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11.
  • Landén, Mikael, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Dyslipidemia and high waist-hip ratio in women with self-reported social anxiety.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530. ; 29:8, s. 1037-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research has indicated that phobic anxiety is associated with coronary heart disease. In this study, the possible association between social anxiety and various anthropometric, metabolic, and endocrine measurements known to be associated with cardiovascular disease were studied in a population-based cohort of 216 women 41-42 years old. Each participant was assessed by means of a DSM-IV based self-report questionnaire regarding social anxiety and related psychiatric diagnoses. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), and serum levels of lipids and hormones were assessed. The prevalence of social anxiety was 14% (n=31). The social anxiety group displayed higher serum levels of triglycerides (1.3+/-0.9 vs. 1.0+/-0.5, P=0.003) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (3.3+/-0.8 vs. 3.0+/-0.7, P=0.03), but lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (1.4+/-0.3 vs. 1.6+/-0.4, P=0.04) and HDL/LDL ratio (0.46+/-0.15 vs. 0.57+/-0.22, P=0.008) than the other women. Serum levels of total testosterone (1.6+/-0.8 vs. 2.2+/-1.1, P=0.013) and free thyroxin (14+/-2 vs. 16+/-4, P=0.04) were lower in subjects confirming social anxiety. While WHR was significantly higher in the social anxiety group (0.83+/-0.06 vs. 0.80+/-0.07, P=0.016), BMI did not differ between the groups. Our data suggest that self-reported social anxiety is associated with two established risk factors for cardiovascular disease: dyslipidemia and increased WHR.
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12.
  • Melke, Jonas, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and platelet [3H] paroxetine binding in premenstrual dysphoria.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530. ; 28:3, s. 446-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to investigate if women with premenstrual dysphoria differ from controls with respect to the number of platelet serotonin transporters, and with respect to three polymorphisms in the gene coding for the serotonin transporter: a 44 base pair insertion/deletion in the promoter region, a variable number of tandem repeats in the second intron, and a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region. Also, the possible relationship between the three polymorphisms and platelet serotonin transporter density was analyzed. The density of platelet [(3)H]paroxetine binding sites was significantly lower in women with premenstrual dysphoria than in controls, but patients and controls did not differ with respect to allele or genotype frequency for any of the three polymorphisms examined. A significant association between the number of platelet serotonin transporters and the promoter polymorphism was observed, subjects being homozygous for the short (deletion) variant having higher platelet serotonin transporter density than subjects carrying the long (insertion) allele. The results support the assumption that serotonin-related psychiatric disorders-such as premenstrual dysphoria-may be associated with a reduction in platelet [(3)H]paroxetine binding, but argue against the notion that this reduction is due to certain variants of the serotonin transporter gene being more common in patients than in controls.
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13.
  • Melke, Jonas, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms are associated with anxiety-related personality traits in women.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: American journal of medical genetics. - 0148-7299. ; 105:5, s. 458-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies have reported an association between anxiety-related personality traits and a promoter polymorphism in the human serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene (5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region, 5-HTTLPR). In the present study, a population of 251 subjects was assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and genotyped both for the 5-HTTLPR and for a variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in the second intron of the same gene. The interpretation of previous studies has to some extent been confounded by the studied subjects differing with respect to ethnicity, sex, and age. To circumvent this problem, all included subjects were Caucasians, women, and born in the same year (1956). Associations were found between the 5-HTTLPR and four of the five anxiety-related KSP scales (psychic anxiety, muscular tension, psychasthenia, and lack of assertiveness), subjects being homozygous for the short allele displaying higher anxiety scores than those of the long/long or long/short genotype. In addition, an association was found between the intron 2 polymorphism and one anxiety-related personality trait (somatic anxiety).
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14.
