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Sökning: WFRF:(Klein Ronald)

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11.
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12.
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13.
  • Meng, Weihua, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study suggests new evidence for an association of the NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4) gene with severe diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Ophthalmologica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1755-375X. ; 96:7, s. 811-819
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Diabetic retinopathy is the most common eye complication in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic factors contributing to severe diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A genome-wide association approach was applied. In the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland (GoDARTS) datasets, cases of severe diabetic retinopathy were defined as type 2 diabetic patients who were ever graded as having severe background retinopathy (Level R3) or proliferative retinopathy (Level R4) in at least one eye according to the Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Grading Scheme or who were once treated by laser photocoagulation. Controls were diabetic individuals whose longitudinal retinopathy screening records were either normal (Level R0) or only with mild background retinopathy (Level R1) in both eyes. Significant Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were taken forward for meta-analysis using multiple Caucasian cohorts. Results: Five hundred and sixty cases of type 2 diabetes with severe diabetic retinopathy and 4,106 controls were identified in the GoDARTS cohort. We revealed that rs3913535 in the NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4) gene reached a p value of 4.05 × 10−9. Two nearby SNPs, rs10765219 and rs11018670 also showed promising p values (p values = 7.41 × 10−8 and 1.23 × 10−8, respectively). In the meta-analysis using multiple Caucasian cohorts (excluding GoDARTS), rs10765219 and rs11018670 showed associations for diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.003 and 0.007, respectively), while the p value of rs3913535 was not significant (p = 0.429). Conclusion: This genome-wide association study of severe diabetic retinopathy suggests new evidence for the involvement of the NOX4 gene.
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14.
  • Qiu, Chengxuan, et al. (författare)
  • Differential associations between retinal signs and CMBs by location : The AGES-Reykjavik Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 90:2, s. e142-e148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveTo test the hypothesis that age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinal microvascular signs are differentially associated with lobar and deep cerebral microbleeds (CMBs).MethodsCMBs in lobar regions indicate cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). -Amyloid deposits are implicated in both CAA and AMD. Deep CMBs are associated with hypertension, a major risk factor for retinal microvascular damage. This population-based cohort study included 2,502 participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study who undertook binocular digital retinal photographs at baseline (2002-2006) to assess retinal microvascular signs and AMD and brain MRI scan at both baseline and follow-up (2007-2011) to assess CMBs. We assessed retinal microvascular lesion burden by counting the 3 retinal microvascular signs (focal arteriolar narrowing, arteriovenous nicking, and retinopathy) concurrently present in the participant. We used multiple logistic models to examine the association of baseline retinal pathology to incident CMBs detected at follow-up.ResultsDuring an average 5.2 years of follow-up, 461 people (18.3%) developed new CMBs, including 293 in exclusively lobar regions and 168 in deep regions. Pure geographic atrophy was significantly associated with strictly lobar CMBs (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio 2.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-6.65) but not with deep CMBs. Concurrently having 2 retinal microvascular signs was associated with a 3-fold (95% CI 1.73-5.20) increased likelihood for deep CMBs but not exclusively lobar CMBs.ConclusionsRetinal microvascular signs and pure geographic atrophy may be associated with deep and exclusively lobar CMBs, respectively, in older people. These results have implications for further research to define the role of small vessel disease in cognitive impairment.
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15.
  • Sjölie, Anne Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of candesartan on progression and regression of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes (DIRECT-Protect 2): a randomised placebo-controlled trial.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 1474-547X. ; 372:9647, s. 1385-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy remains a leading cause of visual loss in people of working age. We examined whether candesartan treatment could slow the progression and, secondly, induce regression of retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial in 309 centres worldwide. We recruited normoalbuminuric, normotensive, or treated hypertensive people with type 2 diabetes with mild to moderately severe retinopathy and assigned them to candesartan 16 mg once a day or placebo. After a month, the dose was doubled to 32 mg once per day. Investigators and patients were unaware of the treatment allocation status. Progression of retinopathy was the primary endpoint, and regression was a secondary endpoint. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00252694. FINDINGS: 1905 participants (aged 37-75 years) were randomised to candesartan (n=951) or placebo (n=954). 161 (17%) patients in the candesartan group and 182 (19%) in the placebo group had progression of retinopathy by three steps or more on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale. The risk of progression of retinopathy was non-significantly reduced by 13% in patients on candesartan compared with those on placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% CI 0.70-1.08, p=0.20). Regression on active treatment was increased by 34% (1.34, 1.08-1.68, p=0.009). HRs were not attenuated by adjustment for baseline risk factors or changes in blood pressure during the trial. An overall change towards less severe retinopathy by the end of the trial was observed in the candesartan group (odds 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30, p=0.003). Adverse events did not differ between the treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with candesartan in type 2 diabetic patients with mild to moderate retinopathy might induce improvement of retinopathy.
