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41.
  • Charney, Alexander W, et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of Rare Copy Number Variants to Bipolar Disorder Risk Is Limited to Schizoaffective Cases.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Biological psychiatry. - 1873-2402. ; 86:2, s. 110-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic risk for bipolar disorder (BD) is conferred through many common alleles, while a role for rare copy number variants (CNVs) is less clear. Subtypes of BD including schizoaffective disorder bipolar type (SAB), bipolar I disorder (BD I), and bipolar II disorder (BD II) differ according to the prominence and timing of psychosis, mania, and depression. The genetic factors contributing to the combination of symptoms among these subtypes are poorly understood.Rare large CNVs were analyzed in 6353 BD cases (3833 BD I [2676 with psychosis, 850 without psychosis, and 307 with unknown psychosis history], 1436 BD II, 579 SAB, and 505 BD not otherwise specified) and 8656 controls. CNV burden and a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia were used to evaluate the relative contributions of rare and common variants to risk of BD, BD subtypes, and psychosis.CNV burden did not differ between BD and controls when treated as a single diagnostic entity. However, burden in SAB was increased relative to controls (p = .001), BD I (p = .0003), and BD II (p = .0007). Burden and schizophrenia PRSs were increased in SAB compared with BD I with psychosis (CNV p = .0007, PRS p = .004), and BD I without psychosis (CNV p = .0004, PRS p = 3.9 × 10-5). Within BD I, psychosis was associated with increased schizophrenia PRSs (p = .005) but not CNV burden.CNV burden in BD is limited to SAB. Rare and common genetic variants may contribute differently to risk for psychosis and perhaps other classes of psychiatric symptoms.
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42.
  • Charney, A. W., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for genetic heterogeneity between clinical subtypes of bipolar disorder
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed a genome-wide association study of 6447 bipolar disorder (BD) cases and 12 639 controls from the International Cohort Collection for Bipolar Disorder (ICCBD). Meta-analysis was performed with prior results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Disorder Working Group for a combined sample of 13 902 cases and 19 279 controls. We identified eight genome-wide significant, associated regions, including a novel associated region on chromosome 10 (rs10884920; P = 3.28 x 10(-8)) that includes the brain-enriched cytoskeleton protein adducin 3 (ADD3), a non-coding RNA, and a neuropeptide-specific aminopeptidase P (XPNPEP1). Our large sample size allowed us to test the heritability and genetic correlation of BD subtypes and investigate their genetic overlap with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. We found a significant difference in heritability of the two most common forms of BD (BD I SNP-h(2) = 0.35; BD II SNP-h(2) = 0.25; P = 0.02). The genetic correlation between BD I and BD II was 0.78, whereas the genetic correlation was 0.97 when BD cohorts containing both types were compared. In addition, we demonstrated a significantly greater load of polygenic risk alleles for schizophrenia and BD in patients with BD I compared with patients with BD II, and a greater load of schizophrenia risk alleles in patients with the bipolar type of schizoaffective disorder compared with patients with either BD I or BD II. These results point to a partial difference in the genetic architecture of BD subtypes as currently defined.
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43.
