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Sökning: WFRF:(Jones Graeme)

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21.
  • Lindström, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Background and Foreground Modeling Using an Online EM Algorithm
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Sixth IEEE International Workshop on Visual Surveillance,Graz, Austria,0001-01-02. - : Faculty of Computing, Information Systems and mathematics, Kingston University, Surrey, UK. ; VS2006, s. 9-16
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel approach to background/foreground segmentation using an online EM algorithm is presented. The method models each layer as a Gaussian mixture, with local, per pixel, parameters for the background layer and global parameters for the foreground layer, utilising information from the entire scene when estimating the foreground. Additionally, the online EM algorithm uses a progressive learning rate where the relative update speed of each Gaussian component depends on how often the component has been observed. It is shown that the progressive learning rate follows naturally from introduction of a forgetting factor in the log-likelihood. To reduce the number of mixture components similar foreground components are merged using a method based on the Kullback-Leibler distance. A bias is introduced in the variance estimates to avoid the known problem of singularities in the log-likelihood of Gaussian mixtures when the variance tends to zero. To allow a decoupling of the learning rate of the Gaussian components and the speed at which stationary objects are incorporated into the background a CUSUM detector is used instead of the prevailing method that uses the ratio of prior probability to standard deviation. The algorithm is scale invariant and its properties on gray-scale and RGB videos, as well as on output from an edge detector, is compared to that of another algorithm. Especially for the edge detector video performance increases dramatically.
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22.
  • Moayyeri, Alireza, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic determinants of heel bone properties : genome-wide association meta-analysis and replication in the GEFOS/GENOMOS consortium
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 23:11, s. 3054-3068
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Quantitative ultrasound of the heel captures heel bone properties that independently predict fracture risk and, with bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by X-ray (DXA), may be convenient alternatives for evaluating osteoporosis and fracture risk. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to assess the genetic determinants of heel broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA; n = 14 260), velocity of sound (VOS; n = 15 514) and BMD (n = 4566) in 13 discovery cohorts. Independent replication involved seven cohorts with GWA data (in silico n = 11 452) and new genotyping in 15 cohorts (de novo n = 24 902). In combined random effects, meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts, nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had genome-wide significant (P < 5 x 10(-8)) associations with heel bone properties. Alongside SNPs within or near previously identified osteoporosis susceptibility genes including ESR1 (6q25.1: rs4869739, rs3020331, rs2982552), SPTBN1 (2p16.2: rs11898505), RSPO3 (6q22.33: rs7741021), WNT16 (7q31.31: rs2908007), DKK1 (10q21.1: rs7902708) and GPATCH1 (19q13.11: rs10416265), we identified a new locus on chromosome 11q14.2 (rs597319 close to TMEM135, a gene recently linked to osteoblastogenesis and longevity) significantly associated with both BUA and VOS (P < 8.23 x 10(-14)). In meta-analyses involving 25 cohorts with up to 14 985 fracture cases, six of 10 SNPs associated with heel bone properties at P < 5 x 10(-6) also had the expected direction of association with any fracture (P < 0.05), including three SNPs with P < 0.005: 6q22.33 (rs7741021), 7q31.31 (rs2908007) and 10q21.1 (rs7902708). In conclusion, this GWA study reveals the effect of several genes common to central DXA-derived BMD and heel ultrasound/DXA measures and points to a new genetic locus with potential implications for better understanding of osteoporosis pathophysiology.
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23.
  • Murphy, Eoin A., et al. (författare)
  • Imaging in Vascular Access
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology. - : Springer. - 1869-408X. ; 8:3, s. 255-272
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This review examines four imaging modalities; ultrasound (US), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), that have common or potential applications in vascular access (VA). The four modalities are reviewed under their primary uses, techniques, advantages and disadvantages, and future directions that are specific to VA. Currently, US is the most commonly used modality in VA because it is cheaper (relative to other modalities), accessible, non-ionising, and does not require the use of contrast agents. DSA is predominantly only performed when an intervention is indicated. MRI is limited by its cost and the time required for image acquisition that mainly confines it to the realm of research where high resolution is required. CT’s short acquisition times and high resolution make it useful as a problem-solving tool in complex cases, although accessibility can be an issue. All four imaging modalities have advantages and disadvantages that limit their use in this particular patient cohort. Current imaging in VA comprises an integrated approach with each modality providing particular uses dependent on their capabilities. MRI and CT, which currently have limited use, may have increasingly important future roles in complex cases where detailed analysis is required.
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24.
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25.
