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  • Frank, C, et al. (författare)
  • Population Landscape of Familial Cancer.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Public perception and anxiety of familial cancer have increased demands for clinical counseling, which may be well equipped for gene testing but less prepared for counseling of the large domain of familial cancer with unknown genetic background. The aim of the present study was to highlight the full scope of familial cancer and the variable levels of risk that need to be considered. Data on the 25 most common cancers were obtained from the Swedish Family Cancer Database and a Poisson regression model was applied to estimate relative risks (RR) distinguishing between family histories of single or multiple affected first-degree relatives and their diagnostic ages. For all cancers, individual risks were significantly increased if a parent or a sibling had a concordant cancer. While the RRs were around 2.00 for most cancers, risks were up to 10-fold increased for some cancers. Familial risks were even higher when multiple relatives were affected. Although familial risks were highest at ages below 60 years, most familial cases were diagnosed at older ages. The results emphasized the value of a detailed family history as a readily available tool for individualized counseling and its preventive potential for a large domain of non-syndromatic familial cancers.
  • Frank, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of other Cancers in Families with Melanoma : Novel Familial Links
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A family history of cutaneous melanoma ('melanoma') is a well-established risk factor for melanoma. However, less is known about the possible familial associations of melanoma with other discordant cancers. A risk for discordant cancer may provide useful information about shared genetic and environmental risk factors and it may be relevant background data in clinical genetic counseling. Using the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we assessed the relative risk (RR) for any cancer in families with increasing numbers of first-degree relatives diagnosed with melanoma, including multiple melanoma, and in reverse order RR for melanoma in families of multiple discordant cancers. Close to 9% of melanoma was familial; among these 92% were in 2-case families and 8% in families with 3 cases or more. Cancers that were associated with melanoma, in at least two independent analyses, included breast, prostate, colorectal, skin and nervous system cancers. Other associations included cancer of unknown primary, acute myeloid leukemia/myelofibrosis and Waldenström macroglobulinemia/myeloma. Significant results, which appear biologically plausible, were also obtained for rare nasal melanoma and mesothelioma. Although small samples sizes and multiple comparisons were of concern, many of the above associations were internally consistent and provide new diverse leads for discordant familial association of melanoma.
  • Freitag, Daniel F., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiometabolic effects of genetic upregulation of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist: a Mendelian randomisation analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. - Elsevier. - 2213-8595. ; 3:4, s. 243-253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background To investigate potential cardiovascular and other effects of long-term pharmacological interleukin 1 (IL-1) inhibition, we studied genetic variants that produce inhibition of IL-1, a master regulator of inflammation. Methods We created a genetic score combining the effects of alleles of two common variants (rs6743376 and rs1542176) that are located upstream of IL1RN, the gene encoding the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra; an endogenous inhibitor of both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta); both alleles increase soluble IL-1Ra protein concentration. We compared effects on inflammation biomarkers of this genetic score with those of anakinra, the recombinant form of IL-1Ra, which has previously been studied in randomised trials of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. In primary analyses, we investigated the score in relation to rheumatoid arthritis and four cardiometabolic diseases (type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and abdominal aortic aneurysm; 453 411 total participants). In exploratory analyses, we studied the relation of the score to many disease traits and to 24 other disorders of proposed relevance to IL-1 signalling (746 171 total participants). Findings For each IL1RN minor allele inherited, serum concentrations of IL-1Ra increased by 0.22 SD (95% CI 0.18-0.25; 12.5%; p=9.3 x 10(-33)), concentrations of interleukin 6 decreased by 0.02 SD (-0.04 to -0.01; -1,7%; p=3.5 x 10(-3)), and concentrations of C-reactive protein decreased by 0.03 SD (-0.04 to -0.02; -3.4%; p=7.7 x 10(-14)). We noted the effects of the genetic score on these inflammation biomarkers to be directionally concordant with