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71.
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • Searches for high-energy neutrino emission in the galaxy with the combined icecube-amanda detector
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 763:1, s. 33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We report on searches for neutrino sources at energies above 200 GeV in the Northern sky of the Galactic plane, using the data collected by the South Pole neutrino telescope, IceCube, and AMANDA. The Galactic region considered in this work includes the local arm toward the Cygnus region and our closest approach to the Perseus Arm. The searches are based on the data collected between 2007 and 2009. During this time AMANDA was an integrated part of IceCube, which was still under construction and operated with 22 strings (2007-2008) and 40 strings (2008-2009) of optical modules deployed in the ice. By combining the advantages of the larger IceCube detector with the lower energy threshold of the more compact AMANDA detector, we obtain an improved sensitivity at energies below ∼10 TeV with respect to previous searches. The analyses presented here are a scan for point sources within the Galactic plane, a search optimized for multiple and extended sources in the Cygnus region, which might be below the sensitivity of the point source scan, and studies of seven pre-selected neutrino source candidates. For one of them, Cygnus X-3, a time-dependent search for neutrino emission in coincidence with observed radio and X-ray flares has been performed. No evidence of a signal is found, and upper limits are reported for each of the searches. We investigate neutrino spectra proportional to E -2 and E -3 in order to cover the entire range of possible neutrino spectra. The steeply falling E -3 neutrino spectrum can also be used to approximate neutrino energy spectra with energy cutoffs below 50 TeV since these result in a similar energy distribution of events in the detector. For the region of the Galactic plane visible in the Northern sky, the 90% confidence level muon neutrino flux upper limits are in the range E 3 dN/dE ∼ 5.4-19.5 × 10-11 TeV2 cm-2 s-1 for point-like neutrino sources in the energy region [180.0 GeV-20.5 TeV]. These represent the most stringent upper limits for soft-spectra neutrino sources within the Galaxy reported to date.</p>
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72.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Event structure and double helicity asymmetry in jet production from polarized p plus p collisions at root s=200 GeV
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - American Physical Society. - 1550-2368. ; 84:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the event structure and double helicity asymmetry (A(LL)) of jet production in longitudinally polarized p + p collisions at root s = 200 GeV. Photons and charged particles were measured by the PHENIX experiment at midrapidity vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.35 with the requirement of a high-momentum (> 2 GeV/c) photon in the event. Event structure, such as multiplicity, p(T) density and thrust in the PHENIX acceptance, were measured and compared with the results from the PYTHIA event generator and the GEANT detector simulation. The shape of jets and the underlying event were well reproduced at this collision energy. For the measurement of jet A(LL), photons and charged particles were clustered with a seed-cone algorithm to obtain the cluster pT sum (p(T)(reco)). The effect of detector response and the underlying events on p(T)(reco) was evaluated with the simulation. The production rate of reconstructed jets is satisfactorily reproduced with the next-to-leading-order and perturbative quantum chromodynamics jet production cross section. For 4< p(T)(reco) < 12 GeV/c with an average beam polarization of < P > = 49% we measured Lambda(LL) = -0.0014 +/- 0.0037(stat) at the lowest p(T)(reco) bin (4-5 GeV= c) and -0.0181 +/- 0.0282(stat) at the highest p(T)(reco) bin (10-12 GeV= c) with a beam polarization scale error of 9.4% and a pT scale error of 10%. Jets in the measured p(T)(reco) range arise primarily from hard-scattered gluons with momentum fraction 0: 02 < x < 0: 3 according to PYTHIA. The measured A(LL) is compared with predictions that assume various Delta G(x) distributions based on the Gluck-Reya-Stratmann-Vogelsang parameterization. The present result imposes the limit -a.1 < integral(0.3)(0.02) dx Delta G(x, mu(2) = GeV2) < 0.4 at 95% confidence level or integral(0.3)(0.002) dx Delta G(x, mu(2) = 1 GeV2) < 0.5 at 99% confidence level.
