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Sökning: WFRF:(Hoover Robert)

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61.
  • Raymond, Peter A., et al. (författare)
  • Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 503:7476, s. 355-359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8(-0.25)(+0.25) petagrams of carbon (Pg C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32(-0.26)(+0.52) Pg C yr(-1) from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1 Pg C yr(-1) is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally.</p>
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62.
  • Setiawan, Veronica Wendy, et al. (författare)
  • CYP17 genetic variation and risk of breast and prostate cancer from the national Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 16:11, s. 2237-2246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CYP17 encodes cytochrome p450c17 alpha, which mediates activities essential for the production of sex steroids. Common germ line variation in the CYP17 gene has been related to inconsistent results in breast and prostate cancer, with most studies focusing on the nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) T27C (rs743572). We comprehensively characterized variation in CYP17 by direct sequencing of exons followed by dense genotyping across the 58 kb region around CYP17 in five racial/ethnic populations. Two blocks of strong linkage disequilibrium were identified and nine haplotype-tagging SNPs, including T27C, were chosen to predict common haplotypes (R-h(2) >= 0.85). These haplotype-tagging SNPs were genotyped in 8,138 prostate cancer cases and 9,033 controls, and 5,333 breast cancer cases and 7,069 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We observed borderline significant associations with prostate cancer for rs2486758 [TC versus TT, odds ratios (OR), 1.07; 95% confidence intervals (95% Cl), 1.00-1.14; CC versus TT, OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.95-1.26; P trend = 0.04] and rs6892 (AG versus AA, OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.15; GG versus AA, OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.95-1.30; P trend = 0.03). We also observed marginally significant associations with breast cancer for rs4919687 (GA versus GG, OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12, AA versus GG, OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.34; P trend = 0.03) and rs4919682 (CT versus CC, OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12; TT versus CC, OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.33; P trend = 0.04). Common variation at CYP17 was not associated with circulating sex steroid hormones in men or postmenopausal women. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that common germ line variation in CYP17 makes a substantial contribution to postmenopausal breast or prostate cancer susceptibility.
63.
  • Shui, Irene M., et al. (författare)
  • Prostate Cancer (PCa) Risk Variants and Risk of Fatal PCa in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - 0302-2838 .- 1873-7560. ; 65:6, s. 1069-1075
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is hampered by an inability to predict who has the potential to develop fatal disease and who has indolent cancer. Studies have identified multiple genetic risk loci for PCa incidence, but it is unknown whether they could be used as biomarkers for PCa-specific mortality (PCSM). Objective: To examine the association of 47 established PCa risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with PCSM. Design, setting, and participants: We included 10 487 men who had PCa and 11 024 controls, with a median follow-up of 8.3 yr, during which 1053 PCa deaths occurred. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The main outcome was PCSM. The risk allele was defined as the allele associated with an increased risk for PCa in the literature. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios of each SNP with time to progression to PCSM after diagnosis. We also used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios for each risk SNP, comparing fatal PCa cases to controls. Results and limitations: Among the cases, we found that 8 of the 47 SNPs were significantly associated (p &lt; 0.05) with time to PCSM. The risk allele of rs11672691 (intergenic) was associated with an increased risk for PCSM, while 7 SNPs had risk alleles inversely associated (rs13385191 [C2orf43], rs17021918 [PDLIM5], rs10486567 [JAZF1], rs6465657 [LMTK2], rs7127900 (intergenic), rs2735839 [KLK3], rs10993994 [MSMB], rs13385191 [C2orf43]). In the case-control analysis, 22 SNPs were associated (p &lt; 0.05) with the risk of fatal PCa, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. Rs11672691 and rs10993994 were associated with both fatal and nonfatal PCa, while rs6465657, rs7127900, rs2735839, and rs13385191 were associated with nonfatal PCa only. Conclusions: Eight established risk loci were associated with progression to PCSM after diagnosis. Twenty-two SNPs were associated with fatal PCa incidence, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. The relatively small magnitudes of the associations do not translate well into risk prediction, but these findings merit further follow-up, because they may yield important clues about the complex biology of fatal PCa. Patient summary: In this report, we assessed whether established PCa risk variants could predict PCSM. We found eight risk variants associated with PCSM: One predicted an increased risk of PCSM, while seven were associated with decreased risk. Larger studies that focus on fatal PCa are needed to identify more markers that could aid prediction. (C) 2013 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p>
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64.
