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Sökning: WFRF:(Koposov Roman A.)

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  • Föregående 12[3]
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21.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav V, et al. (författare)
  • Suicidal ideations and attempts in juvenile delinquents.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. - 0021-9630 .- 1469-7610. ; 44:7, s. 1058-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Suicidality among adolescents is a common focus of clinical attention. In spite of links to disruptive behaviors and other types of psychopathology, it is not clear whether other factors commonly associated with suicide, such as personality and parenting, predict suicidality over and above psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to assess suicidal ideations and attempts and their relationship to psychopathology, violence exposure, personality traits and parental rearing in Russian male juvenile delinquents with conduct disorder (CD).METHOD: Suicidality and psychopathology were assessed using a semi-structured psychiatric interview in 271 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents diagnosed with CD. Violence exposure, personality characteristics and perceived parental rearing were assessed via self-reports.RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of those diagnosed with CD (92 subjects) reported a lifetime history of either suicidal thoughts or attempts. Suicidal ideators and attempters did not differ significantly on any variable of interest, but both reported significantly higher rates of psychopathology and violence exposure than the non-suicidal group, as well as higher levels of harm avoidance, lower self-directedness, and higher rates of perceived negative parental rearing. Finally, even when controlling for the relationship with psychopathology, personality and perceived parental rearing factors showed significant associations with suicidality.CONCLUSIONS: Juvenile delinquents with CD have high rates of suicidal ideations and attempts, related to a wide spectrum of psychopathology and specific personality traits. These findings suggest that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors create vulnerability to stressors, which under the influence of situational factors (e.g., repeated traumatization) may lead to suicidal thoughts and acts. Factors potentially contributing to vulnerability for suicidality should be identified when planning prevention and rehabilitation efforts for troubled youth.
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22.
  • Wiklund, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Pro-bullying attitudes among incarcerated juvenile delinquents : Antisocial behavior, psychopathic tendencies and violent crime
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - New York : Pergamon Press. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 37:3, s. 281-288
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective was to evaluate a new scale aimed at assessing antisocial attitudes, the Pro-bullying Attitude Scale (PAS), on a group of 259 voluntarily-recruited male juvenile delinquents from a juvenile correctional institution in Arkhangelsk, North-western Russia. Exploratory factor analysis gave a two-factor solution: Factor 1 denoted Callous/Dominance and Factor 2 denoted Manipulativeness/Impulsiveness. Subjects with complete data on PAS and Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS) (n = 171) were divided into extreme groups (first and fourth quartiles) according to their total scores on PAS and the two factor scores, respectively. The extreme groups of total PAS and PAS Factor 1 differed in CPS ratings and in violent behavior as assessed by the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC). They also differed in the personality dimension Harm Avoidance as measured by use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and in delinquent and aggressive behavior as assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR). The extreme groups of PAS Factor 2, in turn, differed in aggressive behavior as assessed by the YSR, and in the TCI scale Self-Directedness. When PAS was used as a continuous variable, total PAS and PAS Factor 1 (Callous/Dominance) were significantly positively related to registered violent crime. The possible usefulness of PAS in identifying high-risk individuals for bullying tendencies among incarcerated delinquents is discussed.
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23.
  • Grigorenko, Elena L., et al. (författare)
  • Exploring interactive effects on genes and environments in etiology of individual differences in reading comprehension
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Development and Psychopathology. - 0954-5794. ; 19:4, s. 1089-1103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is established that reading and reading-related processes are heritable; genes thus play an important role in the foundation of individual differences in reading. In this article, we focus on one facet of reading–comprehension. Comprehension is a higher order cognitive skill that requires many other cognitive processes for it to unfold completely and successfully. One such process is executive functioning, which has been associated with genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Genotypes and haplotypes of four single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT were investigated in 179 incarcerated adolescent delinquents. Four hierarchical logistic regression models predicting the presence/absence of comprehension difficulties were fitted to the data; genetic variation in COMT and the presence/absence of maternal rejection were investigated as main effects and as effects acting interactively. Three out of four interaction terms were found to be important predictors of individual differences in comprehension. These findings were supported by the results of the haplotype analyses, in which the four investigated polymorphisms were considered simultaneously.
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24.
  • Isaksson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring possible association between D beta H genotype (C1021T), early onset of conduct disorder and psychopathic traits in juvenile delinquents
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 266:8, s. 771-773
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early onset of conduct disorder (CD) with callous-unemotional traits has been linked to low levels of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), an enzyme involved in dopamine turnover. The C1021T polymorphism in the DβH gene is a major quantitative-trait locus, regulating the level of DβH. In this study of juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia (n = 180), the polymorphism at -1021 was associated neither with early-onset CD nor with psychopathic traits. Association was found between psychopathic traits and early-onset CD, ADHD and mania.
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25.
