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  • Timofeeva, Maria N, et al. (författare)
  • Recurrent Coding Sequence Variation Explains Only A Small Fraction of the Genetic Architecture of Colorectal Cancer.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Whilst common genetic variation in many non-coding genomic regulatory regions are known to impart risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), much of the heritability of CRC remains unexplained. To examine the role of recurrent coding sequence variation in CRC aetiology, we genotyped 12,638 CRCs cases and 29,045 controls from six European populations. Single-variant analysis identified a coding variant (rs3184504) in SH2B3 (12q24) associated with CRC risk (OR = 1.08, P = 3.9 × 10(-7)), and novel damaging coding variants in 3 genes previously tagged by GWAS efforts; rs16888728 (8q24) in UTP23 (OR = 1.15, P = 1.4 × 10(-7)); rs6580742 and rs12303082 (12q13) in FAM186A (OR = 1.11, P = 1.2 × 10(-7) and OR = 1.09, P = 7.4 × 10(-8)); rs1129406 (12q13) in ATF1 (OR = 1.11, P = 8.3 × 10(-9)), all reaching exome-wide significance levels. Gene based tests identified associations between CRC and PCDHGA genes (P < 2.90 × 10(-6)). We found an excess of rare, damaging variants in base-excision (P = 2.4 × 10(-4)) and DNA mismatch repair genes (P = 6.1 × 10(-4)) consistent with a recessive mode of inheritance. This study comprehensively explores the contribution of coding sequence variation to CRC risk, identifying associations with coding variation in 4 genes and PCDHG gene cluster and several candidate recessive alleles. However, these findings suggest that recurrent, low-frequency coding variants account for a minority of the unexplained heritability of CRC.
  • Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for B-cell childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have advanced our understanding of susceptibility to B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL); however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here, we perform a GWAS and conduct a meta-analysis with two existing GWAS, totaling 2442 cases and 14,609 controls. We identify risk loci for BCP-ALL at 8q24.21 (rs28665337, P = 3.86 × 10-9, odds ratio (OR) = 1.34) and for ETV6-RUNX1 fusion-positive BCP-ALL at 2q22.3 (rs17481869, P = 3.20 × 10-8, OR = 2.14). Our findings provide further insights into genetic susceptibility to ALL and its biology.
  • Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram, et al. (författare)
  • The 9p21.3 risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is explained by a rare high-impact variant in CDKN2A.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided strong evidence for inherited predisposition to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) identifying a number of risk loci. We have previously shown common SNPs at 9p21.3 influence ALL risk. These SNP associations are generally not themselves candidates for causality, but simply act as markers for functional variants. By means of imputation of GWAS data and subsequent validation SNP genotyping totalling 2,177 ALL cases and 8,240 controls, we have shown that the 9p21.3 association can be ascribed to the rare high-impact CDKN2A p.Ala148Thr variant (rs3731249; Odds ratio = 2.42, P = 3.45 × 10(-19)). The association between rs3731249 genotype and risk was not specific to particular subtype of B-cell ALL. The rs3731249 variant is associated with predominant nuclear localisation of the CDKN2A transcript suggesting the functional effect of p.Ala148Thr on ALL risk may be through compromised ability to inhibit cyclin D within the cytoplasm.
  • Vodicka, Pavel, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation of acquired structural chromosomal aberrations
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. - Elsevier. - 1383-5718. ; 836, s. 13-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human malignancies are often hallmarked with genomic instability, which itself is also considered a causative event in malignant transformation. Genomic instability may manifest itself as genetic changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA, or as structural or numerical changes of chromosomes. Unrepaired or insufficiently repaired DNA double-strand breaks, as well as telomere shortening, are important contributors in the formation of structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs). In the present review, we discuss potential mechanisms behind the formation of CAs and their relation to cancer. Based on our own studies, we also illustrate how inherited genetic variation may modify the frequency and types of CAs occurring in humans. Recently, we published a series of studies on variations in genes relevant to maintaining genomic integrity, such as those encoding xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes, DNA repair, the tumour suppressor TP53, the spindle assembly checkpoint, and cyclin D1 (CCND1). While individually genetic variation in these genes exerted small modulating effects, in interactions they were associated with CA frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy volunteers. Moreover, we observed opposite associations between the CCND1 splice site polymorphism rs9344 G870A and the frequency of CAs compared to their association with translocation t(11,14). We discuss the functional consequences of the CCND1 gene in interplay with DNA damage response and DNA repair during malignant transformation. Our review summarizes existing evidence that gene variations in relevant cellular pathways modulate the frequency of CAs, predominantly in a complex interaction. More functional/mechanistic studies elucidating these observations are required. Several questions emerge, such as the role of CAs in malignancies with respect to a particular phenotype and heterogeneity, the formation of CAs during the process of malignant transformation, and the formation of CAs in individual types of lymphocytes in relation to the immune response.