  • Travis, Ruth C., et al. (författare)
  • A Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data Reveals an Association between Circulating Levels of IGF-I and Prostate Cancer Risk
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 76:8, s. 2288-2300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in prostate cancer development is not fully understood. To investigate the association between circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3) and prostate cancer risk, we pooled individual participant data from 17 prospective and two cross-sectional studies, including up to 10,554 prostate cancer cases and 13,618 control participants. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the ORs for prostate cancer based on the study-specific fifth of each analyte. Overall, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were positively associated with prostate cancer risk (P-trend all &lt;= 0.005), and IGFBP-1 was inversely associated weakly with risk (P-trend = 0.05). However, heterogeneity between the prospective and cross-sectional studies was evident (P-heterogeneity = 0.03), unless the analyses were restricted to prospective studies (with the exception of IGF-II, P-heterogeneity = 0.02). For prospective studies, the OR for men in the highest versus the lowest fifth of each analyte was 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.43) for IGF-I, 0.81 (0.68-0.96) for IGFBP-1, and 1.25 (1.12-1.40) for IGFBP-3. These associations did not differ significantly by time-to-diagnosis or tumor stage or grade. After mutual adjustment for each of the other analytes, only IGF-I remained associated with risk. Our collaborative study represents the largest pooled analysis of the relationship between prostate cancer risk and circulating concentrations of IGF-I, providing strong evidence that IGF-I is highly likely to be involved in prostate cancer development. </p>
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65.
  • Travis, Ruth C., et al. (författare)
  • A Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data Reveals an Association between Circulating Levels of IGF-I and Prostate Cancer Risk
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 76:8, s. 2288-2300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in prostate cancer development is not fully understood. To investigate the association between circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3) and prostate cancer risk, we pooled individual participant data from 17 prospective and two cross-sectional studies, including up to 10,554 prostate cancer cases and 13,618 control participants. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the ORs for prostate cancer based on the study-specific fifth of each analyte. Overall, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were positively associated with prostate cancer risk (P-trend all &lt;= 0.005), and IGFBP-1 was inversely associated weakly with risk (P-trend = 0.05). However, heterogeneity between the prospective and cross-sectional studies was evident (P-heterogeneity = 0.03), unless the analyses were restricted to prospective studies (with the exception of IGF-II, P-heterogeneity = 0.02). For prospective studies, the OR for men in the highest versus the lowest fifth of each analyte was 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.43) for IGF-I, 0.81 (0.68-0.96) for IGFBP-1, and 1.25 (1.12-1.40) for IGFBP-3. These associations did not differ significantly by time-to-diagnosis or tumor stage or grade. After mutual adjustment for each of the other analytes, only IGF-I remained associated with risk. Our collaborative study represents the largest pooled analysis of the relationship between prostate cancer risk and circulating concentrations of IGF-I, providing strong evidence that IGF-I is highly likely to be involved in prostate cancer development.</p>
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66.
  • Wang, Zhaoming, et al. (författare)
  • Further Confirmation of Germline Glioma Risk Variant rs78378222 in TP53 and Its Implication in Tumor Tissues via Integrative Analysis of TCGA Data
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 36:7, s. 684-688
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We confirmed strong association of rs78378222:A&gt;C (per allele odds ratio [OR] = 3.14; P = 6.48 x 10(-11)), a germline rare single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in TP53, via imputation of a genome-wide association study of glioma (1,856 cases and 4,955 controls). We subsequently performed integrative analyses on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data for GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) and LUAD (lung adenocarcinoma). Based on SNP data, we imputed genotypes for rs78378222 and selected individuals carrying rare risk allele (C). Using RNA sequencing data, we observed aberrant transcripts with approximate to 3 kb longer than normal for those individuals. Using exome sequencing data, we further showed that loss of haplotype carrying common protective allele (A) occurred somatically in GBM but not in LUAD. Our bioinformatic analysis suggests rare risk allele (C) disrupts mRNA termination, and an allelic loss of a genomic region harboring common protective allele (A) occurs during tumor initiation or progression for glioma.</p>
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67.