  • Rönnqvist, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • Rehospitalization of Postpartum Depression and Psychosis After Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Population-Based Study With a Matched Control Group.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The journal of ECT. - 1533-4112. ; 35:4, s. 264-271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used in some cases of postpartum depression (PPD) and postpartum psychosis (PPP). The risk of relapse for PPD and PPP after ECT is unknown. This study compared the relapse rate after ECT between women who had been treated for PPD and/or PPP and women who had been treated for depression and/or psychosis outside the postpartum period.The Swedish National Quality Register for ECT and the Swedish National Patient Register were used to identify women with PPD and/or PPP who had been treated with ECT within 6 months after delivery. For each case, a control (treated with ECT but not postpartum) patient was also selected. A Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to calculate the relapse rate (defined as rehospitalization or suicide) after ECT. Cox regression was used to identify variables associated with relapse.A total of 180 patients were included in each group. The proportions of patients who suffered relapse after 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 28%, 31%, and 40% for the postpartum group and 39%, 50%, and 55% for the nonpostpartum group. Treatment with benzodiazepines, several previous psychiatric admissions, and the absence of improvement after ECT were associated with relapse.The risk of relapse after ECT is lower for patients with PPD and/or PPP than for patients outside the postpartum period, but the risk is nonetheless substantial in both groups.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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15.
  • Westberg, Lars, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Association between a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism of the estrogen receptor alpha gene and personality traits in women.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - 1359-4184. ; 8:1, s. 118-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogens are known to play a key role in the regulation of various aspects of behavior. In order to study the potential contribution of genetic variation in the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha to specific personality traits, we investigated a repeat polymorphism in the ER alpha gene in 172 42-year-old women who had been assessed using the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). Based on the hypothesis that there is a relationship between the length of a repeat polymorphism and gene function,(1) the alleles were divided into two groups: short and long. In order to elucidate the possible influence of the ER alpha gene on the different aspects of personality measured by means of the KSP, the possible association between this gene and four different factors ('neuroticism', 'psychoticism', 'non-conformity', and 'extraversion') was analysed. 'Neuroticism', 'psychoticism', and 'non-conformity' all appeared to be associated with the ER alpha gene. After correction for multiple comparisons by means of permutation analysis, the associations with the factor 'non-conformity'--including the subscales 'indirect aggression' and 'irritability'--and the factor 'psychoticism'--including the subscale 'suspicion'--remained significant. The results suggest that the studied dinucleotide repeat polymorphism of the ER alpha gene may contribute to specific components of personality.
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16.
  • Westberg, Lars, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms of the androgen receptor gene and the estrogen receptor beta gene are associated with androgen levels in women.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 86:6, s. 2562-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To elucidate the possible role of genetic variation in androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), and ER beta on serum androgen levels in premenopausal women, the CAG repeat polymorphism of the AR gene, the TA repeat polymorphism of the ER alpha gene, and the CA repeat polymorphism of the ER beta gene were studied in a population-based cohort of 270 women. Total testosterone, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 3 alpha-androstanediol glucuronide, 17 beta-estradiol, LH, FSH, and sex steroid hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in serum samples obtained in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Women with relatively few CAG repeats in the AR gene, resulting in higher transcriptional activity of the receptor, displayed higher levels of serum androgens, but lower levels of LH, than women with longer CAG repeat sequences. The CA repeat of the ER beta gene also was associated with androgen and SHBG levels; women with relatively short repeat regions hence displayed higher hormone levels and lower SHBG levels than those with many CA repeats. In contrast, the TA repeat of the ER alpha gene was not associated with the levels of any of the hormones measured. Our results suggest that the serum levels of androgens in premenopausal women may be influenced by variants of the AR gene and the ER beta gene, respectively.
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17.
  • Abé, C, et al. (författare)
  • Bipolar disorder type I and II show distinct relationships between cortical thickness and executive function.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 1600-0447. ; 138:4, s. 325-335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontal cortical abnormalities and executive function impairment co-occur in bipolar disorder. Recent studies have shown that bipolar subtypes differ in the degree of structural and functional impairments. The relationships between cognitive performance and cortical integrity have not been clarified and might differ across patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and healthy subjects.Using a vertex-wise whole-brain analysis, we investigated how cortical integrity, as measured by cortical thickness, correlates with executive performance in patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and controls (N = 160).We found focal associations between executive function and cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex in bipolar II patients and controls, but not in bipolar I disorder. In bipolar II patients, we observed additional correlations in lateral prefrontal and occipital regions.Our findings suggest that bipolar disorder patients show altered structure-function relationships, and importantly that those relationships may differ between bipolar subtypes. The findings are line with studies suggesting subtype-specific neurobiological and cognitive profiles. This study contributes to a better understanding of brain structure-function relationships in bipolar disorder and gives important insights into the neuropathophysiology of diagnostic subtypes.