  • Vodicka, Pavel, et al. (författare)
  • Interactions of DNA repair gene variants modulate chromosomal aberrations in healthy subjects.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 36:11, s. 1299-1306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human cancers are often associated with numerical and structural chromosomal instability. Structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) arise as consequences of direct DNA damage or due to replication on a damaged DNA template. In both cases, DNA repair is critical and inter-individual differences in its capacity are probably due to corresponding genetic variations. We investigated functional variants in DNA repair genes (base and nucleotide excision repair, double-strand break repair) in relation to CAs, chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs) and chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs) in healthy individuals. Chromosomal damage was determined by conventional cytogenetic analysis. The genotyping was performed by both restriction fragment length polymorphism and TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Multivariate logistic regression was applied for testing individual factors on CAs, CTAs and CSAs. Pair-wise genotype interactions of 11 genes were constructed for all possible pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Analysed individually, we observed significantly lower CTA frequencies in association with XPD Lys751Gln homozygous variant genotype [odds ratio (OR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.85, P = 0.004; n = 1777]. A significant association of heterozygous variant genotype in RAD54L with increased CSA frequency (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01-4.02, P = 0.03) was determined in 282 subjects with available genotype. By addressing gene-gene interactions, we discovered 14 interactions significantly modulating CAs, 9 CTAs and 12 CSAs frequencies. Highly significant interactions included always pairs from two different pathways. Although individual variants in genes encoding DNA repair proteins modulate CAs only modestly, several gene-gene interactions in DNA repair genes evinced either enhanced or decreased CA frequencies suggesting that CAs accumulation requires complex interplay between different DNA repair pathways.
  • Xie, Huaping, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping of deletion breakpoints at the CDKN2A locus in melanoma: detection of MTAP-ANRIL fusion transcripts.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - Impact Journals, LLC. - 1949-2553. ; 7:13, s. 16490-16504
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genomic locus at chromosome 9p21 that contains the CDKN2A and CDKN2B tumor suppressor genes is inactivated through mutations, deletions and promoter methylation in multiple human cancers. Additionally, the locus encodes an anti-sense RNA (ANRIL). Both hemizygous and homozygous deletions at the locus targeting multiple genes are fairly common in different cancers. We in this study investigated breakpoints in five melanoma cell lines, derived from metastasized tumors, with previously identified homozygous deletions using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). For breakpoint mapping, we used primer approximation multiplex PCR (PAMP) and inverse PCR techniques. Our results showed that three cell lines carried complex rearrangements. In two other cell lines, with focal deletions of 141 kb and 181 kb, we identified fusion gene products, involving MTAP and ANRIL. We also confirmed the complex rearrangements and focal deletions in DNA from tumor tissues corresponding to three cell lines. The rapid amplification of 3'cDNA ends (3'RACE) carried out on transcripts resulted in identification of three isoforms of MTAP-ANRIL fusion gene. Screening of cDNA from 64 melanoma cell lines resulted in detection of fusion transcripts in 13 (20%) cell lines that involved exons 4-7 of the MTAP and exon 2 or 5 of the ANRIL genes. We also detected fusion transcripts involving MTAP and ANRIL in two of the seven primary melanoma tumors with focal deletion at the locus. The results from the study, besides identifying complex rearrangements involving CDKN2A locus, show frequent occurrence of fusion transcripts involving MTAP and ANRIL genes.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao, et al. (författare)
  • Borderline Ovarian Tumors Share Familial Risks with Themselves and Invasive Cancers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 27:11, s. 1358-1363
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) are a subgroup of ovarian malignancies with low malignant potential. Very limited earlier data are available on familial clustering of BOTs with other cancers. We aim to explore histology-specific familial associations among BOTs and associations between BOTs and any invasive cancers.Methods: On the basis of 16.1 million individuals in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we estimated familial risks for overall or histology-specific patients with BOT considering both BOT and any invasive cancers in first-degree relatives (parents or siblings), as well as familial risks for invasive cancers considering family history of BOTs.Results: A total of 4,199 BOT cases were found in the offspring generation; among them, 34 (0.8%) cases had first-degree relatives diagnosed with any BOT, and 2,489 (59.3%) cases with any invasive cancers. A family history of BOT was associated with risks for all BOTs (RR = 2.20, P < 0.001). Papillary BOT in first-degree relatives was associated with the increased risk of having the same type of BOT (RR = 10.10, P < 0.001). BOTs showed familial associations with some invasive cancers, most consistently with colorectal, ovarian, pancreatic, lung, and bone cancers, and with leukemia. In histologic analyses, associations of BOT with even rare cancers of the anus, thyroid, and endocrine glands were noted.Conclusions: BOTs may share susceptibility with themselves and a number of invasive cancers.Impact: These results provide insight into familial associations of BOT for the first time, which may help with the etiologic mechanism and preventive strategy of BOTs, as well as the genetic counseling for patients with BOT. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(11); 1358-63.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao, et al. (författare)
  • Familial Ovarian Cancer Clusters with Other Cancers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Familial risk of ovarian cancer is well-established but whether ovarian cancer clusters with other cancers and the clusters differ by histology remains uncertain. Using data from the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we explored familial associations of ovarian cancer with other cancers with a novel approach; relative risk for (histology-specific) ovarian cancer was estimated in families with patients affected by other cancers, and conversely, risks for other cancers in families with (histology-specific) ovarian cancer patients. Eight discordant cancers were associated with ovarian cancer risk, of which family history of breast cancer showed a dose-response (P-trend <0.0001). Conversely, risks of eight types of cancer increased in families with ovarian cancer patients, and dose-responses were shown for risks of liver (P-trend = 0.0083) and breast cancers (P-trend <0.0001) and cancer of unknown primary (P-trend = 0.0157). Some cancers were only associated with histology-specific ovarian cancers, e.g. endometrial cancer was only associated with endometrioid type but with highest significance. Novel associations with virus-linked cancers of the nose and male and female genitals were found. The results suggest that ovarian cancer shares susceptibility with a number of other cancers. This might alert genetic counselors and challenge approaches for gene and gene-environment identification.
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