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21.
  • Rohrmann, Sabine, et al. (författare)
  • Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 136:5, s. 423-431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence varies worldwide with a higher incidence in developed countries and lifestyle is likely to contribute to the development of this disease. We examined whether meat and fish consumption were related to the risk of RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 493,179 EPIC participants, recruited between 1992 and 2000. Until December 2008, 691 RCC cases have been identified. Meat and fish consumption was assessed at baseline using country-specific dietary assessment instruments; 24-hour recalls were applied in an 8% subsample for calibration purposes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Women with a high consumption of red meat (HR=1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.62; calibrated, per 50 g/day) and processed meat (HR=1.78, 95% CI 1.05-3.03; calibrated, per 50 g/day) had a higher risk of RCC, while no association existed in men. For processed meat, the association with RCC incidence was prominent in premenopausal women and was lacking in postmenopausal women (p interaction=0.02). Neither poultry nor fish consumption were statistically significantly associated with the risk of RCC. The results show a distinct association of red and processed meat consumption with incident RCC in women but not in men. A biological explanation for these findings remains unclear. What's new? Kidney cancer strikes different populations with different frequency, with developed nations seeing more cases. In this paper, the authors investigate whether certain elements of diet might correlate with increased incidence of renal cell carcinoma. Using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), they assessed the amount of meat and fish consumed in populations representing a wide range of dietary habits. They then correlated this data with renal cell carcinoma incidence. They found no effect from eating fish; consuming red and processed meats did increase risk in women, but not in men.
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22.
  • Stepien, Magdalena, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating copper and zinc levels and risk of hepatobiliary cancers in Europeans
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827. ; 116:5, s. 688-696
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Copper and zinc are essential micronutrients and cofactors of many enzymatic reactions that may be involved in liver-cancer development. We aimed to assess pre-diagnostic circulating levels of copper, zinc and their ratio (Cu/Zn) in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) and gall bladder and biliary tract (GBTC) cancers.METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Serum zinc and copper levels were measured in baseline blood samples by total reflection X-ray fluorescence in cancer cases (HCC n=106, IHDB n=34, GBTC n=96) and their matched controls (1:1). The Cu/Zn ratio, an indicator of the balance between the micronutrients, was computed. Multivariable adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95% CI) were used to estimate cancer risk.RESULTS: For HCC, the highest vs lowest tertile showed a strong inverse association for zinc (OR=0.36; 95% CI: 0.13-0.98, Ptrend=0.0123), but no association for copper (OR=1.06; 95% CI: 0.45-2.46, Ptrend=0.8878) in multivariable models. The calculated Cu/Zn ratio showed a positive association for HCC (OR=4.63; 95% CI: 1.41-15.27, Ptrend=0.0135). For IHBC and GBTC, no significant associations were observed.CONCLUSIONS: Zinc may have a role in preventing liver-cancer development, but this finding requires further investigation in other settings.
23.
  • Stepien, Magdalena, et al. (författare)
  • Prospective association of liver function biomarkers with development of hepatobiliary cancers.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology. - Elsevier. - 1877-7821. ; 40, s. 179-187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serum liver biomarkers (gamma-glutamyl transferase, GGT; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransferase, AST; alkaline phosphatase, ALP; total bilirubin) are used as indicators of liver disease, but there is currently little data on their prospective association with risk of hepatobiliary cancers.
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24.
  • Zamora-Ros, Raul, et al. (författare)
  • Coffee and tea drinking in relation to the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma : results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition. - Springer. - 1436-6207. ; 58:8, s. 3303-3312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Coffee and tea constituents have shown several anti-carcinogenic activities in cellular and animal studies, including against thyroid cancer (TC). However, epidemiological evidence is still limited and inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this association in a large prospective study. Methods: The study was conducted in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort, which included 476,108 adult men and women. Coffee and tea intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. Results: During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 first incident differentiated TC cases (including 601 papillary and 109 follicular TC) were identified. Coffee consumption (per 100 mL/day) was not associated either with total differentiated TC risk (HRcalibrated 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04) or with the risk of TC subtypes. Tea consumption (per 100 mL/day) was not associated with the risk of total differentiated TC (HRcalibrated 0.98, 95% CI 0.95–1.02) and papillary tumor (HRcalibrated 0.99, 95% CI 0.95–1.03), whereas an inverse association was found with follicular tumor risk (HRcalibrated 0.90, 95% CI 0.81–0.99), but this association was based on a sub-analysis with a small number of cancer cases. Conclusions: In this large prospective study, coffee and tea consumptions were not associated with TC risk.
