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  • Karlsson Linnér, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analyses of risk tolerance and risky behaviors in over 1 million individuals identify hundreds of loci and shared genetic influences
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 51:2, s. 245-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Humans vary substantially in their willingness to take risks. In a combined sample of over 1 million individuals, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of general risk tolerance, adventurousness, and risky behaviors in the driving, drinking, smoking, and sexual domains. Across all GWAS, we identified hundreds of associated loci, including 99 loci associated with general risk tolerance. We report evidence of substantial shared genetic influences across risk tolerance and the risky behaviors: 46 of the 99 general risk tolerance loci contain a lead SNP for at least one of our other GWAS, and general risk tolerance is genetically correlated ([Formula: see text] ~ 0.25 to 0.50) with a range of risky behaviors. Bioinformatics analyses imply that genes near SNPs associated with general risk tolerance are highly expressed in brain tissues and point to a role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We found no evidence of enrichment for genes previously hypothesized to relate to risk tolerance.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • HESS and Fermi-LAT observations of PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 during its 2014 and 2017 periastron passages
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 633, s. 1-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Context. PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 is a gamma-ray binary system consisting of a pulsar in an eccentric orbit around a bright Oe stellar-type companion star that features a dense circumstellar disc. The bright broad-band emission observed at phases close to periastron offers a unique opportunity to study particle acceleration and radiation processes in binary systems. Observations at gamma-ray energies constrain these processes through variability and spectral characterisation studies. Aims. The high- and very-high-energy (HE, VHE) gamma-ray emission from PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 around the times of its periastron passage are characterised, in particular, at the time of the HE gamma-ray flares reported to have occurred in 2011, 2014, and 2017. Short-term and average emission characteristics of PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 are determined. Super-orbital variability is searched for in order to investigate possible cycle-to-cycle VHE flux changes due to different properties of the companion star's circumstellar disc and/or the conditions under which the HE gamma-ray flares develop. Methods. Spectra and light curves were derived from observations conducted with the H.E.S.S-II array in 2014 and 2017. Phase-folded light curves are compared with the results obtained in 2004, 2007, and 2011. Fermi-LAT observations from 2010/11, 2014, and 2017 are analysed. Results. A local double-peak profile with asymmetric peaks in the VHE light curve is measured, with a flux minimum at the time of periastron t(p) and two peaks coinciding with the times at which the neutron star crosses the companion's circumstellar disc (similar to t(p) 16 d). A high VHE gamma-ray flux is also observed at the times of the HE gamma-ray flares (similar to t(p) + 30 d) and at phases before the first disc crossing (similar to t(p) - 35 d). The spectral energy range now extends to below 200 GeV and up to similar to 45 TeV. Conclusions. PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 displays periodic flux variability at VHE gamma-rays without clear signatures of super-orbital modulation in the time span covered by the monitoring of the source with the H.E.S.S. telescopes. This flux variability is most probably caused by the changing environmental conditions, particularly at times close to periastron passage at which the neutron star is thought to cross the circumstellar disc of the companion star twice. In contrast, the photon index remains unchanged within uncertainties for about 200 d around periastron. At HE gamma-rays, PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 has now been detected also before and after periastron, close to the disc crossing times. Repetitive flares with distinct variability patterns are detected in this energy range. Such outbursts are not observed at VHEs, although a relatively high emission level is measured. The spectra obtained in both energy regimes displays a similar slope, although a common physical origin either in terms of a related particle population, emission mechanism, or emitter location is ruled out.</p>
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • HESS and Suzaku observations of the Vela X pulsar wind nebula
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 627, s. 1-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Context. Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) represent the most prominent population of Galactic very-high-energy gamma-ray sources and are thought to be an efficient source of leptonic cosmic rays. Vela X is a nearby middle-aged PWN, which shows bright X-ray and TeV gamma-ray emission towards an elongated structure called the cocoon. Aims. Since TeV emission is likely inverse-Compton emission of electrons, predominantly from interactions with the cosmic microwave background, while X-ray emission is synchrotron radiation of the same electrons, we aim to derive the properties of the relativistic particles and of magnetic fields with minimal modelling. Methods. We used data from the Suzaku XIS to derive the spectra from three compact regions in Vela X covering distances from 0.3 to 4 pc from the pulsar along the cocoon. We obtained gamma-ray spectra of the same regions from H.E.S.S. observations and fitted a radiative model to the multi-wavelength spectra. Results. The TeV electron spectra and magnetic field strengths are consistent within the uncertainties for the three regions, with energy