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Sökning: WFRF:(Khan Sofia)

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  • Hay, S. I., et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 0140-6736. ; 390:10100, s. 1260-1344
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared with expected trends on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Methods We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost and years of life lived with disability for each location, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using age-specific death rates and years of life lived with disability per capita. We explored how DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75.2 years (95% uncertainty interval 71.9-78.6) for females and 72.0 years (68.8-75.1) for males. The lowest for females was in the Central African Republic (45.6 years [42.0-49.5]) and for males was in Lesotho (41.5 years [39.0-44.0]). From 1990 to 2016, global HALE increased by an average of 6.24 years (5.97-6.48) for both sexes combined. Global HALE increased by 6.04 years (5.74-6.27) for males and 6.49 years (6.08-6.77) for females, whereas HALE at age 65 years increased by 1.78 years (1.61-1.93) for males and 1.96 years (1.69-2.13) for females. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2016 (-2.3% [-5.9 to 0.9]), with decreases in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disease DALYs offset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The exemplars, calculated as the five lowest ratios of observed to expected age-standardised DALY rates in 2016, were Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Maldives, Peru, and Israel. The leading three causes of DALYs globally were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lower respiratory infections, comprising 16.1% of all DALYs. Total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most CMNN causes decreased from 1990 to 2016. Conversely, the total DALY burden rose for most NCDs; however, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined globally. Interpretation At a global level, DALYs and HALE continue to show improvements. At the same time, we observe that many populations are facing growing functional health loss. Rising SDI was associated with increases in cumulative years of life lived with disability and decreases in CMNN DALYs offset by increased NCD DALYs. Relative compression of morbidity highlights the importance of continued health interventions, which has changed in most locations in pace with the gross domestic product per person, education, and family planning. The analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework with which to benchmark location-specific health performance. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform health policies, health system improvement initiatives, targeted prevention efforts, and development assistance for health, including financial and research investments for all countries, regardless of their level of sociodemographic development. The presence of countries that substantially outperform others suggests the need for increased scrutiny for proven examples of best practices, which can help to extend gains, whereas the presence of underperforming countries suggests the need for devotion of extra attention to health systems that need more robust support. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  • Khan, Omar M., 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I) deficiency hyperactivates macrophages and induces erosive arthritis in mice.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical investigation. - 1558-8238. ; 121:2, s. 628-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RHO family proteins are important for the function of inflammatory cells. They are modified with a 20-carbon geranylgeranyl lipid in a process catalyzed by protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I). Geranylgeranylation is viewed as essential for the membrane targeting and activity of RHO proteins. Consequently, inhibiting GGTase-I to interfere with RHO protein activity has been proposed as a strategy to treat inflammatory disorders. However, here we show that mice lacking GGTase-I in macrophages develop severe joint inflammation resembling erosive rheumatoid arthritis. The disease was initiated by the GGTase-I-deficient macrophages and was transplantable and reversible in bone marrow transplantation experiments. The cells accumulated high levels of active GTP-bound RAC1, CDC42, and RHOA, and RAC1 remained associated with the plasma membrane. Moreover, GGTase-I deficiency activated p38 and NF-κB and increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The results challenge the view that geranylgeranylation is essential for the activity and localization of RHO family proteins and suggest that reduced geranylgeranylation in macrophages can initiate erosive arthritis.
  • Khan, Samiullah, et al. (författare)
  • Aglycone specificity of Thermotoga neapolitana beta-glucosidase 1A modified by mutagenesis, leading to increased catalytic efficiency in quercetin-3-glucoside hydrolysis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Biochemistry. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2091. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The thermostable beta-glucosidase (TnBgl1A) from Thermotoga neapolitana is a promising biocatalyst for hydrolysis of glucosylated flavonoids and can be coupled to extraction methods using pressurized hot water. Hydrolysis has however been shown to be dependent on the position of the glucosylation on the flavonoid, and e. g. quercetin-3-glucoside (Q3) was hydrolysed slowly. A set of mutants of TnBgl1A were thus created to analyse the influence on the kinetic parameters using the model substrate para-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (pNPGlc), and screened for hydrolysis of Q3. Results: Structural analysis pinpointed an area in the active site pocket with non-conserved residues between specificity groups in glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1). Three residues in this area located on beta-strand 5 (F219, N221, and G222) close to sugar binding sub-site +2 were selected for mutagenesis and amplified in a protocol that introduced a few spontaneous mutations. Eight mutants (four triple: F219L/P165L/M278I, N221S/P165L/M278I, G222Q/P165L/M278I, G222Q/V203M/K214R, two double: F219L/K214R, N221S/P342L and two single: G222M and N221S) were produced in E. coli, and purified to apparent homogeneity. Thermostability, measured as T-m by differential scanning calorimetry (101.9 degrees C for wt), was kept in the mutated variants and significant decrease (Delta T of 5 -10 degrees C) was only observed for the triple mutants. The exchanged residue(s) in the respective mutant resulted in variations in K-M and turnover. The K-M-value was only changed in variants mutated at position 221 (N221S) and was in all cases monitored as a 2-3 x increase for pNPGlc, while the K-M decreased a corresponding extent for Q3. Turnover was only significantly changed using pNPGlc, and was decreased 2-3 x in variants mutated at position 222, while the single, double and triple mutated variants carrying a mutation at position 221 (N221S) increased turnover up to 3.5 x compared to the wild type. Modelling showed that the mutation at position 221, may alter the position of N291 resulting in increased hydrogen bonding of Q3 (at a position corresponding to the +1 subsite) which may explain the decrease in K-M for this substrate. Conclusion: These results show that residues at the +2 subsite are interesting targets for mutagenesis and mutations at these positions can directly or indirectly affect both K-M and turnover. An affinity change, leading to a decreased K-M, can be explained by an altered position of N291, while the changes in turnover are more difficult to explain and may be the result of smaller conformational changes in the active site.