18.
  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical brain structure and sexual orientation in adult females with bipolar disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain and behavior. - 2162-3279. ; 8:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nonheterosexual individuals have higher risk of psychiatric morbidity. Together with growing evidence for sexual orientation-related brain differences, this raises the concern that sexual orientation may be an important factor to control for in neuroimaging studies of neuropsychiatric disorders.We studied sexual orientation in adult psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or ADHD in a large clinical cohort (N = 154). We compared cortical brain structure in exclusively heterosexual women (HEW, n = 29) with that of nonexclusively heterosexual women (nHEW, n = 37) using surface-based reconstruction techniques provided by FreeSurfer.The prevalence of nonheterosexual sexual orientation was tentatively higher than reported in general population samples. Consistent with previously reported cross-sex shifted brain patterns among homosexual individuals, nHEW patients showed significantly larger cortical volumes than HEW in medial occipital brain regions.We found evidence for a sex-reversed difference in cortical volume among nonheterosexual female patients, which provides insights into the neurobiology of sexual orientation, and may provide the first clues toward a better neurobiological understanding of the association between sexual orientation and mental health. We also suggest that sexual orientation is an important factor to consider in future neuroimaging studies of populations with certain mental health disorders.
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19.
  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical thickness, volume and surface area in patients with bipolar disorder types I and II.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN. - 1488-2434. ; 41:4, s. 240-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common chronic psychiatric disorder mainly characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania and depression. The disorder is associated with cognitive impairments and structural brain abnormalities, such as lower cortical volumes in primarily frontal brain regions than healthy controls. Although bipolar disorder types I (BDI) and II (BDII) exhibit different symptoms and severity, previous studies have focused on BDI. Furthermore, the most frequently investigated measure in this population is cortical volume. The aim of our study was to investigate abnormalities in patients with BDI and BDII by simultaneously analyzing cortical volume, thickness and surface area, which yields more information about disease- and symptom-related neurobiology.
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20.
  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal Cortical Thickness Changes in Bipolar Disorder and the Relationship to Genetic Risk, Mania, and Lithium Use.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Biological psychiatry. - 1873-2402. ; 87:3, s. 271-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder characterized by episodes of manic and depressed mood states and associated with cortical brain abnormalities. Although the course of BD is often progressive, longitudinal brain imaging studies are scarce. It remains unknown whether brain abnormalities are static traits of BD or result from pathological changes over time. Moreover, the genetic effect on implicated brain regions remains unknown.Patients with BD and healthy control (HC) subjects underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging at baseline (123 patients, 83 HC subjects) and after 6 years (90 patients, 61 HC subjects). Cortical thickness maps were generated using FreeSurfer. Using linear mixed effects models, we compared longitudinal changes in cortical thickness between patients with BD and HC subjects across the whole brain. We related our findings to genetic risk for BD and tested for effects of demographic and clinical variables.Patients showed abnormal cortical thinning of temporal cortices and thickness increases in visual/somatosensory brain areas. Thickness increases were related to genetic risk and lithium use. Patients who experienced hypomanic or manic episodes between time points showed abnormal thinning in inferior frontal cortices. Cortical changes did not differ between diagnostic BD subtypes I and II.In the largest longitudinal BD study to date, we detected abnormal cortical changes with high anatomical resolution. We delineated regional effects of clinical symptoms, genetic factors, and medication that may explain progressive brain changes in BD. Our study yields important insights into disease mechanisms and suggests that neuroprogression plays a role in BD.
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