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  • Zhang, Luyao, et al. (författare)
  • Second cancers and causes of death in patients with testicular cancer in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 14:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While treatment for testicular cancer (TC) has become standardized after the 1980s with an associated significant improvement in patient survival, this has been accompanied by an increased risk of second primary cancers (SPCs). Patients were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry spanning the years from 1980 to 2015, including 8788 individuals with primary TC and their SPCs. Relative risks (RRs) for SPC were calculated using the generalized Poisson regression model. SPCs were diagnosed in 9.4% of patients with TC and half of them were late onset cancers not common in the population in their 40s. Overall RR of SPCs (excluding second TC) was 1.30 (95%CI: 1.20–1.40), including high risks for seven solid cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia. Second TC was the most common SPC and the RR of 17.19 (95%CI: 14.89–19.85) was the highest recorded. Cancers known to be fatal as first primary cancers were also fatal as SPC in TC patients. Survival at 30 years of follow-up was approximately 80% for TC patients without SPC but it decreased to 40% for patients with SPC. The unexpected finding that half of the identified SPCs were typical late onset cancers in the middle-aged population raises concerns that therapy may facilitate premature aging. The risks of SPC are clinically important for the long-term management of TC patients and the high-mortality calls for a future management strategy.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao, et al. (författare)
  • Association between tumor characteristics and second primary cancers with cutaneous melanoma survival : A nationwide cohort study
  • ????
  • Ingår i: Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1755-1471.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The increased survival in malignant cutaneous melanoma (melanoma) is probably due to early diagnosis combined with improved treatment most recently. National health campaigns and screening programs for melanoma detection were started in Sweden several decades ago. We want to assess the influence of tumor characteristics, based on the TNM classification, and of second primary cancers on overall survival in melanoma. We used the Swedish Cancer Registry to assess all-cause survival in melanoma from 2003 to 2015. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. A total of 19,773 melanoma patients were diagnosed with TNM data. Survival showed a strong improving trend over time (p-trend <.001). T1a was the most common classification (48.0% of all), while higher T class was associated systematically with worse survival (p-trend <.001). For distant metastases, the HR was 3.17, accounting for 0.9% of the patients. Any types of second primary cancers, other than melanoma, were associated with an HR of 2.00, accounted for 6.7% of all cases. Even if melanoma survival in Sweden ranks among the best national rates, the large percentage of patients with advanced tumors (T3b, T4a, and T4b, 17%) and 21% of deaths with T1a call for improved preventive and follow-up strategies.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao, et al. (författare)
  • Familial associations of female breast cancer with other cancers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 141:11, s. 2253-2259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Familial risks of breast cancer (BC) are well established but whether BC clusters with other, i.e. discordant, cancers is less certain but of interest for the identification of common genetic and possible environmental factors contributing to a general cancer susceptibility. We apply a novel approach to search for familial associations of BC with other (discordant) cancers based on the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Relative risks (RRs) were calculated for BC in families with increasing numbers of patients with discordant cancer X, and conversely, familial RRs for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of BC patients. Joint p-values were calculated from independent analyses. The total number of familial BCs was 12,266, 14.9% with one first-degree relative with BC and 1.2% with at least 2 affected relatives. Ovarian and prostate cancers showed the strongest associations with BC (p-value <10−11). The p-value for melanoma was <10−6, for stomach and male colorectal cancer <2.5 × 10−6, for cancer of unknown primary <2.5 × 10−5 and for lung cancer <5 × 10−5. Significance level <5 × 10−4 was reached with pancreatic cancer. The remaining associations (p < 0.0025) included thyroid, endometrial, testicular, eye cancers (uveal melanoma), nervous system and endocrine tumors and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The RR for BC increased by increasing numbers of patients with any cancer in family members and it reached 1.62 when three or more family members were affected. The results suggest that BC shares susceptibility with a number of other cancers. This might alert genetic counselors and challenge approaches for gene and gene–environment identification.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao, et al. (författare)