  • Khan, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of accuracy and applicability of protein models: retrospective analysis of biological and biomedical predictions.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: In Silico Biology. - IOS Press. - 1386-6338. ; 9:5, s. 307-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to study protein function and activity structural data is required. Since experimental structures are available for just a small fraction of all known protein sequences, computational methods such as protein modelling can provide useful information. Over the last few decades we have predicted, with homology modelling methods, the structures for numerous proteins. In this study we assess the structural quality and validity of the biological and medical interpretations and predictions made based on the models. All the models had correct scaffolding and were ranked at least as correct or good by numerical evaluators even though the sequence identity with the template was as low as 8%. The biological explanations made based on models were well in line with experimental structures and other experimental studies. Retrospective analysis of homology models indicates the power of protein modelling when made carefully from sequence alignment to model building and refinement. Modelling can be applied to studying and predicting different kinds of biological phenomena and according to our results it can be done so with success.
  • Khan, Sami, et al. (författare)
  • Immobilization of thermostable beta-glucosidase variants on acrylic supports for biocatalytic processes in hot water
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic. - Elsevier. - 1873-3158. ; 80, s. 28-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two variants of the thermostable beta-glucosidase TnBgl1A (wt and N221S/P342L) from Thermotoga neapolitana were immobilized on acrylic supports (Eupergit (R) C, Eupergit (R) C250L, and cryogel) and evaluated at conditions close to the boiling point of water. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed the supports to be stable <250 degrees C. Both wt and N221S/P342L were covalently bound to oxirane-groups respectively via glutaraldehyde spacers, and for coupling reactions 26 Lys and 20 Ser/Thr were surface-located. Immobilized enzymes were active on all supports in the temperature range 80-95 degrees C, but the observed specific activity was low (<= 19 U mg(-1)) using the cryogel. More than 91% of the initial activity was maintained after ten times recycling, and the same was recovered after 3 months storage at 4 degrees C for Eupergit (R) supports by simply incubating the preparation with bovine serum albumin. No storage loss was detectable on cryogels. The glutaraldehyde spacer improved activity on cryogels, but not on Eupergie supports. Immobilization on Eupergit (R) C250L yielded the highest observed specific activity (254 U mg(-1) for N221S/P342L) in a procedure including blocking of free oxirane-groups by BSA. This biocatalyst was used for on-line hydrolysis of quercetin-glucosides in a yellow onion extract at 80 degrees C, proving the immobilized biocatalyst to be promising in on-line systems for extraction and hydrolysis using hot pressurized water. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Khan, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Performance of protein stability predictors.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1059-7794. ; 31:6, s. 675-684
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stability is a fundamental property affecting function, activity, and regulation of biomolecules. Stability changes are often found for mutated proteins involved in diseases. Stability predictors computationally predict protein-stability changes caused by mutations. We performed a systematic analysis of 11 online stability predictors' performances. These predictors are CUPSAT, Dmutant, FoldX, I-Mutant2.0, two versions of I-Mutant3.0 (sequence and structure versions), MultiMutate, MUpro, SCide, Scpred, and SRide. As input, 1,784 single mutations found in 80 proteins were used, and these mutations did not include those used for training. The programs' performances were also assessed according to where the mutations were found in the proteins, that is, in secondary structures and on the surface or in the core of a protein, and according to protein structure type. The extents to which the mutations altered the occupied volumes at the residue sites and the charge interactions were also characterized. The predictions of all programs were in line with the experimental data. I-Mutant3.0 (utilizing structural information), Dmutant, and FoldX were the most reliable predictors. The stability-center predictors performed with similar accuracy. However, at best, the predictions were only moderately accurate ( approximately 60%) and significantly better tools would be needed for routine analysis of mutation effects.