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73.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Nuclear-modification factor for open-heavy-flavor production at forward rapidity in Cu plus Cu collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 86:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Heavy-flavor production in p + p collisions is a good test of perturbative-quantum-chromodynamics (pQCD) calculations. Modification of heavy-flavor production in heavy-ion collisions relative to binary-collision scaling from p + p results, quantified with the nuclear-modification factor (R-AA), provides information on both cold-and hot-nuclear-matter effects. Midrapidity heavy-flavor R-AA measurements at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have challenged parton-energy-loss models and resulted in upper limits on the viscosity-entropy ratio that are near the quantum lower bound. Such measurements have not been made in the forward-rapidity region. Purpose: Determine transverse-momentum (p(T)) spectra and the corresponding R-AA for muons from heavy-flavor meson decay in p + p and Cu + Cu collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV and y = 1.65. Method: Results are obtained using the semileptonic decay of heavy-flavor mesons into negative muons. The PHENIX muon-arm spectrometers measure the p(T) spectra of inclusive muon candidates. Backgrounds, primarily due to light hadrons, are determined with a Monte Carlo calculation using a set of input hadron distributions tuned to match measured-hadron distributions in the same detector and statistically subtracted. Results: The charm-production cross section in p + p collisions at root s = 200 GeV, integrated over p(T) and in the rapidity range 1.4 < y < 1.9, is found to be d(sigma e (e) over bar)/dy = 0.139 +/- 0.029 (stat)(-0.058)(+0.051) (syst) mb. This result is consistent with a perturbative fixed-order-plus-next-to-leading-log calculation within scale uncertainties and is also consistent with expectations based on the corresponding midrapidity charm-production cross section measured by PHENIX. The R-AA for heavy-flavor muons in Cu + Cu collisions is measured in three centrality bins for 1 < p(T) < 4 GeV/c. Suppression relative to binary-collision scaling (R-AA < 1) increases with centrality. Conclusions: Within experimental and theoretical uncertainties, the measured charm yield in p + p collisions is consistent with state-of-the-art pQCD calculations. Suppression in central Cu + Cu collisions suggests the presence of significant cold-nuclear-matter effects and final-state energy loss.
74.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d plus Au, Cu plus Cu, and Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 83:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu, and Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R-AA for Au + Au and Cu + Cu, and R-dA for d + Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1 < p(T) < 7 GeV/c) and centrality. In central and midcentral Au + Au collisions, the R-AA of phi exhibits a suppression relative to expectations from binary scaled p + p results. The amount of suppression is smaller than that of the pi(0) and the. in the intermediate p(T) range (2-5 GeV/c), whereas, at higher p(T), the phi, pi(0), and. show similar suppression. The baryon (proton and antiproton) excess observed in central Au + Au collisions at intermediate p(T) is not observed for the phi meson despite the similar masses of the proton and the phi. This suggests that the excess is linked to the number of valence quarks in the hadron rather than its mass. The difference gradually disappears with decreasing centrality, and, for peripheral collisions, the R-AA values for both particle species are consistent with binary scaling. Cu + Cu collisions show the same yield and suppression as Au + Au collisions for the same number of N-part. The R-dA of phi shows no evidence for cold nuclear effects within uncertainties.
75.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Production of omega mesons in p plus p, d plus Au, Cu plus Cu, and Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 84:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured omega meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p + p, d + Au, Cu+ Cu, and Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu Cu and Au + Au collisions show that. production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of pi(0) and eta in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, R-AA, are consistent in Cu + Cu and Au + Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.
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76.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • System-size dependence of open-heavy-flavor production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 90:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured open-heavy-flavor production in Cu + Cu collisions at v root s(NN) = 200 GeV through the measurement of electrons at midrapidity that originate from semileptonic decays of charm and bottom hadrons. In peripheral Cu + Cu collisions an enhanced production of electrons is observed relative to p + p collisions scaled by the number of binary collisions. In the transverse momentum range from 1 to 5 GeV/c the nuclear modification factor is R-AA similar to 1.4. As the system size increases to more central Cu + Cu collisions, the enhancement gradually disappears and turns into a suppression. For p(T) > 3 GeV/c, the suppression reaches R-AA similar to 0.8 in the most central collisions. The p(T) and centrality dependence of R-AA in Cu + Cu collisions agree quantitatively with R-AA in d + Au and Au + Au collisions, if compared at a similar number of participating nucleons < N-part >.
