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  • Jansson, Niclas, 1983- (författare)
  • High Performance Adaptive Finite Element Methods : With Applications in Aerodynamics
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The massive computational cost for resolving all scales in a turbulent flow makes a direct numerical simulation of the underlying Navier-Stokes equations impossible in most engineering applications. Recent advances in adaptive finite element methods offer a new powerful tool in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The computational cost for simulating turbulent flow can be minimized by adaptively resolution of the mesh, based on a posteriori error estimation. Such adaptive methods have previously been implemented for efficient serial computations, but the extension to an efficient parallel solver is a challenging task. This work concerns the development of an adaptive finite element method that enables efficient computation of time resolved approximations of turbulent flow for complex geometries with a posteriori error control. We present efficient data structures and data decomposition methods for distributed unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Our work also concerns an efficient parallelization of local mesh refinement methods such as recursive longest edge bisection, and the development of an a priori predictive dynamic load balancing method, based on a weighted dual graph. We also address the challenges of emerging supercomputer architectures with the development of new hybrid parallel programming models, combining traditional message passing with lightweight one-sided communication. Our implementation has proven to be both general and efficient, scaling up to more than twelve thousands cores.
  • Kadas, K., et al. (författare)
  • AlM2B2 (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) : a group of nanolaminated materials
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 0953-8984 .- 1361-648X. ; 29:15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combining theory with experiments, we study the phase stability, elastic properties, electronic structure and hardness of layered ternary borides AlCr2B2, AlMn2B2, AlFe2B2, AlCo2B2, and AlNi2B2. We find that the first three borides of this series are stable phases, while AlCo2B2 and AlNi2B2 are metastable. We show that the elasticity increases in the boride series, and predict that AlCr2B2, AlMn2B2, and AlFe2B2 are more brittle, while AlCo2B2 and AlNi2B2 are more ductile. We propose that the elasticity of AlFe2B2 can be improved by alloying it with cobalt or nickel, or a combination of them. We present evidence that these ternary borides represent nanolaminated systems. Based on SEM measurements, we demonstrate that they exhibit the delamination phenomena, which leads to a reduced hardness compared to transition metal mono-and diborides. We discuss the background of delamination by analyzing chemical bonding and theoretical work of separation in these borides.
  • Linton, Steven J., et al. (författare)
  • A randomized controlled trial of exposure in vivo for patients with spinal pain reporting fear of work-related activities
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pain. - : Elsevier. - 1090-3801 .- 1532-2149. ; 12:6, s. 722-730
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Pain-related fear is related to disability in persistent pain conditions. Exposure treatment has been reported to be of great benefit in replicated single case experiments.AIM: To evaluate the effects of exposure in vivo on fear and function in patients with persistent pain and work disability.METHOD: We recruited 46 patients suffering from long-term back pain and reduced function, who also were deemed fearful according to standardized measures. Participants were randomized into either an exposure plus usual treatment or waiting list control plus usual treatment group. After the waiting period the control group crossed over and received the exposure treatment.RESULTS: Between group comparisons showed a significantly better result for the exposure group on function, but not for fear or pain and effect sizes were modest (function=.6; fear=.4; pain=.1). When the control group crossed over to treatment significant treatment effects were noted for fear and function. For all patients treated, the pre to post-treatment effect sizes were large (function=.7; fear=1.1; pain=.9). There were 12 dropouts (8 in exposure and 4 in the control) during the first treatment phase and an additional 4 when the control group crossed over to exposure.CONCLUSIONS: Compared to a group receiving usual treatment and waiting for exposure, the exposure in vivo group demonstrated a significantly larger improvement on function. Overall exposure had moderate effects on function, fear and pain intensity. We conclude that exposure may be important in treatment, but is not recommended as a "stand alone" adjunct to usual treatment.