  • Nordlinger, Bernard, et al. (författare)
  • Perioperative FOLFOX4 chemotherapy and surgery versus surgery alone for resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer (EORTC 40983) : long-term results of a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - 1470-2045 .- 1474-5488. ; 14:12, s. 1208-1215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Previous results of the EORTC intergroup trial 40983 showed that perioperative chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 (folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) increases progression-free survival (PFS) compared with surgery alone for patients with initially resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Here we present overall survival data after long-term follow-up. Methods This randomised, controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 study recruited patients from 78 hospitals across Europe, Australia, and Hong Kong. Eligible patients aged 18-80 years who had histologically proven colorectal cancer and up to four liver metastases were randomly assigned (1:1) to either perioperative FOLFOX4 or surgery alone. Perioperative FOLFOX4 consisted of six 14-day cycles of oxaliplatin 85mg/m(2), folinic acid 200 mg/m(2) (DL form) or 100 mg/m2 (L form) on days 1-2 plus bolus, and fluorouracil 400 mg/m(2) (bolus) and 600 mg/m(2) (continuous 22 h infusion), before and after surgery. Patients were centrally randomised by minimisation, adjusting for centre and risk score and previous adjuvant chemotherapy to primary surgery for colorectal cancer, and the trial was open label. Analysis of overall survival was by intention to treat in all randomly assigned patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00006479. Findings Between Oct 10, 2000, and July 5, 2004, 364 patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group (182 patients in each group, of which 171 per group were eligible and 152 per group underwent resection). At a median follow-up of 8.5 years (IQR 7.6-9.5), 107 (59%) patients in the perioperative chemotherapy group had died versus 114 (63%) in the surgery-only group (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.68-1.14; p=0.34). In all randomly assigned patients, median overall survival was 61.3 months (95% CI 51.0-83.4) in the perioperative chemotherapy group and 54.3 months (41.9-79.4) in the surgery alone group. 5-year overall survival was 51.2% (95% CI 43.6-58.3) in the perioperative chemotherapy group versus 47.8% (40.3-55.0) in the surgery-only group. Two patients in the perioperative chemotherapy group and three in the surgery-only group died from complications of protocol surgery, and one patient in the perioperative chemotherapy group died possibly as a result of toxicity of protocol treatment. Interpretation We found no difference in overall survival with the addition of perioperative chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 compared with surgery alone for patients with resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer. However, the previously observed benefit in PFS means that perioperative chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 should remain the reference treatment for this population of patients.
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26.
  • Ramirez, Kelly S., et al. (författare)
  • Detecting macroecological patterns in bacterial communities across independent studies of global soils
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Microbiology. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2058-5276. ; 3:2, s. 189-196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The emergence of high-throughput DNA sequencing methods provides unprecedented opportunities to further unravel bacterial biodiversity and its worldwide role from human health to ecosystem functioning. However, despite the abundance of sequencing studies, combining data from multiple individual studies to address macroecological questions of bacterial diversity remains methodically challenging and plagued with biases. Here, using a machine-learning approach that accounts for differences among studies and complex interactions among taxa, we merge 30 independent bacterial data sets comprising 1,998 soil samples from 21 countries. Whereas previous meta-analysis efforts have focused on bacterial diversity measures or abundances of major taxa, we show that disparate amplicon sequence data can be combined at the taxonomy-based level to assess bacterial community structure. We find that rarer taxa are more important for structuring soil communities than abundant taxa, and that these rarer taxa are better predictors of community structure than environmental factors, which are often confounded across studies. We conclude that combining data from independent studies can be used to explore bacterial community dynamics, identify potential 'indicator' taxa with an important role in structuring communities, and propose hypotheses on the factors that shape bacterial biogeography that have been overlooked in the past.
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27.
  • Sorbye, Halfdan, et al. (författare)
  • Predictive Factors for the Benefit of Perioperative FOLFOX for Resectable Liver Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer Patients (EORTC Intergroup Trial 40983)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgery. - 0003-4932 .- 1528-1140. ; 255:3, s. 534-539
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: In EORTC study 40983, perioperative FOLFOX increased progression-free survival (PFS) compared with surgery alone for patients with initially 1 to 4 resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted an exploratory retrospective analysis to identify baseline factors possibly predictive for a benefit of perioperative FOLFOX on PFS. Methods: The analysis was based on 237 events from 342 eligible patients. Cox proportional hazards regression models with a significance level of 0.1 were used to build up univariate and multivariate models. Results: After adjustment for identified prognostic factors, moderately (5.1-30 ng/mL) and highly (>30 ng/mL) elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serum levels were both predictive for the benefit of perioperative chemotherapy (interaction P = 0.07; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58 and HR = 0.52 for treatment benefit). For patients with moderately or highly elevated CEA (>5 ng/mL), the 3-year PFS was 35% with perioperative chemotherapy compared to 20% with surgery alone. Performance status (PS) 0 and BMI lower than 30 were also predictive for the benefit of perioperative chemotherapy (interaction P = 0.04 and P = 0.02). However, the number of patients with PS 1 and BMI 30 or higher were limited. The benefit of perioperative therapy was not influenced by the number of metastatic lesions (1 vs 2-4, interaction HR = 0.98). Conclusions: Perioperative FOLFOX seems to benefit in particular patients with resectable liver metastases from CRC when CEA is elevated and when PS is unaffected, regardless of the number of metastatic lesions.