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16.
  • Titov, Nickolai, et al. (författare)
  • MindSpot Clinic : An Accessible, Efficient, and Effective Online Treatment Service for Anxiety and Depression.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Psychiatric Services. - : American Psychiatric Publishing. - 1075-2730 .- 1557-9700. ; 66:10, s. 1043-1050
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to report the feasibility of delivering online cognitive-behavioral therapy (iCBT) treatments for anxiety and depression in a national public mental health service.METHODS: A prospective noncontrolled cohort study was conducted of all patients who began assessment or treatment at the MindSpot Clinic from January through December 2013. Clinic services were used by a representative cross-section of the Australian population. Mean age at assessment was 36.4±13.0 years, and age range was 18-86 years. Patients completed one of four online courses over eight weeks, during which they received weekly support from a therapist via telephone or secure e-mail. Primary outcome measures were the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) administered at posttreatment and three months posttreatment.RESULTS: A total of 10,293 adults who self-identified as having problems with anxiety or depression commenced assessment, and 7,172 completed the assessment and were eligible for analysis. Of these, 2,049 enrolled in a course and 1,471 completed the course, for a course completion rate of 71.8%. Moderate to large noncontrolled effect sizes (Cohen's d=.67-1.66, 95% confidence interval=.08-2.07) were found from assessment to three-month follow-up. At posttreatment and follow-up, reliable recovery ranged from 46.7% to 51.1%, and deterioration ranged from 1.9% to 3.8%. Mean total therapist time per patient was 111.8±61.6 minutes.CONCLUSIONS: The MindSpot Clinic produced treatment outcomes that were comparable to results from published clinical trials of iCBT. This model of service delivery represents an innovative method of providing accessible, low-cost, effective, and acceptable mental health services to many people who currently are not receiving care.
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17.
  • Titov, Nickolai, et al. (författare)
  • The first 30 months of the MindSpot Clinic: Evaluation of a national e-mental health service against project objectives
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (Print). - : SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 0004-8674 .- 1440-1614. ; 51:12, s. 1227-1239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The MindSpot Clinic provides online mental health services to Australian adults with anxiety and depression. This paper describes users of MindSpot between January 2013 and June 2015. Outcomes are considered against three key objectives: improving access to mental health services, improving public awareness of how to access services and providing evidence-based treatments. Method: Website traffic data were examined to determine patterns of use. Demographic characteristics, past service utilisation and reasons for contacting MindSpot were analysed. Outcomes for patients enrolled in a MindSpot treatment course were also analysed. Primary outcomes were scores on the 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-Item, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, administered at assessment, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. Results: The website was visited by almost 500,000 Australians, of which 33,990 adults started assessments, and 25,469 people completed assessment and were eligible for analysis. Mean age was 36.4 years (standard deviation = 13.3 years; range = 18-94 years), and 72% were female. The proportion living in rural or remote regions and who identified as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander closely matched national statistics. The majority (82%) reported that they were not currently in contact with mental health services. Most patients sought an assessment, information about treatment options, or referral to another service, and only 24% of those completing an assessment commenced a MindSpot treatment course. Of these, large clinical effects (d: 0.7-2.4; average symptom reductions: 25.5% to 61.6%) were found from assessment to follow-up on all outcome measures. Deterioration ranged from 1.0% to 4.3%. Conclusion: Based on the number of website visits, completed assessments and treatment outcomes, MindSpot achieved its three programme objectives. This model of service provision has considerable value as a complement to existing services, and is proving particularly important for improving access for people not using existing services.
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18.
