish Multigeneration Register and stone disease patients were identified from nation-wide medical records. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for 0-83 year old offspring when their first-degree relatives were diagnosed with stone disease and the rates were compared to individuals without a family history of stone disease. Numbers of offspring with SL were 7906, for UL they were 170,757 and for CL they were 204,369. Results: SIRs for concordant familial risks were 2.06 for SL, 1.94 for UL and 1.82 for CL. SIRs for SL and UL were slightly higher for women than for men. Familial risks between stone diseases were modest. The highest risk of 1.17 was for UL when family members were diagnosed with CL, or vice versa. The SIR for UL was 1.15 when family members were diagnosed with SL. Familial risks among spouses were increased only for UL-CL pairs (1.10). Conclusions: Familial risks for concordant SL were 2.06 and marginally lower for the other diseases. Familial risks between stone diseases were low but higher than risks between spouses. The data show that familial clustering is unique to each individual stone disease which would imply distinct disease mechanisms. The results cast doubt on the reported comorbidities between these diseases.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Familial risks in nervous-system tumours: a histology-specific analysis from Sweden and Norway
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-5488. ; 10:5, s. 481-488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background There are limited data available on tumour subtype-specific familial risks for nervous-system tumours. We aimed to provide such data at the population level. Methods We used data from the nationwide Swedish and Norwegian databases on familial cancer to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRS) for the familial risk of developing a nervous-system tumour in offspring born after 1931 (Sweden) or 1900 (Norway) whose parents or siblings were probands. Findings 54195 patients had nervous-system tumours, 22331 of whom belonged to the offspring generation aged 0-72 years in Sweden and 0-51 years in Norway. Of 709 familial patients in the offspring generation, 438 (61.8%) had a parent affected by a nervous-system tumour (SIR 1.66; 95% CI 1.51-1.82), 236 (33.3%) had a sibling affected by a nervous-system tumour (SIR 2.01; 95% CI 1.76-2.28), and 35 (4.9%) belonged to families with a parent and at least two siblings affected by a nervous-system tumour (multiplex families; SIR 13.40; 95% CI 9.33-18.66). The SIR for glioma was 1.8 (1.5-2.0) when a parent was a proband, but increased to 11.2 (5.7-19.5) in multiplex families. Early-onset neurinoma and haemangioma showed high familial risks; with an SIR for neurinoma of 1.7 (1.4-2.2) for offspring of affected parents, 2.7 (2.0-3.5) for siblings, and 27.2 (13.5-48.8) for multiplex families, and an SIR for haemangioma of 2.4 (1.4-3.8) for offspring of affected parents. Histology-specific population-based familial risks were shown for meningioma (1.6 for offspring of affected parents; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), ependymoma (2.7 for young offspring <20 years; 1.1-5.5), medulloblastoma (4.1 for siblings; 1.7-8.1), and neuroblastoma (3.2 for siblings; 1.1-6.9). Interpretation Our results suggest a complex genetic background for nervous-system tumours, which differs depending on the age of onset and histological subtype of the tumour. High sibling risks might suggest recessive inheritance. As the high-penetrant multiplex families only accounted for about 5% of familial nervous-system tumours, most familial cases are probably caused by low-penetrance genes.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Familial risks in urolithiasis in the population of Sweden
  • Ingår i: BJU International. - : Blackwell Science Ltd. - 1464-4096. ; 121:3, s. 479-485
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To assess detailed familial risks for medically diagnosed urolithiasis (UL, urinary tract stone disease) based on nationwide hospital and population records. Patients/Subjects and Methods: Subjects were identified from the Swedish Multigeneration Register in which there were 211 718 patients with UL. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by comparison to individuals without a family history of UL. Results: The highest familial SIRs were invariably found for the same (concordant) type of UL: 2.18 for kidney, 2.20 for ureter, and 1.93 for bladder. SIRs increased from 1.84, when one parent was affected, to 3.54 when both parents were affected, which was a multiplicative interaction. The SIR was 1.79 when one sibling was affected but it increased to 24.91 when two siblings were affected. Such excessive risks (5.2% of familial cases) are probably explained by high-penetrant genes. A low SIR of 1.29 between spouses suggested a minor contribution by shared environmental factors on the familial risk. Conclusions: The results point to underlying genetic causes for the observed familial clustering and establish the genetic landscape of UL. Family histories should be taken in UL diagnostics and prevention could follow guidelines recommended for recurrent UL.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Familial risks of aortic aneurysms among siblings in a nationwide Swedish study
  • Ingår i: Genetics in Medicine. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1098-3600. ; 8:1, s. 43-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Aortic aneurysms have a high fatality rate that could be reduced with control of risk factors and use of available screening methods for detection of early changes in aortic walls. The available data on familial risks, a potential indication for screening, are mainly limited to abdominal aortic aneurysms.METHODS: A nationwide Swedish cohort was constructed by linking the Multigeneration Register on 0- to 69-year-old siblings to the Hospital Discharge Register and the Cause of Death Register for data on aortic aneurysms from years 1987 to 2001. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for affected siblings by comparing with those whose siblings had no aneurysm.RESULTS: A total of 71 affected siblings were identified with a familial SIR of 8.71; when one sibling was diagnosed before age 50 years, the SIR was 19.69. For concordant thoracic or concordant abdominal aneurysms, the SIRs were 21.68 and 13.06, respectively. For brothers, the risk of abdominal aneurysms was 14.63, and 49.50 for diagnosis before age 50 years. Familial risks and the effects of early diagnostic age were shared by the anatomic subtypes of aneurysms. Within limits of the sample size, no gender differences could be observed. Affected siblings constituted 2.2% of all diagnosed patients.CONCLUSIONS: A family history of any aortic aneurysms and age groups younger than 50 years should be considered in recommendations for screening. The high familial risks are likely to be the result of heritable genes, the identification of which would allow gene testing and preventive counseling.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Genetics of gallbladder cancer
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1470-2045. ; 18:6, s. 296-296