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28.
  • Treat, Claire C., et al. (författare)
  • Widespread global peatland establishment and persistence over the last 130,000 y
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Acad Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 116:11, s. 4822-4827
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glacial-interglacial variations in CO 2 and methane in polar ice cores have been attributed, in part, to changes in global wetland extent, but the wetland distribution before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka to 18 ka) remains virtually unknown. We present a study of global peatland extent and carbon (C) stocks through the last glacial cycle (130 ka to present) using a newly compiled database of 1,063 detailed stratigraphic records of peat deposits buried by mineral sediments, as well as a global peatland model. Quantitative agreement between modeling and observations shows extensive peat accumulation before the LGM in northern latitudes (>40 ° N), particularly during warmer periods including the last interglacial (130 ka to 116 ka, MIS 5e) and the interstadial (57 ka to 29 ka, MIS 3). During cooling periods of glacial advance and permafrost formation, the burial of northern peatlands by glaciers and mineral sediments decreased active peatland extent, thickness, and modeled C stocks by 70 to 90% from warmer times. Tropical peatland extent and C stocks show little temporal variation throughout the study period. While the increased burial of northern peats was correlated with cooling periods, the burial of tropical peat was predominately driven by changes in sea level and regional hydrology. Peat burial by mineral sediments represents a mechanism for long-term terrestrial C storage in the Earth system. These results show that northern peatlands accumulate significant C stocks during warmer times, indicating their potential for C sequestration during the warming Anthropocene.
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29.
  • Witthaut, Jörg, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy and Safety of Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection for Dupuytren Contracture : Short-Term Results From 2 Open-Label Studies
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hand Surgery-American Volume. - 0363-5023 .- 1531-6564. ; 38A:1, s. 2-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The JOINT I (United States) and JOINT II (Australia and Europe) studies evaluated the efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for the treatment of Dupuytren contracture. Methods Both studies used identical open-label protocols. Patients with fixed-flexion contractures of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) (20 degrees to 100 degrees) or proximal inteiphalangeal (PIP) joints (20 degrees to 80 degrees) could receive up to three 0.58-mg CCH injections per cord (up to 5 total injections per patient). We perfonned standardized finger extension procedures to disrupt injected cords the next day, with follow-up 1, 2, 6, and 9 months thereafter. The primary end point (clinical success) was reduction in contracture to within 0 degrees to 5 degrees of full extension 30 days after the last injection. Clinical improvement was defined as 50% or more reduction from baseline contracture. Results Dupuytren cords affecting 879 joints (531 MCP and 348 PIP) in 587 patients were administered CCH injections at 14 U.S. and 20 Australian/European sites, with similar outcomes in both studies. Clinical success was achieved in 497 (57%) of treated joints using 1.2 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SD) CCH injections per cord. More MCP than PIP joints achieved clinical success (70% and 37%, respectively) or clinical improvement (89% and 58%, respectively). Less severely contracted joints responded better than those more severely contracted. Mean change in contracture was 55 degrees for MCP joints and 25 degrees for PIP joints. With average contracture reductions of 73% and improvements in range of motion by 30 degrees, most patients (92%) were "very satisfied" (71%) or "quite satisfied" (21%) with treatment. Physicians rated change from baseline as "very much improved" (47%) or "much improved" (35%). The CCH injections were well tolerated, causing no tendon ruptures or systemic reactions. Conclusions Collagenase clostridium histolyticum was an effective, minimally invasive option for the treatment of Dupuytren contracture of a broad range of severities. Most treated joints (625 of 879) required a single injection. Treatment earlier in the course of disease provided improved outcomes.
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30.
  • Zheng, Hou-Feng, et al. (författare)
  • WNT16 Influences Bone Mineral Density, Cortical Bone Thickness, Bone Strength, and Osteoporotic Fracture Risk.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - SAN FRANCISCO, USA : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404. ; 8:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT) and bone mineral density (BMD) by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466) located in the WNT16 gene (7q31), associated with CBT (effect size of -0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2×10(-9)). This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg), also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (-0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3×10(-12), and -0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2×10(-15), respectively). Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3×10(-9)), with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9×10(-6) and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2×10(-6)). We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16(-/-) mice had 27% (P<0.001) thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%-61% (6.5×10(-13)
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