  • Kim, Jae-Young, et al. (författare)
  • Event Horizon Telescope imaging of the archetypal blazar 3C 279 at an extreme 20 microarcsecond resolution
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © J.-Y. Kim et al. 2020. 3C 279 is an archetypal blazar with a prominent radio jet that show broadband flux density variability across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. We use an ultra-high angular resolution technique - global Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at 1.3mm (230 GHz) - to resolve the innermost jet of 3C 279 in order to study its fine-scale morphology close to the jet base where highly variable-ray emission is thought to originate, according to various models. The source was observed during four days in April 2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope at 230 GHz, including the phased Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, at an angular resolution of ∼20 μas (at a redshift of z = 0:536 this corresponds to ∼0:13 pc ∼ 1700 Schwarzschild radii with a black hole mass MBH = 8 × 108 M⊙). Imaging and model-fitting techniques were applied to the data to parameterize the fine-scale source structure and its variation.We find a multicomponent inner jet morphology with the northernmost component elongated perpendicular to the direction of the jet, as imaged at longer wavelengths. The elongated nuclear structure is consistent on all four observing days and across diffierent imaging methods and model-fitting techniques, and therefore appears robust. Owing to its compactness and brightness, we associate the northern nuclear structure as the VLBI "core". This morphology can be interpreted as either a broad resolved jet base or a spatially bent jet.We also find significant day-to-day variations in the closure phases, which appear most pronounced on the triangles with the longest baselines. Our analysis shows that this variation is related to a systematic change of the source structure. Two inner jet components move non-radially at apparent speeds of ∼15 c and ∼20 c (∼1:3 and ∼1:7 μas day-1, respectively), which more strongly supports the scenario of traveling shocks or instabilities in a bent, possibly rotating jet. The observed apparent speeds are also coincident with the 3C 279 large-scale jet kinematics observed at longer (cm) wavelengths, suggesting no significant jet acceleration between the 1.3mm core and the outer jet. The intrinsic brightness temperature of the jet components are ≤1010 K, a magnitude or more lower than typical values seen at ≥7mm wavelengths. The low brightness temperature and morphological complexity suggest that the core region of 3C 279 becomes optically thin at short (mm) wavelengths.
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19.
  • Lacro, Ronald V, et al. (författare)
  • Atenolol versus losartan in children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793. ; 371:22, s. 71-2061
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Aortic-root dissection is the leading cause of death in Marfan's syndrome. Studies suggest that with regard to slowing aortic-root enlargement, losartan may be more effective than beta-blockers, the current standard therapy in most centers.METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial comparing losartan with atenolol in children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome. The primary outcome was the rate of aortic-root enlargement, expressed as the change in the maximum aortic-root-diameter z score indexed to body-surface area (hereafter, aortic-root z score) over a 3-year period. Secondary outcomes included the rate of change in the absolute diameter of the aortic root; the rate of change in aortic regurgitation; the time to aortic dissection, aortic-root surgery, or death; somatic growth; and the incidence of adverse events.RESULTS: From January 2007 through February 2011, a total of 21 clinical centers enrolled 608 participants, 6 months to 25 years of age (mean [±SD] age, 11.5±6.5 years in the atenolol group and 11.0±6.2 years in the losartan group), who had an aortic-root z score greater than 3.0. The baseline-adjusted rate of change in the mean (±SE) aortic-root z score did not differ significantly between the atenolol group and the losartan group (-0.139±0.013 and -0.107±0.013 standard-deviation units per year, respectively; P=0.08). Both slopes were significantly less than zero, indicating a decrease in the aortic-root diameter relative to body-surface area with either treatment. The 3-year rates of aortic-root surgery, aortic dissection, death, and a composite of these events did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups.CONCLUSIONS: Among children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome who were randomly assigned to losartan or atenolol, we found no significant difference in the rate of aortic-root dilatation between the two treatment groups over a 3-year period. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00429364.).
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20.
  • Lacro, Ronald V, et al. (författare)
  • Characteristics of children and young adults with Marfan syndrome and aortic root dilation in a randomized trial comparing atenolol and losartan therapy
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby. - 1097-6744. ; 165:5, s. 3-835
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Heart Network designed a clinical trial to compare aortic root growth and other short-term cardiovascular outcomes in children and young adults with Marfan syndrome randomized to receive atenolol or losartan. We report here the characteristics of the screened population and enrolled subjects.METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2011, 21 clinical sites randomized 608 subjects, aged 6 months to 25 years who met the original Ghent criteria and had a body surface area-adjusted aortic root diameter z-score >3.0. The mean age at study entry was 11.2 years, 60% were male, and 25% were older teenagers and young adults. The median aortic root diameter z-score was 4.0. Aortic root diameter z-score did not vary with age. Mitral valve prolapse and mitral regurgitation were more common in females. Among those with a positive family history, 56% had a family member with aortic surgery, and 32% had a family member with a history of aortic dissection.CONCLUSIONS: Baseline demographic, clinical, and anthropometric characteristics of the randomized cohort are representative of patients in this population with moderate to severe aortic root dilation. The high percentage of young subjects with relatives who have had aortic dissection or surgery illustrates the need for more definitive therapy; we expect that the results of the study and the wealth of systematic data collected will make an important contribution to the management of individuals with Marfan syndrome.
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