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Hemminki, K., et al. (författare)
  • Germline genetics of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) and its specific subtypes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - : Impact Journals, LLC. - 1949-2553. ; 7:16, s. 22140-22149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is a fatal cancer diagnosed through metastases at various organs. Little is known about germline genetics of CUP which appears worth of a search in view of reported familial associations in CUP. In the present study, samples from CUP patients were identified from 2 Swedish biobanks and a German clinical trial, totaling 578 CUP patients and 7628 regionally matched controls. Diagnostic data specified the organ where metastases were diagnosed. We carried out a genome-wide association study on CUP cases and controls. In the whole sample set, 6 loci reached an allelic p-value in the range of 10(-7) and were supported by data from the three centers. Three associations were located next to non-coding RNA genes. rs2660852 flanked 5' UTR of LTA4H (leukotriene A4 hydrolase), rs477145 was intronic to TIAM1 (T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastases) and rs2835931 was intronic to KCNJ6 (potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 6). In analysis of subgroups of CUP patients (smokers, non-smokers and CUP with liver metastases) genome-wide significant associations were noted. For patients with liver metastases associations on chromosome 6 and 11, the latter including a cluster of genes DHCR7 and NADSYN1, encoding key enzymes in cholesterol and NAD synthesis, and KRTAP5-7, encoding a keratin associated protein. This first GWAS on CUP provide preliminary evidence that germline genes relating to inflammation (LTA4H), metastatic promotion (TIAM1) in association with lipid metabolic disturbance (chromosome 11 cluster) may contribute to the risk of CUP.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • High familial risks for cerebral palsy implicate partial heritable aetiology
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022. ; 21:3, s. 41-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral palsy is the commonest cause of severe childhood disability, the aetiology of which is largely unknown. Data on familial aggregation of cerebral palsy are very limited. We defined familial risks for siblings who were hospitalised because of cerebral palsy in Sweden. A nationwide database for neurological diseases was constructed by linking the Multigeneration Register to the Hospital Discharge Register for the years 1987-2001. Standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHRs) were calculated for affected singletons and twins by comparing them with siblings who had no cerebral palsy. A total of 3997 patients were recorded with cerebral palsy. Familial cerebral palsy was uncommon, and it accounted for 1.6% of all cerebral palsy cases. However, for parents who had had one affected child the risk of recurrence in another child was considerably increased. Parents of one affected child had a 4.8-fold risk of having a second affected child, and where the siblings were twins, the risk was 29-fold. These familial risks were particularly high in some clinical subgroups: 17-25 in singletons and 37-155 in twins, including hemiplegia, diplegia and quadriplegia. The remarkably high familial risks are difficult to explain without some contribution of heritable factors. The lack of discordant pairs may suggest that heritable factors are disorder type-specific. Affected concordant sibling pairs should be subjected to molecular studies aiming at identifying the susceptibility gene.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence and familial risks in pituitary adenoma and associated tumors
  • Ingår i: Endocrine-Related Cancer. - : Society for Endocrinology. - 1351-0088. ; 14:1, s. 103-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reliable data on familial risks are important for clinical counseling and cancer genetics. We wanted to study incidence trends and familial risks for pituitary adenomas and associated tumors through parental and sibling probands, using the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database on 10.5 million individuals, containing families with parents and offspring. Cancer data were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1958 to 2002, including 3239 pituitary tumor patients. Familial risk for offspring was defined through standardized incidence ratio (SIR), adjusted for many variables. The incidence of pituitary adenoma has increased moderately from 1958 to the 1990s and declined thereafter. There were only three offspring-parent pairs with a concordant pituitary tumor, the SIR was not significant. Parental skin cancer (SIR 1.60) and leukemia (1.90, chronic lymphatic leukemia 2.59) were associated with offspring pituitary adenoma diagnosed at any age up to 70 years. There was a strong association of pituitary adenomas with nervous system hemangiopericytomas, SIR 182. The only significant association among siblings was between pituitary tumors and breast cancer (1.46). The risk of pituitary adenoma was marginally increased in individuals whose siblings were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The results suggest an association of pituitary adenomas with nervous system hemangiopericytomas and breast and colorectal cancers, in addition to some other tumor types. Whether these associations can be explained by the recently identified pituitary adenoma predisposing gene, AIP, remains to be established.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Location of metastases in cancer of unknown primary are not random and signal familial clustering.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a fatal disease diagnosed through metastases. It shows intriguing familial clustering with certain defined primary cancers. Here we examine whether metastatic location in CUP patients is related to primary non-CUP cancers in relatives based on the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for CUP patients defined by metastatic location depending on cancer in their first degree relatives. SIRs for CUP were high in association with liver (3.94), ovarian (3.41), lung (2.43) and colorectal cancers (1.83) in relatives. The SIR was 1.63 for CUP with metastases in the abdomen when a relative was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. CUP with liver metastases associated with liver (1.44) cancer in relatives. CUP with head and neck region metastases associated with relatives' esophageal (2.87) cancer. CUP metastases in the thorax associated with a relative's cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract (2.14) and lung (1.74). The findings, matching metastatic location in CUP and primary cancer in relatives, could be reconciled if these cases of CUP constitute a phenotypically modified primary lacking tissue identification, resulting from epitope immunoediting. Alternatively, CUP metastases arise in a genetically favored tissue environment (soil) promoting growth of both primary cancers and metastases (seeds).
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