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25.
  • Zamora-Ros, Raul, et al. (författare)
  • Consumption of fish is not associated with risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nutrition. - American Society for Nutrition. - 0022-3166. ; 147:7, s. 1366-1373
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine cancer. Fish can be an important source of iodine and other micronutrients and contaminants that may affect the thyroid gland and TC risk. Objective: We prospectively evaluated the relations between the consumption of total fish and different fish types and shellfish and TC risk in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Methods: EPIC is a cohort of > 500,000 men and women, mostly aged 35-70 y, who were recruited in 10 European countries. After a mean follow-up of 14 y, 748 primary differentiated TC cases were diagnosed; 666 were in women and 601 were papillary TC. Data on intakes of lean fish, fatty fish, fish products, and shellfish were collected by using countryspecific validated dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs adjusted for many potential confounders, including dietary and nondietary factors. Results: No significant association was observed between total fish consumption and differentiated TC risk for the highest compared with the lowest quartile (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.32; P-trend = 0.67). Likewise, no significant association was observed with the intake of any specific type of fish, fish product, or shellfish. No significant heterogeneity was found by TC subtype (papillary or follicular tumors), by sex, or between countries with low and high TC incidence. Conclusion: This large study shows that the intake of fish and shellfish was not associated with differentiated TC risk in Europe, a region in which iodine deficiency or excess is rare.
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26.
  • Zamora-Ros, Raul, et al. (författare)
  • Consumption of fruits, vegetables and fruit juices and differentiated thyroid carcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 142:3, s. 449-459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is considered as probably protective against overall cancer risk, but results in previous studies are not consistent for thyroid cancer (TC). The purpose of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, fruit juices and differentiated thyroid cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The EPIC study is a cohort including over half a million participants, recruited between 1991 and 2000. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 incident first primary differentiated TC cases were identified. F&V and fruit juice intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Comparing the highest versus lowest quartile of intake, differentiated TC risk was not associated with intakes of total F&V (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.68–1.15; p-trend = 0.44), vegetables (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.69–1.14; p-trend = 0.56), or fruit (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.79–1.26; p-trend = 0.64). No significant association was observed with any individual type of vegetable or fruit. However, there was a positive borderline trend with fruit juice intake (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.98–1.53; p-trend = 0.06). This study did not find any significant association between F&V intakes and differentiated TC risk; however a positive trend with fruit juice intake was observed, possibly related to its high sugar content.
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27.
  • Zamora-Ros, Raul, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 140:8, s. 1836-1844
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Flavonoids have been shown to inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and protect against colorectal carcinogenesis in animal models. However, epidemiological evidence on the potential role of flavonoid intake in colorectal cancer (CRC) development remains sparse and inconsistent. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses and risk of development of CRC, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cohort of 477,312 adult men and women were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary intakes of total flavonoids and individual subclasses were estimated using centre-specific validated dietary questionnaires and composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 4,517 new cases of primary CRC were identified, of which 2,869 were colon (proximal = 1,298 and distal = 1,266) and 1,648 rectal tumours. No association was found between total flavonoid intake and the risk of overall CRC (HR for comparison of extreme quintiles 1.05, 95% CI 0.93–1.18; p-trend = 0.58) or any CRC subtype. No association was also observed with any intake of individual flavonoid subclasses. Similar results were observed for flavonoid intake expressed as glycosides or aglycone equivalents. Intake of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses, as estimated from dietary questionnaires, did not show any association with risk of CRC development.
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28.