  • Chen, C. Y., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic validation of bipolar disorder identified by automated phenotyping using electronic health records
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 8:1, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) is a heritable mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression. Although genomewide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genetic loci contributing to BD risk, sample size has become a rate-limiting obstacle to genetic discovery. Electronic health records (EHRs) represent a vast but relatively untapped resource for high-throughput phenotyping. As part of the International Cohort Collection for Bipolar Disorder (ICCBD), we previously validated automated EHR-based phenotyping algorithms for BD against in-person diagnostic interviews (Castro et al. Am J Psychiatry 172:363-372, 2015). Here, we establish the genetic validity of these phenotypes by determining their genetic correlation with traditionally ascertained samples. Case and control algorithms were derived from structured and narrative text in the Partners Healthcare system comprising more than 4.6 million patients over 20 years. Genomewide genotype data for 3330 BD cases and 3952 controls of European ancestry were used to estimate SNP-based heritability (h 2 g) and genetic correlation (r g) between EHR-based phenotype definitions and traditionally ascertained BD cases in GWAS by the ICCBD and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) using LD score regression. We evaluated BD cases identified using 4 EHR-based algorithms: an NLP-based algorithm (95-NLP) and three rule-based algorithms using codified EHR with decreasing levels of stringency-"coded-strict", "coded-broad", and "coded-broad based on a single clinical encounter" (coded-broad-SV). The analytic sample comprised 862 95-NLP, 1968 coded-strict, 2581 coded-broad, 408 coded-broad-SV BD cases, and 3 952 controls. The estimated h 2 g were 0.24 (p = 0.015), 0.09 (p = 0.064), 0.13 (p = 0.003), 0.00 (p = 0.591) for 95-NLP, coded-strict, coded-broad and coded-broad-SV BD, respectively. The h 2 g for all EHR-based cases combined except coded-broad-SV (excluded due to 0 h 2 g) was 0.12 (p = 0.004). These h 2 g were lower or similar to the h 2 g observed by the ICCBD + PGCBD (0.23, p = 3.17E-80, total N = 33,181). However, the r g between ICCBD + PGCBD and the EHR-based cases were high for 95-NLP (0.66, p = 3.69 × 10-5), coded-strict (1.00, p = 2.40 × 10-4), and coded-broad (0.74, p = 8.11 × 10-7). The r g between EHR-based BD definitions ranged from 0.90 to 0.98. These results provide the first genetic validation of automated EHR-based phenotyping for BD and suggest that this approach identifies cases that are highly genetically correlated with those ascertained through conventional methods. High throughput phenotyping using the large data resources available in EHRs represents a viable method for accelerating psychiatric genetic research.
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44.
  • Cremaschi, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalences of autoimmune diseases in schizophrenia, bipolar I and II disorder, and controls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research. - 0165-1781. ; 258, s. 9-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies on the relationship between autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder are mainly based on hospital discharge registers with insufficient coverage of outpatient data. Furthermore, data is scant on the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in bipolar subgroups. Here we estimate the self-reported prevalences of autoimmune diseases in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I and II, and controls. Lifetime prevalence of autoimmune diseases was assessed through a structured interview in a sample of 9076 patients (schizophrenia N = 5278, bipolar disorder type I N = 1952, type II N = 1846) and 6485 controls. Comparative analyses were performed using logistic regressions. The prevalence of diabetes type 1 did not differ between groups. Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism regardless of lithium effects, rheumatoid arthritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica were most common in bipolar disorder. Systemic lupus erythematosus was less common in bipolar disorder than in the other groups. The rate of autoimmune diseases did not differ significantly between bipolar subgroups. We conclude that prevalences of autoimmune diseases show clear differences between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but not between the bipolar subgroups. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
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45.
  • Damberg, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of transcription factor AP-2 beta genotype in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience letters. - 0304-3940. ; 377:1, s. 49-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has repeatedly been shown that the serotonergic system is involved in the symptomatology of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Women with PMDD are reported to differ from symptom-free controls with regard to serotonin-related biological markers. Evidence from family and twin studies suggests a genetic contribution to the aetiology of PMDD. The expression of human transcription factor AP-2beta in neural crest cell lineages and neuroectodermal cells suggests that this protein may be of importance for functional characteristics of neurons by regulating the expression of target genes. Within the monoaminergic systems, several genes have binding sites for AP-2beta in regulatory regions, suggesting an involvement of AP-2beta in these systems. The gene encoding AP-2beta is located on chromosome 6p12-p21.1 and includes a polymorphic region consisting of a variable number of [CAAA] repeats located in the second intron. We have earlier shown that AP-2beta genotype is associated with serotonergic phenotypes and that brainstem levels of AP-2beta correlate positively to serotonin metabolism in rat frontal cortex. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between PMDD and transcription factor AP-2beta genotype. The participants included 176 women with PMDD and 91 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reactions. We did not observe any differences in AP-2beta genotype frequencies between PMDD subjects and controls. Our results suggest that AP-2beta genotype is not a risk factor for PMDD. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating transcription factor AP-2beta genotype in women with PMDD. Hence, these results should be considered preliminary until replicated.