  • Lyth, Johan, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in cutaneous malignant melanoma in Sweden 1997-2011: Thinner tumours and improved survival among men
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Dermatology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0007-0963 .- 1365-2133. ; 172:3, s. 700-706
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Both patient survival and the proportion of patients diagnosed with thin cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) have been steadily rising in Sweden as in most western countries, though the rate of improvement in survival appears to have declined in Sweden at the end of last millennium.Objectives: To analyse the most recent trends in the distribution of tumour thickness (T-category) as well as CMM-specific survival in Swedish patients diagnosed 1997-2011.Methods: This nationwide population-based study included 30 590 patients registered in the Swedish Melanoma Register (SMR) and diagnosed with a first primary invasive CMM 1997-2011. The patients were followed through 2012 in the national Cause-of-Death Register.Results: Logistic and Cox regression analyses adjusting for age at diagnosis, tumour site, and health care region were carried out. The odds ratio for being diagnosed with thicker tumours was significantly reduced (P = 0·0008) and the CMM-specific survival significantly improved in men diagnosed 2007-2011 compared to men diagnosed 1997-2001 (hazard ratio=0·81; 95% CI 0·72-0·91, P = 0·0009) while the corresponding differences for women were not significant. Women were diagnosed with significantly thicker tumours during 2002-2006 and a tendency towards decreased survival was observed compared to those diagnosed earlier 1997-2001 and later 2007-2011.Conclusion: In Sweden, the CMMs of men are detected earlier over time and this seems to be followed by an improved CMM-specific survival for men. Women are still diagnosed with considerably thinner tumours and they experience a better survival than men.
  • Malinovschi, A., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference equations for diffusing capacity in relation to respiratory burden in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - Lausanne, Switzerland : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) has recently published international reference values for diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Lower limit of normal (LLN), i.e. the 5th percentile, usually defines impaired D-LCO. We examined if the GLI LLN for D-LCO differs from the LLN in a Swedish population of healthy, never-smoking individuals and how any such differences affect identification of subjects with respiratory burden. Spirometry, D-LCO, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and questionnaires were obtained from the first 15 040 participants, aged 50-64 years, of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS). Both GLI reference values and the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method were used to define the LLN in asymptomatic never-smokers without respiratory disease (n=4903, of which 2329 were women). Both the median and LLN for D-LCO from SCAPIS were above the median and LLN from the GLI (p<0.05). The prevalence of D-LCO GLI LLN but GLI LLN but GLI LLN and >SCAPIS LLN). No differences were found with regard to physician-diagnosed asthma. The GLI LLN for D-LCO is lower than the estimated LLN in healthy, never-smoking, middle-aged Swedish adults. Individuals with D-LCO above the GLI LLN but below the SCAPIS LLN had, to a larger extent, an increased respiratory burden. This suggests clinical implications for choosing an adequate LLN for studied populations.
  • Marklund, Matti, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality : An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 30 Cohort Studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : American Heart Association. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 139:21, s. 2422-2436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies.Methods:We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytic plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as the percentage of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (ie, the range between the midpoint of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available).Results:In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower coronary heart disease risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; in a comparison of extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships.Conclusions:In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.
  • Martis, Mihaela-Maria, et al. (författare)
  • RNA-Seqde novo assembly and differential transcriptome analysis of the nematode Ascaridia galli in relation to in vivo exposure to flubendazole
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 12:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The nematode Ascaridia galli (order Ascaridida) is an economically important intestinal parasite responsible for increased food consumption, reduced performance and elevated mortality in commercial poultry production. This roundworm is an emerging problem in several European countries on farms with laying hens, as a consequence of the recent European Union (EU) ban on conventional battery cages. As infection is associated with slow development of low levels of acquired protective immunity, parasite control relies on repeated use of dewormers (anthelmintics). Benzimidazoles (BZ) are currently the only anthelmintic registered in the EU for use in controlling A. galli and there is an obvious risk of overuse of one drug class, selecting for resistance. Thus we developed a reference transcriptome of A. galli to investigate the response in gene expression before and after exposure to the BZ drug flubendazole (FLBZ). Transcriptional variations between treated and untreated A. galli showed that transcripts annotated as mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase and cytochrome P450 were significantly down-regulated in treated worms, whereas transcripts homologous to heat shock proteins (HSP), catalase, phosphofructokinase, and a multidrug resistance Pglycoprotein (PGP1) were significantly up-regulated in treated worms. Investigation of candidate transcripts responsible for anthelmintic resistance in livestock nematodes led to identification of several tubulins, including six new isoforms of beta-tubulin, and several ligandgated ionotropic receptors and ABC-transporters. We discovered several transcripts associated with drug binding and processing genes, but further characterisation using a larger set of worms exposed to BZs in functional assays is required to determine how these are involved in drug binding and metabolism.