those of anakinra. The allele count of the genetic score had roughly log-linear, dose-dependent associations with both IL-1Ra concentration and risk of coronary heart disease. For people who carried four IL-1Ra-raising alleles, the odds ratio for coronary heart disease was 1.15 (1.08-1.22; p=1.8 x 10(-6)) compared with people who carried no IL-1Ra-raising alleles; the per-allele odds ratio for coronary heart disease was 1.03 (1.02-1.04; p=3.9 x 10(-10)). Perallele odds ratios were 0.97 (0.95-0.99; p=9.9 x 10(-4)) for rheumatoid arthritis, 0.99 (0.97-1.01; p=0.47) for type 2 diabetes, 1.00 (0.98-1.02; p=0.92) for ischaemic stroke, and 1.08 (1.04-1.12; p=1.8 x 10(-5)) for abdominal aortic aneurysm. In exploratory analyses, we observed per-allele increases in concentrations of proatherogenic lipids, including LDL-cholesterol, but no clear evidence of association for blood pressure, glycaemic traits, or any of the 24 other disorders studied. Modelling suggested that the observed increase in LDL-cholesterol could account for about a third of the association observed between the genetic score and increased coronary risk. Interpretation Human genetic data suggest that long-term dual IL-1 alpha/beta inhibition could increase cardiovascular risk and, conversely, reduce the risk of development of rheumatoid arthritis. The cardiovascular risk might, in part, be mediated through an increase in proatherogenic lipid concentrations. Copyright (C) The Interleukin 1 Genetics Consortium. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC-BY-NC-ND.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Familial Risks between Urolithiasis and Cancer
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2018 The Author(s). Urolithiasis (UL, urinary tract stone disease) has been reported to increase subsequent cancers in the urinary tract. Recently, we showed data that surveillance bias may be an important confounder in the reported associations. In the present approach we want to address the question of possible cancer risk posed by UL mechanistically. Both UL and cancer have strong genetic components and we hypothesize that familial association between UL and cancer may be plausible. We thus assess familial risks between UL and cancer, hoping to find an explanation why UL may pose a risk of cancer. UL patients were identified from hospital inpatient and outpatient records and they were organized in families based on the Multigeneration Register into which also national cancer data were linked. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated for cancer in the offspring generation when parents were diagnosed with UL, and conversely for UL when parents were diagnosed with cancer. Familial risks between UL and cancer were generally small and inconsistent providing no convincing support of genetic sharing between UL and cancer. However, bladder UL was associated weakly with prostate cancer, and ureter and bladder UL were associated with salivary gland cancer. Potential mechanisms for these findings are proposed.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Familial risks for gallstones in the population of Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMJ open gastroenterology. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 2054-4774. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) has a familial component, but detailed data on the modification of familial risk are lacking. Using nationwide hospital and population records, we aimed to determine detailed familial risks for medically diagnosed gallstone disease.Design: Subjects were obtained from the Multigeneration Register, which contains family data on the Swedish population, and patients with gallstone disease were identified from the Hospital Discharge Register (1964-2015) and the Outpatient Register (2001-2015). Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected number of cases.Results: Gallstone disease was diagnosed in 660 732 patients, with an overall incidence of 131 per 100 000 person-years. Familial cases accounted for 36.0% of all patients with gallstone disease. Of these, 50.9% had a parental family history (SIR 1.62), 35.1% had a sibling history (SIR 1.75) and 14.0% had a parental+sibling history (SIR 2.58). Among a total of 54 630 affected siblings, 84.4% were sibling pairs (SIR 1.55). However, the remaining 15.6% of the affected siblings constituted the high-risk group of multiple affected siblings and an SIR >10; these persons accounted for 7.7% of all familial cases. The spousal risk was only slightly increased to 1.18.Conclusions: Overall, the results point to the underlying genetic causes for the observed familial clustering, which may involve polygenic gene-environmental interactions for most familial cases but high-risk genes in close to 10% of cases. Family histories should be taken into account in the medical setting and used for counselling of at-risk individuals.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Familial risks in and between stone diseases : Sialolithiasis, urolithiasis and cholelithiasis in the population of Sweden
