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Sökning: WFRF:(Landen M) > (2015-2019) > (2017)

  • Resultat 11-20 av 39
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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11.
  • Kegel, Magdalena E, et al. (författare)
  • Kynurenic acid and psychotic symptoms and personality traits in twins with psychiatric morbidity.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry research. - 1872-7123. ; 247, s. 105-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased cytokines and kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate cytokines and kynurenines in the CSF of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to study these CSF markers in relation to psychotic symptoms and personality traits. CSF levels of tryptophan (TRP), KYNA, quinolinic acid (QUIN), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed in 23 twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and in their not affected co-twins. Ratings of psychotic symptoms and personality traits were made using the Scales for Assessment of Negative and Positive symptoms, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV - Axis II Disorders, and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief. A total score for psychotic symptoms and personality traits was constructed for analysis. CSF KYNA was associated with the score for psychotic symptom and personality traits. TNF-α and IL-8 were associated, and the intra-pair differences scores of TNF-α and IL-8 were highly correlated. Intraclass correlations indicated genetic influences on CSF KYNA, TRP, IL-8 and TNF-α. The association between KYNA and psychotic symptoms further supports a role of KYNA in psychotic disorders.
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13.
  • Brus, O., et al. (författare)
  • Self-assessed remission rates after electroconvulsive therapy of depressive disorders
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Psychiatry. - Elsevier Masson SAS. - 0924-9338. ; 45, s. 154-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) effectively treats severe depression, but not all patients remit. The aim of the study was to identify clinical factors that associate with ECT-induced remission in a community setting. Methods Depressed patients who underwent ECT in 2011–2014 were identified from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT. Remission was defined as self-rated Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores of 0–10 after ECT. Other registers provided data on previous antidepressant use, comorbidities, and demographics. Results Of 1671 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, 42.8% achieved remission. Older age, education length over 9 years, psychotic symptoms, shorter duration of preceding antidepressant use, pulse width stimulus ≥ 0.50 ms, absence of substance use disorders, anxiety diagnosis, lamotrigine, and benzodiazepines, were associated with remission. Conclusions This study shows that psychotic subtype of depression and older age are clinically relevant predictors of a beneficial ECT effect. Additionally, ECT outcomes can be further improved by optimizing the treatment technique and concomitant medication.
14.
  • Joas, Erik, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacological treatment and risk of psychiatric hospital admission in bipolar disorder
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry. - 0007-1250. ; 210:3, s. 197-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Clinical trials have examined the efficacy of drugs to prevent relapse in patients with bipolar disorder, however, their design often limits generalisation to routine clinical practice. To estimate the effectiveness of drugs used for maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder. We used national registers to identify 35 022 individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and information on lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, quetiapine and olanzapine treatment from 2006 to 2009. The main outcome was psychiatric hospital admissions. We used stratified cox regression to compare periods on and off medication within the same individual. Medication with lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, olanzapine and quetiapine was associated with reduced rates of admission to hospital. Lithium was more effective than quetiapine and olanzapine. The effects of specific drugs depended on the polarity of the mood episode. Our findings complement results from randomised controlled trails, but suggest that lithium is more effective than both quetiapine and olanzapine in routine clinical practice.
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15.
  • Johansson, Viktoria, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid microglia and neurodegenerative markers in twins concordant and discordant for psychotic disorders.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. - 1433-8491. ; 267:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are debilitating psychiatric disorders with partially shared symptomatology including psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment. Aberrant levels of microglia and neurodegenerative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers have previously been found in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We aimed to analyze familial and environmental influences on these CSF markers and their relation to psychiatric symptoms and cognitive ability. CSF was collected from 17 complete twin pairs, nine monozygotic and eight dizygotic, and from one twin sibling. Two pairs were concordant for schizophrenia, and 11 pairs discordant for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder, and four pairs were not affected by psychotic disorders. Markers of microglia activation [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14)], markers of β-amyloid metabolism (AβX-38, AβX-40, AβX-42 and Aβ1-42), soluble amyloid precursor proteins (sAPP-α and sAPP-β), total tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau), and CSF/serum albumin ratio were measured in CSF using immunoassays. Heritability of the CSF markers was estimated, and associations to psychiatric and cognitive measurements were analyzed. Heritability estimates of the microglia markers were moderate, whereas several neurodegenerative markers showed high heritability. In contrast, AβX-42, Aβ1-42, P-tau and CSF/serum albumin ratio were influenced by dominant genetic variation. Higher sCD14 levels were found in twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder compared to their not affected co-twins, and higher sCD14-levels were associated with psychotic symptoms. The study provides support for a significant role of sCD14 in psychotic disorders and a possible role of microglia activation in psychosis.