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77.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Transition in Yield and Azimuthal Shape Modification in Dihadron Correlations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 104:25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hard-scattered parton probes produced in collisions of large nuclei indicate large partonic energy loss, possibly with collective produced-medium response to the lost energy. We present measurements of pi(0) trigger particles at transverse momenta p(T)(t) = 4-12 GeV/c and associated charged hadrons (p(T)(a) = 0.5-7 GeV/c) vs relative azimuthal angle Delta phi in Au + Au and p + p collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The Au + Au distribution at low p(T)(a), whose shape has been interpreted as a medium effect, is modified for p(T)(t) < 7 GeV/c. At higher p(T)(t), the data are consistent with unmodified or very weakly modified shapes, even for the lowest measured p(T)(a), which quantitatively challenges some medium response models. The associated yield of hadrons opposing the trigger particle in Au + Au relative to p + p (I-AA) is suppressed at high p(T) (I-AA approximate to 0.35-0.5), but less than for inclusive suppression (R-AA approximate to 0.2).
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78.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Transverse momentum dependence of eta meson suppression in Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 82:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New measurements by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider for. production at midrapidity as a function of transverse momentum ((PT)) and collision centrality in root s(NN) = 200 GeV Au + Au and p + p collisions are presented. They indicate nuclear modification factors (R-AA) which are similar in both magnitude and trend to those found in earlier pi(0) measurements. Linear fits to R-AA as a function of (PT) in 5-20 GeV/c show that the slope is consistent with zero within two standard deviations at all centralities, although a slow rise cannot be excluded. Having different statistical and systematic uncertainties, the pi(0) and eta measurements are complementary at high (PT); thus, along with the extended (PT) range of these data they can provide additional constraints for theoretical modeling and the extraction of transport properties.
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79.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Constraints on Galactic Neutrino Emission with Seven Years of IceCube Data
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 849:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The origins of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos remain a mystery despite extensive searches for their sources. We present constraints from seven years of IceCube Neutrino Observatory muon data on the neutrino flux coming from the Galactic plane. This flux is expected from cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium or near localized sources. Two methods were developed to test for a spatially extended flux from the entire plane, both of which are maximum likelihood fits but with different signal and background modeling techniques. We consider three templates for Galactic neutrino emission based primarily on gamma-ray observations and models that cover a wide range of possibilities. Based on these templates and in the benchmark case of an unbroken E-2.5 power-law energy spectrum, we set 90% confidence level upper limits, constraining the possible Galactic contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux to be relatively small, less than 14% of the flux reported in Aartsen et al. above 1 TeV. A stacking method is also used to test catalogs of known high-energy Galactic gamma-ray sources.</p>
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80.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • First Observation of PeV-Energy Neutrinos with IceCube
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 111:2, s. 021103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We report on the observation of two neutrino-induced events which have an estimated deposited energy in the IceCube detector of 1.04 +/- 0.16 and 1.14 +/- 0.17 PeV, respectively, the highest neutrino energies observed so far. These events are consistent with fully contained particle showers induced by neutral-current nu(e,mu,tau) ((nu) over bar (e,mu,tau)) or charged-current nu(e) ((nu) over bar (e)) interactions within the IceCube detector. The events were discovered in a search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos using data corresponding to 615.9 days effective live time. The expected number of atmospheric background is 0.082 +/- 0.004(stat)(-0.057)(+0.041)(syst). The probability of observing two or more candidate events under the atmospheric background-only hypothesis is 2.9 x 10(-3) (2.8 sigma) taking into account the uncertainty on the expected number of background events. These two events could be a first indication of an astrophysical neutrino flux; the moderate significance, however, does not permit a definitive conclusion at this time.</p>
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