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMC Nephrology. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2369. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: According to the literature the three stone diseases, sialolithiasis (SL), urolithiasis (UL) and cholelithiasis (CL) share comorbidities. We assess familial and spouse risks between these stone disease and compare them to familial risks for concordant (same) stone disease. Methods: Study population including familiar relationships was obtained from the Swedish Multigeneration Register and stone disease patients were identified from nation-wide medical records. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for 0-83 year old offspring when their first-degree relatives were diagnosed with stone disease and the rates were compared to individuals without a family history of stone disease. Numbers of offspring with SL were 7906, for UL they were 170,757 and for CL they were 204,369. Results: SIRs for concordant familial risks were 2.06 for SL, 1.94 for UL and 1.82 for CL. SIRs for SL and UL were slightly higher for women than for men. Familial risks between stone diseases were modest. The highest risk of 1.17 was for UL when family members were diagnosed with CL, or vice versa. The SIR for UL was 1.15 when family members were diagnosed with SL. Familial risks among spouses were increased only for UL-CL pairs (1.10). Conclusions: Familial risks for concordant SL were 2.06 and marginally lower for the other diseases. Familial risks between stone diseases were low but higher than risks between spouses. The data show that familial clustering is unique to each individual stone disease which would imply distinct disease mechanisms. The results cast doubt on the reported comorbidities between these diseases.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Familial risks in urolithiasis in the population of Sweden
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BJU International. - Blackwell Science Ltd. - 1464-4096. ; 121:3, s. 479-485
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To assess detailed familial risks for medically diagnosed urolithiasis (UL, urinary tract stone disease) based on nationwide hospital and population records. Patients/Subjects and Methods: Subjects were identified from the Swedish Multigeneration Register in which there were 211 718 patients with UL. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by comparison to individuals without a family history of UL. Results: The highest familial SIRs were invariably found for the same (concordant) type of UL: 2.18 for kidney, 2.20 for ureter, and 1.93 for bladder. SIRs increased from 1.84, when one parent was affected, to 3.54 when both parents were affected, which was a multiplicative interaction. The SIR was 1.79 when one sibling was affected but it increased to 24.91 when two siblings were affected. Such excessive risks (5.2% of familial cases) are probably explained by high-penetrant genes. A low SIR of 1.29 between spouses suggested a minor contribution by shared environmental factors on the familial risk. Conclusions: The results point to underlying genetic causes for the observed familial clustering and establish the genetic landscape of UL. Family histories should be taken in UL diagnostics and prevention could follow guidelines recommended for recurrent UL.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Genetics of gallbladder cancer
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - Elsevier. - 1470-2045. ; 18:6, s. 296-296
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Location of metastases in cancer of unknown primary are not random and signal familial clustering.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a fatal disease diagnosed through metastases. It shows intriguing familial clustering with certain defined primary cancers. Here we examine whether metastatic location in CUP patients is related to primary non-CUP cancers in relatives based on the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for CUP patients defined by metastatic location depending on cancer in their first degree relatives. SIRs for CUP were high in association with liver (3.94), ovarian (3.41), lung (2.43) and colorectal cancers (1.83) in relatives. The SIR was 1.63 for CUP with metastases in the abdomen when a relative was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. CUP with liver metastases associated with liver (1.44) cancer in relatives. CUP with head and neck region metastases associated with relatives' esophageal (2.87) cancer. CUP metastases in the thorax associated with a relative's cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract (2.14) and lung (1.74). The findings, matching metastatic location in CUP and primary cancer in relatives, could be reconciled if these cases of CUP constitute a phenotypically modified primary lacking tissue identification, resulting from epitope immunoediting. Alternatively, CUP metastases arise in a genetically favored tissue environment (soil) promoting growth of both primary cancers and metastases (seeds).
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