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31.
  • Adler, S. S., et al. (författare)
  • Jet properties from dihadron correlations in p plus p collisions at root s=200 GeV
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - American Physical Society. - 1550-2368. ; 74:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The properties of jets produced in p+p collisions at root s=200 GeV are measured using the method of two-particle correlations. The trigger particle is a leading particle from a large transverse momentum jet while the associated particle comes from either the same jet or the away-side jet. Analysis of the angular width of the near-side peak in the correlation function determines the jet-fragmentation transverse momentum j(T). The extracted value, root < j(T)(2)>=585 +/- 6(stat)+/- 15(sys) MeV/c, is constant with respect to the trigger particle transverse momentum, and comparable to the previous lower root s measurements. The width of the away-side peak is shown to be a convolution of j(T) with the fragmentation variable, z, and the partonic transverse momentum, k(T). The < z > is determined through a combined analysis of the measured pi(0) inclusive and associated spectra using jet-fragmentation functions measured in e(+)e(-) collisions. The final extracted values of k(T) are then determined to also be independent of the trigger particle transverse momentum, over the range measured, with value of root < k(T)(2)>=2.68 +/- 0.07(stat)+/- 0.34(sys) GeV/c.
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32.
  • Adler, S. S., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of direct photon production in p+p collisions at root s=200 GeV
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 98:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cross sections for midrapidity production of direct photons in p+p collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are reported for transverse momenta of 3 < p(T)< 16 GeV/c. Next-to-leading order perturbative QCD (pQCD) describes the data well for p(T)> 5 GeV/c, where the uncertainties of the measurement and theory are comparable. We also report on the effect of requiring the photons to be isolated from parton jet energy. The observed fraction of isolated photons is well described by pQCD for p(T)> 7 GeV/c.
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33.
  • Adler, S. S., et al. (författare)
  • Nuclear effects on hadron production in d plus Au collisions at root S-NN=200 GeV revealed by comparison with p plus p data
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 74:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PHENIX has measured the centrality dependence of midrapidity pion, kaon, and proton transverse momentum distributions in d+Au and p+p collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The p+p data provide a reference for nuclear effects in d+Au and previously measured Au+Au collisions. Hadron production is enhanced in d+Au, relative to independent nucleon-nucleon scattering, as was observed in lower energy collisions. The nuclear modification factor for (anti)protons is larger than that for pions. The difference increases with centrality but is not sufficient to account for the abundance of baryon production observed in central Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The centrality dependence in d+Au shows that the nuclear modification factor increases gradually with the number of collisions encountered by each participant nucleon. We also present comparisons with lower energy data as well as with parton recombination and other theoretical models of nuclear effects on particle production.
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34.
  • Adler, S. S., et al. (författare)
  • Production of omega mesons at large transverse momenta in p+p and d+Au collisions at root S(NN) = 200 GeV
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 75:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured the invariant cross section for omega-meson production at midrapidity in the transverse momentum range 2.5 < p(T)< 9.25 GeV/c in p+p and d+Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. Measurements in two decay channels (omega ->pi(0)pi(+)pi(-) and omega ->pi(0)gamma) yield consistent results, and the reconstructed omega mass agrees with the accepted value within the p(T) range of the measurements. The omega/pi(0) ratio is found to be 0.85 +/- 0.05(stat)+/- 0.09(sys) in p+p and 0.94 +/- 0.08(stat)+/- 0.12(sys) in d+Au collisions, independent of p(T). The nuclear modification factor R-dA(omega) is 1.03 +/- 0.12(stat)+/- 0.21(sys) and 0.83 +/- 0.21(stat)+/- 0.17(sys) in minimum bias and central (0-20%) d+Au collisions, respectively.