  • Khan, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Spectrum of disease-causing mutations in protein secondary structures.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Structural Biology. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2237. ; 7, s. 56-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most genetic disorders are linked to missense mutations as even minor changes in the size or properties of an amino acid can alter or prevent the function of the protein. Further, the effect of a mutation is also dependent on the sequence and structure context of the alteration.
  • Kiiski, Johanna I., et al. (författare)
  • FANCM mutation c.5791C&gt;T is a risk factor for triple-negative breast cancer in the Finnish population
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 0167-6806. ; 166:1, s. 217-226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The FANCM c.5101C>T nonsense mutation was previously found to associate with breast cancer in the Finnish population, especially among triple-negative cases. Here, we studied the prevalence of three other FANCM variants: c.5791C>T, which has been reported to predispose to familial breast cancer, and the c.4025_4026delCT and c.5293dupA variants recently identified in Finnish cancer patients. Methods: We genotyped the FANCM c.5791C>T mutation in 4806 invasive breast cancer patients, including BRCA1/2 mutation negative familial cases and unselected cases, and in 2734 healthy population controls from four different geographical areas of Finland. The association of the mutation with breast cancer risk among patient subgroups was statistically evaluated. We further analyzed the combined risk associated with c.5101C>T and c.5791C>T mutations. We also genotyped 526 unselected ovarian cancer patients for the c.5791C>T mutation and 862 familial breast cancer patients for the c.4025_4026delCT and c.5293dupA variants. Results: The frequency of the FANCM c.5791C>T mutation was higher among breast cancer cases than in controls (OR 1.94, 95% CI 0.87–4.32, P = 0.11), with a statistically significant association with triple-negative breast cancer (OR 5.14, 95% CI 1.65–16.0, P = 0.005). The combined analysis for c.5101C>T and c.5791C>T carriers confirmed a strong association with breast cancer (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.32–2.49, P = 0.0002), especially among the triple-negative patients (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.77–5.35, P = 0.00007). For the other variants, only one additional c.4025_4026delCT carrier and no c.5293dupA carriers were observed. Conclusions: These results support the role of FANCM as a breast cancer susceptibility gene, particularly for triple-negative breast cancer.
  • Kulkarni, Tejas, et al. (författare)
  • Crystal structure of β-glucosidase 1A from Thermotoga neapolitana and comparison of active site mutants for hydrolysis of flavonoid glucosides
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1097-0134. ; 85:5, s. 872-884
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The β-glucosidase TnBgl1A catalyses hydrolysis of O-linked terminal β-glycosidic bonds at the nonreducing end of glycosides/oligosaccharides. Enzymes with this specificity have potential in lignocellulose conversion (degrading cellobiose to glucose) and conversion of bioactive flavonoids (modification of glycosylation results in modulation of bioavailability). Previous work has shown TnBgl1A to hydrolyse 3, 4′ and 7 glucosylation in flavonoids, and although conversion of 3-glucosylated substrate to aglycone was low, it was improved by mutagenesis of residue N220. To further explore structure-function relationships, the crystal structure of the nucleophile mutant TnBgl1A-E349G was determined at 1.9 Å resolution, and docking studies of flavonoid substrates were made to reveal substrate interacting residues. A series of single amino acid changes were introduced in the aglycone binding region [N220(S/F), N221(S/F), F224(I), F310(L/E), and W322(A)] of the wild type. Activity screening was made on eight glucosylated flavonoids, and kinetic parameters were monitored for the flavonoid quercetin-3-glucoside (Q3), as well as for the model substrate para-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (pNPGlc). Substitution by Ser at N220 or N221 increased the catalytic efficiency on both pNPGlc and Q3. Residue W322 was proven important for substrate accomodation, as mutagenesis to W322A resulted in a large reduction of hydrolytic activity on 3-glucosylated flavonoids. Flavonoid glucoside hydrolysis was unaffected by mutations at positions 224 and 310. The mutations did not significantly affect thermal stability, and the variants kept an apparent unfolding temperature of 101°C. This work pinpoints positions in the aglycone region of TnBgl1A of importance for specificity on flavonoid-3-glucosides, improving the molecular understanding of activity in GH1 enzymes.
  • Lawrenson, Kate, et al. (författare)
  • Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10-20), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10-13), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10-16) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10-5). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10-3) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10-3). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3′-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk.
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