  • Persson, Ann Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Three-Year Follow-Up with the Bone Conduction Implant
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Audiology and Neuro-Otology. - 1421-9700 .- 1420-3030. ; 25:5, s. 263-275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The bone conduction implant (BCI) is an active transcutaneous bone conduction device where the transducer has direct contact to the bone, and the skin is intact. Sixteen patients have been implanted with the BCI with a planned follow-up of 5 years. This study reports on hearing, quality of life, and objective measures up to 36 months of follow-up in 10 patients. Method: Repeated measures were performed at fitting and after 1, 3, 6, 12, and 36 months including sound field warble tone thresholds, speech recognition thresholds in quiet, speech recognition score in noise, and speech-to-noise thresholds for 50% correct words with adaptive noise. Three quality of life questionnaires were used to capture the benefit from the intervention, appreciation from different listening situations, and the ability to interact with other people when using the BCI. The results were compared to the unaided situation and a Ponto Pro Power on a soft band. The implant functionality was measured by nasal sound pressure, and the retention force from the audio processor against the skin was measured using a specially designed audio processor and a force gauge. Results: Audiometry and quality of life questionnaires using the BCI or the Ponto Pro Power on a soft band were significantly improved compared to the unaided situation and the results were statistically supported. There was generally no significant difference between the two devices. The nasal sound pressure remained stable over the study period and the force on the skin from the audio processor was 0.71 ± 0.22 N (mean ± 1 SD). Conclusion: The BCI improves the hearing ability for tones and speech perception in quiet and in noise for the indicated patients. The results are stable over a 3-year period, and the patients subjectively report a beneficial experience from using the BCI. The transducer performance and contact to the bone is unchanged over time, and the skin area under the audio processor remains without complications during the 3-year follow-up.
  • Reinfeldt, Sabine, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Nasal sound pressure as objective verification of implant in active transcutaneous bone conduction devices
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research. - 1179-1470. ; 12, s. 193-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Active transcutaneous bone conduction devices consist of an external audio processor and an internal implant under intact skin. During the surgical procedure, it is important to verify the functionality of the implant before the surgical wound is closed. In a clinical study with the new bone conduction implant (BCI), the functionality of the implant was tested with an electric transmission test, where the output was the nasal sound pressure (NSP) recorded in the ipsilateral nostril. The same measurement was performed in all follow-up visits to monitor the implant's functionality and transmission to bone over time. The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of the NSP method as a tool to objectively verify the implant's performance intraoperatively, as well as to follow-up the implant's performance over time. Design: Thirteen patients with the BCI were included, and the NSP measurement was part of the clinical study protocol. The implant was electrically stimulated with an amplitude-modulated signal generator using a swept sine 0.1-10 kHz. The NSP was measured with a probe tube microphone in the ipsilateral nostril. Results: The NSP during surgery was above the noise floor for most patients within the frequency interval 0.4-5 kHz, showing NSP values for expected normal transmission of a functioning implant. Inter-subject comparison showed large variability, but follow-up results showed only minor variability within each subject. Further investigation showed that the NSP was stable over time. Conclusion: The NSP method is considered applicable to verify the implant's functionality during and after surgery. Such a method is important for implantable devices, but should be simplified and clinically adapted. Large variations between subjects were found, as well as smaller variability in intra-subject comparisons. As the NSP was found to not change significantly over time, stable transmission to bone, and implant functionality, were indicated.
  • Sarwar, Nadeem, et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin-6 receptor pathways in coronary heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 82 studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - New York, NY, USA : Elsevier. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; 379:9822, s. 1205-1213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Persistent inflammation has been proposed to contribute to various stages in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R) signalling propagates downstream inflammation cascades. To assess whether this pathway is causally relevant to coronary heart disease, we studied a functional genetic variant known to affect IL6R signalling. Methods In a collaborative meta-analysis, we studied Asp358Ala (rs2228145) in IL6R in relation to a panel of conventional risk factors and inflammation biomarkers in 125 222 participants. We also compared the frequency of Asp358Ala in 51 441 patients with coronary heart disease and in 136 226 controls. To gain insight into possible mechanisms, we assessed Asp358Ala in relation to localised gene expression and to postlipopolysaccharide stimulation of interleukin 6. Findings The minor allele frequency of Asp358Ala was 39%. Asp358Ala was not associated with lipid concentrations, blood pressure, adiposity, dysglycaemia, or smoking (p value for association per minor allele >= 0.04 for each). By contrast, for every copy of 358Ala inherited, mean concentration of IL6R increased by 34.3% (95% CI 30.4-38.2) and of interleukin 6 by 14.6% (10.7-18.4), and mean concentration of C-reactive protein was reduced by 7.5% (5.9-9.1) and of fibrinogen by 1.0% (0.7-1.3). For every copy of 358Ala inherited, risk of coronary heart disease was reduced by 3.4% (1.8-5.0). Asp358Ala was not related to IL6R mRNA levels or interleukin-6 production in monocytes. Interpretation Large-scale human genetic and biomarker data are consistent with a causal association between IL6R-related pathways and coronary heart disease.
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