  • Wolpin, Brian M, et al. (författare)
  • Pancreatic cancer risk and ABO blood group alleles : results from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 70:3, s. 1015-1023
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A recent genome-wide association study (PanScan) identified significant associations at the ABO gene locus with risk of pancreatic cancer, but the influence of specific ABO genotypes remains unknown. We determined ABO genotypes (OO, AO, AA, AB, BO, and BB) in 1,534 cases and 1,583 controls from 12 prospective cohorts in PanScan, grouping participants by genotype-derived serologic blood type (O, A, AB, and B). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer by ABO alleles were calculated using logistic regression. Compared with blood type O, the ORs for pancreatic cancer in subjects with types A, AB, and B were 1.38 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.18-1.62], 1.47 (95% CI, 1.07-2.02), and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.21-1.92), respectively. The incidence rates for blood types O, A, AB, and B were 28.9, 39.9, 41.8, and 44.5 cases per 100,000 subjects per year. An increase in risk was noted with the addition of each non-O allele. Compared with OO genotype, subjects with AO and AA genotype had ORs of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.13-1.58) and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.22-2.18), whereas subjects with BO and BB genotypes had ORs of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.14-1.85) and 2.42 (1.28-4.57). The population attributable fraction for non-O blood type was 19.5%. In a joint model with smoking, current smokers with non-O blood type had an adjusted OR of 2.68 (95% CI, 2.03-3.54) compared with nonsmokers of blood type O. We concluded that ABO genotypes were significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk.</p>
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68.
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69.
  • Wolpin, Brian M., et al. (författare)
  • Variant ABO Blood Group Alleles, Secretor Status, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: Results from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 19:12, s. 3140-3149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Subjects with non-O ABO blood group alleles have increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Glycosyltransferase activity is greater for the A(1) versus A(2) variant, whereas O01 and O02 variants are nonfunctioning. We hypothesized: 1) A(1) allele would confer greater risk than A(2) allele, 2) protective effect of the O allele would be equivalent for O01 and O02 variants, 3) secretor phenotype would modify the association with risk. Methods: We determined ABO variants and secretor phenotype from single nucleotide polymorphisms in ABO and FUT2 genes in 1,533 cases and 1,582 controls from 12 prospective cohort studies. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for pancreatic cancer were calculated using logistic regression. Results: An increased risk was observed in participants with A(1) but not A(2) alleles. Compared with subjects with genotype O/O, genotypes A(2)/O, A(2)/A(1), A(1)/O, and A(1)/A(1) had ORs of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.72-1.26), 1.46 (95% CI, 0.98-2.17), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.23-1.78), and 1.71 (95% CI, 1.18-2.47). Risk was similar for O01 and O02 variant O alleles. Compared with O01/O01, the ORs for each additional allele of O02, A(1), and A(2) were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.87-1.14), 1.38 (95% CI, 1.20-1.58), and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.77-1.20); P-value, O01 versus O02 = 0.94, A(1) versus A(2) = 0.004. Secretor phenotype was not an effect modifier (P-interaction = 0.63). Conclusions: Among participants in a large prospective cohort consortium, ABO allele subtypes corresponding to increased glycosyltransferase activity were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. Impact: These data support the hypothesis that ABO glycosyltransferase activity influences pancreatic cancer risk rather than actions of other nearby genes on chromosome 9q34. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 19(12); 3140-9. (C) 2010 AACR.
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70.
  • Wu, Chen, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Gut. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 63:1, s. 152-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Survival of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma is limited and few prognostic factors are known. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify germline variants associated with survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODS: We analysed overall survival in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 1005 patients from two large GWAS datasets, PanScan I and ChinaPC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used in an additive genetic model with adjustment for age, sex, clinical stage and the top four principal components of population stratification. The first stage included 642 cases of European ancestry (PanScan), from which the top SNPs (p≤10(-5)) were advanced to a joint analysis with 363 additional patients from China (ChinaPC). RESULTS: In the first stage of cases of European descent, the top-ranked loci were at chromosomes 11p15.4, 18p11.21 and 1p36.13, tagged by rs12362504 (p=1.63×10(-7)), rs981621 (p=1.65×10(-7)) and rs16861827 (p=3.75×10(-7)), respectively. 131 SNPs with p≤10(-5) were advanced to a joint analysis with cases from the ChinaPC study. In the joint analysis, the top-ranked SNP was rs10500715 (minor allele frequency, 0.37; p=1.72×10(-7)) on chromosome 11p15.4, which is intronic to the SET binding factor 2 (SBF2) gene. The HR (95% CI) for death was 0.74 (0.66 to 0.84) in PanScan I, 0.79 (0.65 to 0.97) in ChinaPC and 0.76 (0.68 to 0.84) in the joint analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Germline genetic variation in the SBF2 locus was associated with overall survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma of European and Asian ancestry. This association should be investigated in additional large patient cohorts.</p>
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