densities of the order 10(-12) erg cm(-3). The data indicate the presence of a cutoff in the electron spectrum at energies of similar to 100 TeV and a magnetic field strength of similar to 6 mu G. Constraints on the presence of turbulent magnetic fields are weak. Conclusions. The pressure of TeV electrons and magnetic fields in the cocoon is dynamically negligible, requiring the presence of another dominant pressure component to balance the pulsar wind at the termination shock. Sub-TeV electrons cannot completely account for the missing pressure, which may be provided either by relativistic ions or from mixing of the ejecta with the pulsar wind. The electron spectra are consistent with expectations from transport scenarios dominated either by advection via the reverse shock or by diffusion, but for the latter the role of radiative losses near the termination shock needs to be further investigated in the light of the measured cutoff energies. Constraints on turbulent magnetic fields and the shape of the electron cutoff can be improved by spectral measurements in the energy range greater than or similar to 10 keV.</p>
  • de Jong, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Applying polygenic risk scoring for psychiatric disorders to a large family with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2399-3642. ; 1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Psychiatric disorders are thought to have a complex genetic pathology consisting of interplay of common and rare variation. Traditionally, pedigrees are used to shed light on the latter only, while here we discuss the application of polygenic risk scores to also highlight patterns of common genetic risk. We analyze polygenic risk scores for psychiatric disorders in a large pedigree (<em>n</em> ~ 260) in which 30% of family members suffer from major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Studying patterns of assortative mating and anticipation, it appears increased polygenic risk is contributed by affected individuals who married into the family, resulting in an increasing genetic risk over generations. This may explain the observation of anticipation in mood disorders, whereby onset is earlier and the severity increases over the generations of a family. Joint analyses of rare and common variation may be a powerful way to understand the familial genetics of psychiatric disorders.</p>
  • Stahl, Eli A, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies 30 loci associated with bipolar disorder
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 51:5, s. 793-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.
  • Beecham, Ashley H., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 45:11, s. 1353-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 x 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 26,703 healthy controls. In these 80,094 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 48 new susceptibility variants (P < 5.0 x 10(-8)), 3 of which we found after conditioning on previously identified variants. Thus, there are now 110 established multiple sclerosis risk variants at 103 discrete loci outside of the major histocompatibility complex. With high-resolution Bayesian fine mapping, we identified five regions where one variant accounted for more than 50% of the posterior probability of association. This study enhances the catalog of multiple sclerosis risk variants and illustrates the value of fine mapping in the resolution of GWAS signals.
  • Kyu, Hmwe H, et al. (författare)
  • Global and National Burden of Diseases and Injuries Among Children and Adolescents Between 1990 and 2013 : Findings From the Global Burden of Disease 2013 Study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA pediatrics. - 2168-6203 .- 2168-6211. ; 170:3, s. 267-287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>IMPORTANCE:</strong> The literature focuses on mortality among children younger than 5 years. Comparable information on nonfatal health outcomes among these children and the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among older children and adolescents is scarce.</p><p><strong>OBJECTIVE:</strong> To determine levels and trends in the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among younger children (aged &lt;5 years), older children (aged 5-9 years), and adolescents (aged 10-19 years) between 1990 and 2013 in 188 countries from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study.</p><p><strong>EVIDENCE REVIEW:</strong> Data from vital registration, verbal autopsy studies, maternal and child death surveillance, and other sources covering 14 244 site-years (ie, years of cause of death data by geography) from 1980 through 2013 were used to estimate cause-specific mortality. Data from 35 620 epidemiological sources were used to estimate the prevalence of the diseases and sequelae in the GBD 2013 study. Cause-specific mortality for most causes was estimated using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model strategy. For some infectious diseases (eg, HIV infection/AIDS, measles, hepatitis B) where the disease process is complex or the cause of death data were insufficient or unavailable, we used natural history models. For most nonfatal health outcomes, DisMod-MR 2.0, a Bayesian metaregression tool, was used to meta-analyze the epidemiological data to generate prevalence estimates.</p><p><strong>FINDINGS:</strong> Of the 7.7 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 7.4-8.1) million deaths among children and adolescents globally in 2013, 6.28 million occurred among younger children, 0.48 million among older children, and 0.97 million among adolescents. In 2013, the leading causes of death were lower respiratory tract infections among younger children (905 059 deaths; 95% UI, 810 304-998 125), diarrheal diseases among older children (38 325 deaths; 95% UI, 30 365-47 678), and road injuries among adolescents (115 186 deaths; 95% UI, 105 185-124 870). Iron deficiency anemia was the leading cause of years lived with disability among children and adolescents, affecting 619 (95% UI, 618-621) million in 2013. Large between-country variations exist in mortality from leading causes among children and adolescents. Countries with rapid declines in all-cause mortality between 1990 and 2013 also experienced large declines in most leading causes of death, whereas countries with the slowest declines had stagnant or increasing trends in the leading causes of death. In 2013, Nigeria had a 12% global share of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections and a 38% global share of deaths from malaria. India had 33% of the world's deaths from neonatal encephalopathy. Half of the world's diarrheal deaths among children and adolescents occurred in just 5 countries: India, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Ethiopia.