  • Zamora-Ros, Raul, et al. (författare)
  • Energy and macronutrient intake and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 138:1, s. 65-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Incidence rates of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) have increased in many countries. Adiposity and dietary risk factors may play a role, but little is known on the influence of energy intake and macronutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between TC and the intake of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,274 middle-age participants (70.2% women) from ten European countries. Dietary data were collected using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Total carbohydrates, proteins, fats, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), starch, sugar, and fiber were computed as g/1,000 kcal. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by intake quartile (Q). After a mean follow-up time of 11 years, differentiated TC was diagnosed in 556 participants (90% women). Overall, we found significant associations only with total energy (HRQ4vs.Q1, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68) and PUFA intakes (HRQ4vs.Q1, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95). However, the associations with starch and sugar intake and GI were significantly heterogeneous across body mass index (BMI) groups, i.e., positive associations with starch and GI were found in participants with a BMI25 and with sugar intake in those with BMI<25. Moreover, inverse associations with starch and GI were observed in subjects with BMI<25. In conclusion, our results suggest that high total energy and low PUFA intakes may increase the risk of differentiated TC. Positive associations with starch intake and GI in participants with BMI25 suggest that those persons may have a greater insulin response to high starch intake and GI than lean people. What's New? The role of lifestyle factors in the growing numbers of thyroid cancer remains unclear. Here, the authors uncover associations with high total energy intake and low consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids in a large European cohort (EPIC). They further find positive associations with starch intake and glycemic index only in people with a body mass index equal or larger than 25, possibly implicating an altered insulin response in the etiology of this cancer.
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29.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • A prospective study of the immune system activation biomarker neopterin and colorectal cancer risk
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874. ; 107:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Neopterin may be relevant for colorectal cancer (CRC) development, as a biomarker of cellular immune activity exerting pleiotropic effects on cellular ageing, oxidative stress, and inflammation. So far, the association between prediagnostic neopterin and colon and rectal cancer risk has not been evaluated in human populations. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort using data on plasma concentrations of total neopterin (T-N, sum of neopterin and 7,8-dihydroneopterin) in 830 incident CRC case patients (561 colon and 269 rectal) matched within risk sets to 830 control participants. A subsequent replication study used data from the Hordaland Health Study, where 173 CRC case patients have been diagnosed among 6594 healthy participants over 12 years of follow-up. Results: After multivariable adjustment for a priori chosen CRC risk factors, a "U-shaped" association of T-N with CRC was revealed. Compared with the second quintile of the T-N distribution, the relative risks for the first, third, fourth, and fifth quintiles were 2.37 (95% CI = 1.66 to 3.39), 1.24 (95% CI = 0.87 to 1.77), 1.55 (95% CI = 1.08 to 2.22), and 2.31 (95% CI = 1.63 to 3.27), respectively. Replication of these associations within the Hordaland Health Study yielded similar results. No differences have been observed when the associations were explored by colon and rectal cancer site (two-sided P-difference = .87) and after excluding case patients diagnosed within the first four follow-up years. Conclusions: These novel findings provide evidence of the role of both suppressed and activated cell-mediated immunity as reflected by prediagnostic T-N concentrations in the development of CRC.
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30.
  • Bakker, Marije F., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, tocopherols, and retinol and the risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 103:2, s. 454-464
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Carotenoids and vitamin C are thought to be associated with reduced cancer risk because of their antioxidative capacity.Objective: This study evaluated the associations of plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and vitamin C concentrations and risk of breast cancer.Design: In a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1502 female incident breast cancer cases were included, with an oversampling of premenopausal (n = 582) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) cases (n = 462). Controls (n = 1502) were individually matched to cases by using incidence density sampling. Prediagnostic samples were analyzed for alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and 454 vitamin C. Breast cancer risk was computed according to hormone receptor status and age at diagnosis (proxy for menopausal status) by using conditional logistic regression and was further stratified by smoking status, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI). All statistical tests were 2-sided.Results: In quintile 5 compared with quintile 1, alpha-carotene (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98) and beta-carotene (OR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.65) were inversely associated with risk of ER- breast tumors. The other analytes were not statistically associated with ER- breast cancer. For estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors, no statistically significant associations were found. The test for heterogeneity between ER- and ER+ tumors was statistically significant only for beta-carotene (P-heterogeneity = 0.03). A higher risk of breast cancer was found for retinol in relation to ER-/progesterone receptor-negative tumors (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.20, 4.67; P-heterogeneity with ER+/progesterone receptor positive = 0.06). We observed no statistically significant interaction between smoking, alcohol, or BMI and all investigated plasma analytes (based on tertile distribution).Conclusion: Our results indicate that higher concentrations of plasma beta-carotene and alpha-carotene are associated with lower breast cancer risk of ER tumors.
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