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  • Aguila, Monica, et al. (författare)
  • AAV-mediated ERdj5 overexpression protects against P23H rhodopsin toxicity
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 29:8, s. 1310-1318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Rhodopsin misfolding caused by the P23H mutation is a major cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). To date, there are no effective treatments for adRP. The BiP co-chaperone and reductase ERdj5 (DNAJC10) is part of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control machinery, and previous studies have shown that overexpression of ERdj5 in vitro enhanced the degradation of P23H rhodopsin, whereas knockdown of ERdj5 increased P23H rhodopsin ER retention and aggregation. Here, we investigated the role of ERdj5 in photoreceptor homeostasis in vivo by using an Erdj5 knockout mouse crossed with the P23H knock-in mouse and by adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene augmentation of ERdj5 in P23H-3 rats. Electroretinogram (ERG) and optical coherence tomography of Erdj5(-/-) and P23H(+/-):Erdj5(-/-) mice showed no effect of ERdj5 ablation on retinal function or photoreceptor survival. Rhodopsin levels and localization were similar to those of control animals at a range of time points. By contrast, when AAV2/8-ERdj5-HA was subretinally injected into P23H-3 rats, analysis of the full-field ERG suggested that overexpression of ERdj5 reduced visual function loss 10 weeks post-injection (PI). This correlated with a significant preservation of photoreceptor cells at 4 and 10 weeks PI. Assessment of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) morphology showed preserved ONL thickness and reduced rhodopsin retention in the ONL in the injected superior retina. Overall, these data suggest that manipulation of the ER quality control and ER-associated degradation factors to promote mutant protein degradation could be beneficial for the treatment of adRP caused by mutant rhodopsin.</p>
  • Aguilo, Francesca, et al. (författare)
  • Coordination of m(6)A mRNA Methylation and Gene Transcription by ZFP217 Regulates Pluripotency and Reprogramming.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cell Stem Cell. - 1934-5909 .- 1875-9777. ; 17:6, s. 689-704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Epigenetic and epitranscriptomic networks have important functions in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and somatic cell reprogramming. However, the mechanisms integrating the actions of these distinct networks are only partially understood. Here we show that the chromatin-associated zinc finger protein 217 (ZFP217) coordinates epigenetic and epitranscriptomic regulation. ZFP217 interacts with several epigenetic regulators, activates the transcription of key pluripotency genes, and modulates N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) deposition on their transcripts by sequestering the enzyme m(6)A methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3). Consistently, Zfp217 depletion compromises ESC self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming, globally increases m(6)A RNA levels, and enhances m(6)A modification of the Nanog, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc mRNAs, promoting their degradation. ZFP217 binds its own target gene mRNAs, which are also METTL3 associated, and is enriched at promoters of m(6)A-modified transcripts. Collectively, these findings shed light on how a transcription factor can tightly couple gene transcription to m(6)A RNA modification to ensure ESC identity.</p>
  • Alderman, J. McKee, et al. (författare)
  • Neuroendocrine inhibition of glucose production and resistance to cancer in dwarf mice
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Experimental Gerontology. - 0531-5565 .- 1873-6815. ; 44:1-2, s. 26-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Pit1 null (Snell dwarf) and Proph1 null (Ames dwarf) mutant mice lack GH, PRL and TSH. Snell and Ames dwarf mice also exhibit reduced IGF-I, resistance to cancer and a longer lifespan than control mice. Endogenous glucose production during fasting is reduced in Snell dwarf mice compared to fasting control mice. In view of cancer cell dependence on glucose for energy, low endogenous glucose production may provide Snell dwarf mice with resistance to cancer. We investigated whether endogenous glucose production is lower in Snell dwarf mice during feeding. Inhibition of endogenous glucose production by glucose injection was enhanced in 12 to 14 month-old female Snell dwarf mice. Thus, we hypothesize that lower endogenous glucose production during feeding and fasting reduces cancer cell glucose utilization providing Snell dwarf mice with resistance to cancer. The elevation of circulating adiponectin, a hormone produced by adipose tissue, may contribute to the suppression of endogenous glucose production in 12 to 14 month-old Snell dwarf mice. We compared the incidence of cancer at time of death between old Snell dwarf and control mice. Only 18% of old Snell dwarf mice had malignant lesions at the time of death compared to 82% of control mice. The median ages at death for old Snell dwarf and control mice were 33 and 26 months, respectively. By contrast, previous studies showed a high incidence of cancer in old Ames dwarf mice at the time of death. Hence, resistance to cancer in old Snell dwarf mice may be mediated by neuroendocrine factors that reduce glucose utilization besides elevated adiponectin, reduced IGF-I and a lack of GH, PRL and TSH, seen in both Snell and Ames dwarf mice. Proteomics analysis of pituitary secretions from Snell dwarf mice confirmed the absence of GH and PRL, the secretion of ACTH and elevated secretion of Chromogranin B and Secretogranin II. Radioimmune assays confirmed that circulating Chromogranin B and Secretogranin II were elevated in 12 to 14 month-old Snell dwarf mice. In summary, our results in Snell dwarf mice suggest that the pituitary gland and adipose tissue are part of a neuroendocrine loop that lowers the risk of cancer during aging by reducing the availability of glucose.</p>
  • Andersson, Helena M., et al. (författare)
  • Activated protein C cofactor function of protein S: a critical role for Asp95 in the EGF1-like domain
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Blood. - American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020. ; 115:23, s. 4878-4885