  • Familial associations of male breast cancer with other cancers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 0167-6806. ; 166:3, s. 897-902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Male breast cancer is associated with female breast cancer in families but whether male breast cancer clusters with other discordant cancers has not been studied. As concordant male breast cancers are utterly rare, discordant associations of male breast cancer with other cancers may reveal genetic and possible environmental risk factors contributing to male breast cancer susceptibility. Methods: We calculated relative risks (RRs) for male breast cancer in families with discordant cancers, and conversely, for discordant cancers in families of male breast cancer patients, based on 15.7 million individuals in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Results: Among 1428 male breast cancer patients, 16.2% had a female relative diagnosed with breast cancer. Ovarian and female anal cancers showed the strongest associations with male breast cancer (p value < 0.0005). The other significant associations included colorectal, small intestinal, and thyroid cancers, cancer of unknown primary and non-Hodgkin lymphoma but these were each based on a single positive association with male breast cancer. The RRs for male breast cancer were increased in families in which multiple patients were diagnosed with diverse cancers, reaching an RR of 2.58 when three or more family members were affected. Conclusions: The results suggest that male breast cancer shares susceptibility with a number of other cancers but confirmation is needed in other datasets.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao, et al. (författare)
  • Second primary cancer after female breast cancer : Familial risks and cause of death
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 2045-7634. ; 8:1, s. 400-407
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: With continuous increases in survival rates following breast cancer (BC) diagnosis, the challenge of multiple primary cancers has become an issue. The data on familial risk of SPCs after BC diagnosis and the related mortality in BC patients are scarce. Methods: A total of 87 752 female BC patients were followed for SPC diagnoses and records of death. Relative risks (RRs) of SPC in BC patients who had first-degree relatives (parents or siblings) affected by the same cancer were compared to the patients without family history. Causes of death were compared between patients with and without SPC. Results: After a median follow-up of 5 years, 14 952 BC patients developed SPCs, among which 10 280 (68.8%) had first-degree relatives diagnosed with cancer. Familial risks were significant for 14 site-specific SPCs, and the highest risk was for second ovarian cancer (RR = 6.28, 95%CI: 4.50-8.75), compared to those without family history (1.49, 1.34-1.65). In patients with SPC, SPC was the main cause of death, including diverse cancers and BC in approximately equal proportions. Conclusions: Family history contributed to the excess number of patients with SPCs, and SPC was the leading cause of death in patients with SPC. Taking family history at diagnosis of BC may provide warning signs with regard to possible subsequent SPCs and may offer possibilities for counseling, intervention and management.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao, et al. (författare)
  • Second primary cancers in melanoma patients critically shorten survival
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Epidemiology. - Dove Press. - 1179-1349. ; 12, s. 105-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Survival in malignant cutaneous melanoma has improved but increasing survival will result in an increased likelihood of the occurrence of second primary cancers (SPCs). SPCs may adversely interfere with survival. We quantified survival in patients with different types of SPCs, in comparison to known poor prognostic indicators of metastatic disease. Methods: Data for melanoma and any SPCs were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry for years 2003 through 2015, including clinical TNM classification. SPCs were grouped into three ‘prognostic groups’ based on 5-year relative survival of these cancers as first primary cancer. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression, adjusted for a number of variables and treating diagnosis of SPC as a time-dependent variable. Results: The total number of first melanoma patients was 28,716 followed by 3,202 (11.1%) SPCs, 1/3 of which had a second melanoma while 2/3 had other SPCs. Among men diagnosed at age over 70 years, who survived at least 10 years, 31.4% had SPC. HRs (95% CI) for survival increased systematically from the reference rate of 1.00 (no SPC) to 1.59 (1.35–1.87) with SPC of good prognosis (78.6% of SPCs) to 3.49 (2.58–4.72) of moderate prognosis (12.0%) and to 7.93 (5.50–11.44) of poor prognosis (9.4%). In patients without SPC, the HRs increased to 2.62 (2.02–3.39) with any nodal metastases and to 5.88 (4.57–7.57) with any distant metastases compared to patients without local or distant metastases. Conclusion: The data showed that SPCs are an increasingly common negative prognostic factor for melanoma. Future attempts to improve melanoma survival need to target SPCs.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao, et al. (författare)