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35.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of the Temporal Variation of the Sun's Cosmic Ray Shadow with the IceCube Detector
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 872:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We report on the observation of a deficit in the cosmic ray flux from the directions of the Moon and Sun with five years of data taken by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Between 2010 May and 2011 May the IceCube detector operated with 79 strings deployed in the glacial ice at the South Pole, and with 86 strings between 2011 May and 2015 May. A binned analysis is used to measure the relative deficit and significance of the cosmic ray shadows. Both the cosmic ray Moon and Sun shadows are detected with high statistical significance (&gt;10<em>σ</em>) for each year. The results for the Moon shadow are consistent with previous analyses and verify the stability of the IceCube detector over time. This work represents the first observation of the Sun shadow with the IceCube detector. We show that the cosmic ray shadow of the Sun varies with time. These results make it possible to study cosmic ray transport near the Sun with future data from IceCube.</p>
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36.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Differential limit on the extremely-high-energy cosmic neutrino flux in the presence of astrophysical background from nine years of IceCube data
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D : covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology. - AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 98:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We report a quasidifferential upper limit on the extremely-high-energy (EHE) neutrino flux above 5 x 10(6) GeV based on an analysis of nine years of IceCube data. The astrophysical neutrino flux measured by IceCube extends to PeV energies, and it is a background flux when searching for an independent signal flux at higher energies, such as the cosmogenic neutrino signal. We have developed a new method to place robust limits on the EHE neutrino flux in the presence of an astrophysical background, whose spectrum has yet to be understood with high precision at PeV energies. A distinct event with a deposited energy above 10(6) GeV was found in the new two-year sample, in addition to the one event previously found in the seven-year EHE neutrino search. These two events represent a neutrino flux that is incompatible with predictions for a cosmogenic neutrino flux and are considered to be an astrophysical background in the current study. The obtained limit is the most stringent to date in the energy range between 5 x 10(6) and 2 x 10(10) GeV. This result constrains neutrino models predicting a three-flavor neutrino flux of E-nu(2)phi(nu e+nu mu+nu tau) similar or equal to 2 x 10(-8) GeV/cm(2) sec sr at 10(9) GeV. A significant part of the parameter space for EHE neutrino production scenarios assuming a proton-dominated composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is disfavored independently of uncertain models of the extragalactic background light which previous IceCube constraints partially relied on.</p>
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37.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Neutrino emission from the direction of the blazar TXS 0506+056 prior to the IceCube-170922A alert
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 361:6398, s. 147-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A high-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube on 22 September 2017 was coincident in direction and time with a gamma-ray flare from the blazar TXS 0506+056. Prompted by this association, we investigated 9.5 years of IceCube neutrino observations to search for excess emission at the position of the blazar. We found an excess of high-energy neutrino events, with respect to atmospheric backgrounds, at that position between September 2014 and March 2015. Allowing for time-variable flux, this constitutes 3.5 sigma evidence for neutrino emission from the direction of TXS 0506+056, independent of and prior to the 2017 flaring episode. This suggests that blazars are identifiable sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux.</p>
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38.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Search for steady point-like sources in the astrophysical muon neutrino flux with 8 years of IceCube data
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044 .- 1434-6052. ; 79:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The IceCube Collaboration has observed a high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux and recently found evidence for neutrino emission from the blazar TXS 0506+056. These results open a new window into the high-energy universe. However, the source or sources of most of the observed flux of astrophysical neutrinos remains uncertain. Here, a search for steady point-like neutrino sources is performed using an unbinned likelihood analysis. The method searches for a spatial accumulation of muon-neutrino events using the very high-statistics sample of about 497,000 neutrinos recorded by IceCube between 2009 and 2017. The median angular resolution is approximate to 1 degrees at 1 TeV and improves to approximate to 0.3 degrees for neutrinos with an energy of 1 PeV. Compared to previous analyses, this search is optimized for point-like neutrino emission with the same flux-characteristics as the observed astrophysical muon-neutrino flux and introduces an improved event-reconstruction and parametrization of the background. The result is an improvement in sensitivity to the muon-neutrino flux compared to the previous analysis of approximate to 35% assuming an E-2 spectrum. The sensitivity on the muon-neutrino flux is at a level of E2dN/dE=310-13s-1. No new evidence for neutrino sources is found in a full sky scan and in an a priori candidate source list that is motivated by gamma-ray observations. Furthermore, no significant excesses above background are found from populations of sub-threshold sources. The implications of the non-observation for potential source classes are discussed.</p>
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39.
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • IceTop : The surface component of IceCube
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A : Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 700, s. 188-220
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole, is an air shower array with an area of 1 km(2). The detector allows a detailed exploration of the mass composition of primary cosmic rays in the energy range from about 100 TeV to 1 EeV by exploiting the correlation between the shower energy measured in IceTop and the energy deposited by muons in the deep ice. In this paper we report on the technical design, construction and installation, the trigger and data acquisition systems as well as the software framework for calibration, reconstruction and simulation. Finally the first experience from commissioning and operating the detector and the performance as an air shower detector will be discussed.</p>
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40.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of K-S(0) and K*(0) in p plus p, d plus Au, and Cu plus Cu collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 90:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has performed a systematic study of K-S(0) and K*(0) meson production at midrapidity in p + p, d + Au, and Cu + Cu collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons are reconstructed via their K-S(0) -> pi(0)(-> gamma gamma) pi(0)(-> gamma gamma) and K*(0) -> K-+/-pi(-/+) decay modes, respectively. The measured transverse-momentum spectra are used to determine the nuclear modification factor of K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons in d + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at different centralities. In the d + Au collisions, the nuclear modification factor of K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons is almost constant as a function of transverse momentum and is consistent with unity, showing that cold-nuclear-matter effects do not play a significant role in the measured kinematic range. In Cu + Cu collisions, within the uncertainties no nuclear modification is registered in peripheral collisions. In central collisions, both mesons show suppression relative to the expectations from the p + p yield scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions in the Cu + Cu system. In the p(T) range 2-5 GeV/c, the strange mesons (K-S(0), K*(0)) similarly to the phi meson with hidden strangeness, showan intermediate suppression between the more suppressed light quark mesons (pi(0)) and the nonsuppressed baryons (p, (p) over bar). At higher transverse momentum, p(T) > 5 GeV/c, production of all particles is similarly suppressed by a factor of approximate to 2.
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