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Protein S has an established role in the protein C anticoagulant pathway, where it enhances the factor Va (FVa) and factor VIIIa (FVIIIa) inactivating property of activated protein C (APC). Despite its physiological role and clinical importance, the molecular basis of its action is not fully understood. To clarify the mechanism of the protein S interaction with APC, we have constructed and expressed a library of composite or point variants of human protein S, with residue substitutions introduced into the Gla, thrombin-sensitive region (TSR), epidermal growth factor 1 (EGF1), and EGF2 domains. Cofactor activity for APC was evaluated by calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) using protein S-deficient plasma. Of 27 variants tested initially, only one, protein S D95A (within the EGF1 domain), was largely devoid of functional APC cofactor activity. Protein S D95A was, however, gamma-carboxylated and bound phospholipids with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd(app)) similar to that of wildtype (WT) protein S. In a purified assay using FVa R506Q/R679Q, purified protein S D95A was shown to have greatly reduced ability to enhance APC-induced cleavage of FVa Arg306. It is concluded that residue Asp95 within EGF1 is critical forAPC cofactor function of protein S and could define a principal functional interaction site for APC. (Blood. 2010;115(23):4878-4885)
  • Baniulis, Danas, et al. (författare)
  • Monoclonal antibody CL5 recognizes the amino terminal domain of human phagocyte flavocytochrome b558 large subunit, gp91phox
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Haematology. - 0902-4441 .- 1600-0609. ; 74:4, s. 337-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Human phagocyte flavocytochrome b558 (Cytb) is a heterodimeric integral membrane protein that serves as the electron transferase of the β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotidephosphate, reduced (NADPH)-oxidase, an enzyme complex important in the host defense function of phagocytic cells. In this study, we report the characterization of monoclonal antibody (mAb) CL5 that is specific for the large subunit, gp91phox, of the oxidase protein. This antibody recognizes gp91phox by immunoblot analysis of membrane extracts and samples of the immunopurified gp91phox/p22 phox heterodimer, prepared on anti-p22phox affinity matrices. Phage display analysis confirmed this specificity, indicating that the CL5 epitope contains the region 135-DPYSVALSELGDR of gp91phox. The antibody was used to probe for the presence of gp91phox in membrane preparations from neutrophils of patients with nine genetically distinct forms of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). The causative mutations included missense errors as well as nonsense errors that result in premature termination of gp91phox synthesis. Analysis of the CGD samples by immunoblotting indicated that CL5 recognizes only the full-length wild-type and two missense mutations, consistent with the absence of stable short gp91 phox peptide expression in CGD neutrophils. Interestingly, CL5 was also shown to be cross-reactive with cytosolic and membrane-bound gelsolin, identified by purification, mass spectrometry and immunoblot analysis. CL5 probably cross-reacts with the sequence 771-DPLDRAMAEL in the C-terminus of gelsolin. We conclude that mAb CL5 is a useful probe for detection of full length and possibly truncated N-terminal fragments of gp91phox from membranes of Cytb-producing cells. © Blackwell Munksgaard 2005.</p>
  • Baniulis, Danas, et al. (författare)
  • Unusual polyclonal anti-gp91phox peptide antibody interactions with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease-derived human neutrophils are not from compensatory expression of Nox proteins 1, 3, or 4
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Haematology. - 0902-4441 .- 1600-0609. ; 74:3, s. 241-249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>To obtain topological information about human phagocyte flavocytochrome b558 (Cytb), rabbit anti-peptide antibodies were raised against synthetic peptides mimicking gp91phox regions: 1-9 (MGN), 30-44 (YRV), 150-159 (ESY), 156-166 (ARK), 247-257 (KIS-1, KIS-2). Following affinity purification on immobilized peptide matrices, all antibodies but not prebleed controls recognized purified detergent-solubilized Cytb by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Affinity-purified antibodies recognizing KIS, ARK and ESY but not YRV, MGN or prebleed IgG specifically detected gp91phox in immunoblot analysis. Antibodies recognizing MGN, ESY, ARK and KIS but not YRV or the prebleed IgG fraction labeled intact normal neutrophils. Surprisingly, all antibodies, with the exception of YRV and pre-immune IgG controls, bound both normal and Cytb-negative neutrophils from the obligate heterozygous mother of a patient with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) and all neutrophils from another patient lacking the gp91phox gene. Further immunochemical examination of membrane fractions derived from nine genetically unrelated patients with X-CGD, using an antibody that recognizes other Nox protein family members, suggests that the unusual reactivity observed does not reflect the compensatory expression of gp91phox homologs Nox1, 3 or 4. These results suggest that an unusual surface reactivity exists on neutrophils derived from X-linked chronic granulomatous disease patients that most likely extends to normal neutrophils as well. The study highlights the need for caution in interpreting the binding of rabbit polyclonal antipeptide antibodies to human neutrophils in general and, in the specific case of antibodies directed against Cytb, the need for Cytb-negative controls.</p>
  • Behrens, Manja, et al. (författare)
  • The Shapes of Z-alpha(1)-Antitrypsin Polymers in Solution Support the C-Terminal Domain-Swap Mechanism of Polymerization
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biophysical Journal. - Cell Press. - 1542-0086. ; 107:8, s. 1905-1912
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Emphysema and liver cirrhosis can be caused by the Z mutation (Glu342Lys) in the serine protease inhibitor alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT), which is found in more than 4% of the Northern European population. Homozygotes experience deficiency in the lung concomitantly with a massive accumulation of polymers within hepatocytes, causing their destruction. Recently, it was proposed that Z-alpha 1AT polymerizes by a C-terminal domain swap. In this study, small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to characterize Z-alpha 1AT polymers in solution. The data show that the Z-alpha 1AT trimer, tetramer, and pentamer all form ring-like structures in strong support of a common domain-swap polymerization mechanism that can lead to self-terminating polymers.
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