  • Second primary cancers in patients with acute lymphoblastic, chronic lymphocytic and hairy cell leukaemia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0007-1048. ; 185:2, s. 232-239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Improvement of survival in lymphocytic leukaemia has been accompanied by the occurrence of second primary cancer (SPCs). Based on Swedish Family Cancer Database, we applied bi-directional analyses in which relative risks (RRs) were calculated for any SPCs in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) and the risks of these leukaemias as SPCs. After CLL, RRs were significant for 20 SPCs, and high for skin squamous cell cancer (24·58 for in situ and 7·63 for invasive), Merkel cell carcinoma (14·36), Hodgkin lymphoma (7·16) and Kaposi sarcoma (6·76). Conversely, 15 CLL cancer pairs were reciprocally increased. The increased risks were reciprocal for ALL and four cancers. RR for ALL was 15·35 after myeloid neoplasia. HCL showed reciprocally increased RRs with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and melanoma. The concordance between RRs for bi-directional associations between CLL and different cancers, and HCL and different cancers was highly significant. For CLL (also for HCL), the bi-directional risks with skin cancers and other immune-related cancers suggest the probable involvement of immune dysfunction. For ALL, treatment may contribute to risks of multiple SPCs. Increased risk of ALL after haematological neoplasms may indicate bone marrow dysfunction. These findings may help guide treatment decisions and prognostic assessment.
  • Ali, Mina, et al. (författare)
  • The multiple myeloma risk allele at 5q15 lowers ELL2 expression and increases ribosomal gene expression
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, we identified ELL2 as a susceptibility gene for multiple myeloma (MM). To understand its mechanism of action, we performed expression quantitative trait locus analysis in CD138+ plasma cells from 1630 MM patients from four populations. We show that the MM risk allele lowers ELL2 expression in these cells (P combined = 2.5 × 10-27; β combined = -0.24 SD), but not in peripheral blood or other tissues. Consistent with this, several variants representing the MM risk allele map to regulatory genomic regions, and three yield reduced transcriptional activity in plasmocytoma cell lines. One of these (rs3777189-C) co-locates with the best-supported lead variants for ELL2 expression and MM risk, and reduces binding of MAFF/G/K family transcription factors. Moreover, further analysis reveals that the MM risk allele associates with upregulation of gene sets related to ribosome biogenesis, and knockout/knockdown and rescue experiments in plasmocytoma cell lines support a cause-effect relationship. Our results provide mechanistic insight into MM predisposition.
  • Anwar, Wagida A, et al. (författare)
  • Consanguinity and genetic diseases in North Africa and immigrants to Europe.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health. - Oxford University Press. - 1101-1262. ; 24 Suppl 1, s. 57-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endemic diseases are caused by environmental and genetic factors. While in this special issue several chapters deal with environmental factors, including infections, the present focus is on genetic causes of disease clustering due to inbreeding and recessive disease mechanisms. Consanguinity is implying sharing of genetic heritage because of marriage between close relatives originating from a common ancestor. With limited natural selection, recessive genes may become more frequent in an inbred compared with an outbred population. Consanguinity is common in North Africa (NA), and the estimates range from 40 to 49% of all marriages in Tunisia and 29-33% in Morocco. As a consequence, recessive disorders are common in the NA region, and we give some examples. Thalassaemia and sickle cell disease/anaemia constitute the most common inherited recessive disorders globally and they are common in NA, but with immigration they have spread to Europe and to other parts of the world. Another example is familial Mediterranean fever, which is common in the Eastern Mediterranean area. With immigrantion from that area to Sweden, it has become the most common hereditary autoinflammatory disease in that country, and there is no evidence that any native Swede would have been diagnosed with this disease. The examples discussed in this chapter show that the historic movement of populations and current immigration are influencing the concept of 'endemic' disease.
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