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Sökning: WFRF:(Johansson A. G. M.) > (2000-2004)

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121.
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122.
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123.
  • Eriksson, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion assisted sputter deposition
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering. - 0277-786X .- 1996-756X. ; 4506, s. 84-92
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Cr/Sc multilayers have been grown on Si substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. The multilayers are intended as condenser mirrors in a soft x-ray microscope operating at the wavelength 3.374 nm. They were designed for normal reflection of the first and second order with multilayer periods of 1.692 nm and 3.381 nm, and layer thickness ratios of 0.471 and 0.237, respectively. At-wavelength soft x-ray reflectivity measurements were carried out using a reflectometer with a compact soft x-ray laser-plasma source. The multilayers were irradiated during growth with Ar ions, varying both in energy (9-113 eV) and flux, in order to stimulate the ad-atom mobility and improve the interface flatness. It was found that to obtain a maximum soft x-ray reflectivity with a low flux (Cr=0.76, Sc=2.5) of Ar ions a rather high energy of 53 eV was required. Such energy also caused intermixing of the layers. By the use of a solenoid surrounding the substrate, the arriving ion-to-metal flux ratio could be increased 10 times and the ion energy could be decreased. A high flux (Cr=7.1, Sc=23.1) of low energy (9 eV) Ar ions founded the most favourable growth condition in order to limit the intermixing with a subsistent surface flatness.</p>
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124.
  • Eriksson, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Optical Engineering : The Journal of SPIE. - 0091-3286 .- 1560-2303. ; 41:11, s. 2903-2909
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Cr/Sc multilayers have been grown on Si substrates using dc magnetron sputtering. The multilayers are intended as condenser mirrors in a soft x-ray microscope operating at the wavelength 3.374 nm. They were designed for normal reflection of the first and second orders, with multilayer periods of 1.692 and 3.381 nm, and layer thickness ratios of 0.471 and 0.237, respectively. At-wavelength soft-x-ray reflectivity measurements were carried out using a reflectometer with a compact soft-x-ray laser-plasma source. The multilayers were irradiated during growth with Ar ions, varying both in energy (9 to 113 eV) and flux, in order to stimulate the adatom mobility and improve the interface flatness. It was found that to obtain a maximum soft x-ray reflectivity with a low flux (Cr=0.76, Sc=2.5) of Ar ions a rather high energy of 53 eV was required. Such energy also caused intermixing of the layers. By the use of a solenoid surrounding the substrate, the arriving ion-to-metal flux ratio could be increased 10 times and the required ion energy could be decreased. A high flux (Cr=7.1, Sc=23.1) of low-energy (9 eV) Ar ions yielded the most favorable growth condition, limiting the intermixing with a subsistent good surface flatness. © 2002 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.</p>
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125.
  • Eriksson, F., et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Optical Engineering : The Journal of SPIE. - 0091-3286 .- 1560-2303. ; 41:11, s. 2903-2909
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Cr/Sc multilayers have been grown on Si substrates using dc magnetron sputtering. The multilayers are intended as condenser mirrors in a soft x-ray microscope operating at the wavelength 3.374 nm. They were designed for normal reflection of the first and second orders, with multilayer periods of 1.692 and 3.381 nm, and layer thickness ratios of 0,471 and 0.237, respectively. At-wavelength soft-x-ray reflectivity measurements were carried out using a reflectometer with a compact soft-x-ray laser-plasma source. The multilayers were irradiated during growth with Ar ions, varying both in energy (9 to 113 eV) and flux, in order to stimulate the adatom mobility and improve the interface flatness. It was found that to obtain a maximum soft x-ray reflectivity with a low flux (Cr=0.76, Sc=2.5) of Ar ions a rather high energy of 53 eV was required, Such energy also caused intermixing of the layers. By the use of a solenoid surrounding the substrate, the arriving ion-to-metal flux ratio could be increased 10 times and the required ion energy could be decreased. A high flux (Cr=7.1, Sc=23.1) of low-energy (9 eV) Ar ions yielded the most favorable growth condition, limiting the intermixing with a subsistent good surface flatness.</p>
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126.
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127.
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128.
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129.
  • Hertz, Hans M., et al. (författare)
  • Table-top X-ray microscopy : Sources, optics and applications
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal de Physique IV : Colloque. - 1155-4339 .- 1764-7177. ; 104, s. 115-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We have developed the first operative compact sub-visible-resolution x-ray microscope for the water-window region (lambda = 2.3 - 4.4 nm). The microscope is based on a 100 Hz liquid-jet-target laser-plasma x-ray source, normal-incidence multilayer condenser optics, diffractive zone plate optics and CCD detection. In the present article we emphasize the system's aspects and summarize the recent progress on the components, all aiming at the reduction of the exposure time of a few seconds, i.e., similar to bending-magnet based microscopes. This primarily includes improved laser-plasma source, improved condenser optics using Cr/Sc multilayers, and improved image handling capability using wavelet algorithms. Such compact short-exposure time microscopes would significantly increase the applicability of the technology.</p>
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130.
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