  • Koposov, Roman A, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol abuse in Russian delinquent adolescents. Associations with comorbid psychopathology, personality and parenting.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. - 1018-8827 .- 1435-165X. ; 14:5, s. 254-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Adolescent delinquency and alcohol abuse have become a growing concern in Russia. Psychopathology, a dysfunctional family and specific personality factors have all been linked to addictive and antisocial behavior. Since delinquent youth represent a specific risk group, where alcohol misuse tends to be more pronounced than in the general population, the objectives of this study were: 1) to compare differences in personality and parenting factors, and in psychopathology in juvenile delinquents with and without alcohol abuse; and 2) to evaluate the associations between alcohol abuse, personality and parenting factors, after controlling for comorbid psychopathology.METHODS: Psychopathology, including alcohol abuse, was assessed by means of a psychiatric interview in 229 Russian incarcerated male juvenile delinquents. In addition, alcohol use, personality, and parenting factors were assessed by self-reports.RESULTS: Alcohol-abusing delinquents (n=138) scored significantly higher on novelty seeking and maternal emotional warmth and reported higher levels of psychopathology, as compared to nonalcohol-abusing delinquents (n=91). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that personality and parenting factors were significantly related to alcohol abuse, even after controlling for comorbid psychopathology.CONCLUSION: Alcohol-abusing delinquents are at risk for a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Alcohol abuse is associated with personality and parenting factors independently of comorbid psychopathology. Early interventions with high-risk youths may help to reduce their psychiatric problems and alcohol abuse.
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26.
  • Koposov, Roman A, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol expectancies in relation to personality and aggression among juvenile delinquents in Northern Russia.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Drug Education. - 0047-2379 .- 1541-4159. ; 35:2, s. 111-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relationships between alcohol expectancies, level of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, aggression, and personality factors in 198 Russian male juvenile delinquents were assessed. A clustering procedure was used in order to establish main patterns of alcohol expectancies, yielding three major clusters. Level of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, aggression, and personality factors were compared across the identified clusters. It was established that juvenile delinquents with a high level of positive alcohol expectancies and aggression represented a risk-group for higher involvement in drinking behavior as well as problem drinking, which in turn are related to specific personality traits. Implications of these findings for alcohol prevention among the youth are discussed.
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27.
  • Koposov, Roman A, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol use in adolescents from northern Russia : the role of the social context.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - 0735-0414 .- 1464-3502. ; 37:3, s. 297-303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Drinking alcohol is an essential and commonplace part of life in Russia. Alcohol-related problems in the general population and among adolescents in particular has become a major public health concern. The problem cannot be solely explained by the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption. The social determinants of drinking alcohol also need to be considered. These are the focus of the present investigation. The social determinants of drinking behaviour were assessed by self-reports (Social Context of Drinking Scale, Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale and Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index) in 387 secondary school students in Arkhangelsk, Russia. The factor structure for the Social Context of Drinking Scale was similar to that noted in respect of the original study [Thombs and Beck (1994) Health Education and Research 9, 13-22]. Significant gender differences in problem drinking and the social contexts of drinking were found. High intensity girl drinkers were likely to drink in most social contexts, whereas high intensity drinking boys were more likely to drink in the context of Stress Control. Furthermore, boy problem drinkers were more likely to drink in the context of School Defiance and Peer Acceptance, whereas girl problem drinkers tended to drink in the contexts of School Defiance and Stress Control. In general, the Social Context of Drinking Scale demonstrated a good ability to discriminate high from low intensity drinkers, and high from low problem drinkers. These results may provide useful information for targeted prevention programmes for adolescents.
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28.
  • Koposov, Roman A, et al. (författare)
  • Sense of coherence : a mediator between violence exposure and psychopathology in Russian juvenile delinquents.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. - 0022-3018 .- 1539-736X. ; 191:10, s. 638-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to community violence tends to have a hazardous impact on the health and well being of youth. In this context, sense of coherence is related to indicators of well being and mental health and is considered crucial for human information processing in resolving conflicts and coping with enduring stress. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of sense of coherence as a potential mediator in the relationships between community violence exposure and psychopathology, controlling for involvement in severe problem behavior. The study was conducted with a group of Russian juvenile delinquents (N = 159; a highly traumatized population with a history of frequent exposure to violence), who completed a set of questionnaires assessing their exposure to community violence, psychopathology, involvement in severe problem behaviors, and sense of coherence. The relationships among the variables of interest were explored using a structural equation modeling approach. Sense of coherence partially mediated the link between victimization and psychopathology. The direct relationships between victimization and psychopathology decreased in size, suggesting that higher levels of sense of coherence can potentially reduce the levels of psychopathology. These results have an important theoretical value and are meaningful for clinical work, suggesting that preventive and therapeutic interventions should aim at increasing sense of coherence, which might be especially valuable in populations at risk.
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