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:</strong> Understanding the levels and trends of the leading causes of death and disability among children and adolescents is critical to guide investment and inform policies. Monitoring these trends over time is also key to understanding where interventions are having an impact. Proven interventions exist to prevent or treat the leading causes of unnecessary death and disability among children and adolescents. The findings presented here show that these are underused and give guidance to policy makers in countries where more attention is needed.</p>
  • Liu, Kui, et al. (författare)
  • Kallikrein genes are associated with lupus and glomerular basement membrane-specific antibody-induced nephritis in mice and humans
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation. - 0021-9738 .- 1558-8238. ; 119:4, s. 911-923
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Immune-mediated nephritis contributes to disease in systemic lupus erythematosus, Goodpasture syndrome (caused by antibodies specific for glomerular basement membrane [anti-GBM antibodies]), and spontaneous lupus nephritis. Inbred mouse strains differ in susceptibility to anti-GBM antibody-induced and spontaneous lupus nephritis. This study sought to clarify the genetic and molecular factors that maybe responsible for enhanced immune-mediated renal disease in these models. When the kidneys of 3 mouse strains sensitive to anti-GBM antibody-induced nephritis were compared with those of 2 control strains using microarray analysis, one-fifth of the underexpressed genes belonged to the kallikrein gene family,which encodes serine esterases. Mouse strains that upregulated renal and urinary kallikreins exhibited less evidence of disease. Antagonizing the kallikrein pathway augmented disease, while agonists dampened the severity of anti-GBM antibody-induced nephritis. In addition, nephritis-sensitive mouse strains had kallikrein haplotypes that were distinct from those of control strains, including several regulatory polymorphisms,some of which were associated with functional consequences. Indeed, increased susceptibility to anti-GBM antibody-induced nephritis and spontaneous lupus nephritis was achieved by breeding mice with a genetic interval harboring the kallikrein genes onto a disease-resistant background. Finally, both human SLE and spontaneous lupus nephritis were found to be associated with kallikrein genes, particularly KLK1 and the KLK3 promoter, when DNA SNPs from independent cohorts of SLE patients and controls were compared. Collectively, these studies suggest that kallikreins are protective disease-associated genes in anti-GBM antibody-induced nephritis and lupus.</p>
  • Namjou, B., et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of the TREX1 gene in a large multi-ancestral lupus cohort
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Genes and Immunity. - 1466-4879 .- 1476-5470. ; 12:4, s. 270-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disorder with a complex pathogenesis in which genetic, hormonal and environmental factors have a role. Rare mutations in the TREX1 gene, the major mammalian 3'-5' exonuclease, have been reported in sporadic SLE cases. Some of these mutations have also been identified in a rare pediatric neurological condition featuring an inflammatory encephalopathy known as Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS). We sought to investigate the frequency of these mutations in a large multi-ancestral cohort of SLE cases and controls. A total of 40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including both common and rare variants, across the TREX1 gene, were evaluated in similar to 8370 patients with SLE and similar to 7490 control subjects. Stringent quality control procedures were applied, and principal components and admixture proportions were calculated to identify outliers for removal from analysis. Population-based case-control association analyses were performed. P-values, false-discovery rate q values, and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The estimated frequency of TREX1 mutations in our lupus cohort was 0.5%. Five heterozygous mutations were detected at the Y305C polymorphism in European lupus cases but none were observed in European controls. Five African cases incurred heterozygous mutations at the E266G polymorphism and, again, none were observed in the African controls. A rare homozygous R114H mutation was identified in one Asian SLE patient, whereas all genotypes at this mutation in previous reports for SLE were heterozygous. Analysis of common TREX1 SNPs (minor allele frequency (MAF)&gt;10%) revealed a relatively common risk haplotype in European SLE patients with neurological manifestations, especially seizures, with a frequency of 58% in lupus cases compared with 45% in normal controls (P = 0.0008, OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.25-2.39). Finally, the presence or absence of specific autoantibodies in certain populations produced significant genetic associations. For example, a strong association with anti-nRNP was observed in the European cohort at a coding synonymous variant rs56203834 (P = 2.99E-13, OR = 5.2, 95% CI = 3.18-8.56). Our data confirm and expand previous reports and provide additional support for the involvement of TREX1 in lupus pathogenesis. Genes and Immunity (2011) 12, 270-279; doi:10.1038/gene.2010.73; published online 27 January 2011</p>
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