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46.
  • de Jong, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Applying polygenic risk scoring for psychiatric disorders to a large family with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Communications biology. - 2399-3642. ; 1, s. 163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychiatric disorders are thought to have a complex genetic pathology consisting of interplay of common and rare variation. Traditionally, pedigrees are used to shed light on the latter only, while here we discuss the application of polygenic risk scores to also highlight patterns of common genetic risk. We analyze polygenic risk scores for psychiatric disorders in a large pedigree (n ~ 260) in which 30% of family members suffer from major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Studying patterns of assortative mating and anticipation, it appears increased polygenic risk is contributed by affected individuals who married into the family, resulting in an increasing genetic risk over generations. This may explain the observation of anticipation in mood disorders, whereby onset is earlier and the severity increases over the generations of a family. Joint analyses of rare and common variation may be a powerful way to understand the familial genetics of psychiatric disorders.
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47.
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48.
  • Drakopoulos, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Executive functioning but not IQ or illness severity predicts occupational status in bipolar disorder
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. - 2194-7511. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Bipolar disorder is associated with significant functional deficits including occupational functioning. Despite the high rates of unemployment and sick leave in the patient population, only a limited number of studies have examined factors associated with occupational functioning in bipolar disorder. The aim of the study was to investigate the relative importance of demographic, clinical, and neuropsychological factors on occupational dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Methods A sample of 120 partially or fully remitted bipolar disorder I and II patients were included in the study. Patients were stratified into an active and an inactive group based on the number of hours per week working or studying. Active (n = 86) and inactive (n = 34) patients were compared with respect to demographic factors, clinical characteristics, medication, measures of psychosocial functioning, and cognitive functioning (i.e., IQ and executive functions). No other cognitive domains were examined. Results Univariate analyses revealed better overall cognitive function in active patients in terms of IQ and executive functioning. However, only executive functioning accounted for a significant amount of the variance in occupational status when other significant predictors were taken into account. Conclusions Executive functioning was a more powerful predictor of occupational status in bipolar disorder patients than IQ and other clinical factors, including illness severity.
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49.
  • Duncan, Laramie, et al. (författare)
  • Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The American journal of psychiatry. - 1535-7228. ; 174:9, s. 850-858
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes.Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h(2)SNP]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (rg) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes.Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h(2)SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes.Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.
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50.
  • Ekman, A, et al. (författare)
  • Low density and high affinity of platelet [3H]paroxetine binding in women with bulimia nervosa.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry research. - 0165-1781. ; 142:2-3, s. 219-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Impaired serotonin transmission has been suggested to be implicated in the pathophysiology of bulimia nervosa. As an indirect measure of brain serotonergic activity, the binding of tritiated ligands to platelet serotonin transporters has been studied in bulimia nervosa as well as in other putatively serotonin-related psychiatric disorders. In this study, the density and affinity of platelet serotonin transporters were assessed in 20 women meeting the DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa and in 14 controls without previous or ongoing eating disorder using [H-3]paroxetine as a ligand. In comparison to controls, women with bulimia nervosa had a significantly reduced number of platelet binding sites (B-max=721 +/- 313 vs. 1145 +/- 293 fmol/mg protein) and an increase in the affinity for the ligand demonstrated by a lower dissociaton constant (K-d=33 +/- 10 vs. 44 +/- 10 pM). A significant correlation between B-max and K-d values was found in patients but not in controls. Our results support the notion that bulimia nervosa is associated with a reduction in platelet serotonin transporter density. In addition, our study is the first to report that this reduced transporter density in women with bulimia nervosa is accompanied by an increase in the affinity of the transporter for the ligand. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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