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16.
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17.
  • Najar, Hemen, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Weight gain with add-on second-generation antipsychotics in bipolar disorder: a naturalistic study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 0001-690X. ; 135:6, s. 606-611
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveOur aim was to investigate the prevalence and magnitude of weight gain in-patients with bipolar disorder when treated with a second-generation antipsychotic as an add-on treatment to a mood stabilizer in routine clinical practice. MethodsData were derived from the quality register for bipolar disorder in Sweden (BipolaR). Patients with bipolar disorder who started add-on treatment with a SGA (n=575) were compared at next yearly follow-up with age and sex matched patients who were only treated with a mood stabilizer (n=566). The primary outcome measure was change in body weight and body mass index (BMI). We also assessed the prevalence of clinically significant weight gain defined as 7% gain in body weight. ResultsThe group that received add-on treatment with antipsychotics neither gained more weight nor were at higher risk for a clinically significant weight gain than the reference group. Instead, factors associated with clinically significant weight gain were female sex, young age, low-baseline BMI, and occurrence of manic/hypomanic episodes. ConclusionWe found no evidence of an overall increased risk of weight gain for patients with bipolar disorder after receiving add-on SGA to a mood stabilizer in a routine clinical setting.
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18.
  • Sparding, Timea, et al. (författare)
  • Classification of cognitive performance in bipolar disorder.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cognitive neuropsychiatry. - 1464-0619. ; 22:5, s. 407-421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls.Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Data were analysed with multivariate techniques.A distinct subgroup (∼30%) could be identified that performed significantly poorer on tests concerning memory function. This cognitive phenotype subgroup did not differ from the majority of bipolar disorder patients with respect to other demographic or clinical characteristics.Whereas the majority of patients performed similar to controls, a subgroup of patients with bipolar disorder differed substantially from healthy controls in the correlation pattern of low-level cognitive abilities. This suggests that cognitive impairment is not a general trait in bipolar disorder but characteristic of a cognitive subgroup. This has important clinical implications for cognitive rehabilitation and remediation.
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19.
  • van Hulzen, Kimm J E, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Overlap Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: Evidence From Genome-wide Association Study Meta-analysis.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biological psychiatry. - 1873-2402. ; 82:9, s. 634-641
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are frequently co-occurring and highly heritable mental health conditions. We hypothesized that BPD cases with an early age of onset (≤21 years old) would be particularly likely to show genetic covariation with ADHD.Genome-wide association study data were available for 4609 individuals with ADHD, 9650 individuals with BPD (5167 thereof with early-onset BPD), and 21,363 typically developing controls. We conducted a cross-disorder genome-wide association study meta-analysis to identify whether the observed comorbidity between ADHD and BPD could be due to shared genetic risks.We found a significant single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlation between ADHD and BPD in the full and age-restricted samples (rGfull = .64, p = 3.13 × 10(-14); rGrestricted = .71, p = 4.09 × 10(-16)). The meta-analysis between the full BPD sample identified two genome-wide significant (prs7089973 = 2.47 × 10(-8); prs11756438 = 4.36 × 10(-8)) regions located on chromosomes 6 (CEP85L) and 10 (TAF9BP2). Restricting the analyses to BPD cases with an early onset yielded one genome-wide significant association (prs58502974 = 2.11 × 10(-8)) on chromosome 5 in the ADCY2 gene. Additional nominally significant regions identified contained known expression quantitative trait loci with putative functional consequences for NT5DC1, NT5DC2, and CACNB3 expression, whereas functional predictions implicated ABLIM1 as an allele-specific expressed gene in neuronal tissue.The single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlation between ADHD and BPD is substantial, significant, and consistent with the existence of genetic overlap between ADHD and BPD, with potential differential genetic mechanisms involved in early and later BPD onset.
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20.
  • Viktorin, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • The Risk of Treatment-Emergent Mania With Methylphenidate in Bipolar Disorder.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The American journal of psychiatry. - 1535-7228. ; 174:4, s. 341-348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors sought to determine the risk of treatment-emergent mania associated with methylphenidate, used in monotherapy or with a concomitant mood-stabilizing medication, in patients with bipolar disorder.Using linked Swedish national registries, the authors identified 2,307 adults with bipolar disorder who initiated therapy with methylphenidate between 2006 and 2014. The cohort was divided into two groups: those with and those without concomitant mood-stabilizing treatment. To adjust for individual-specific confounders, including disorder severity, genetic makeup, and early environmental factors, Cox regression analyses were used, conditioning on individual to compare the rate of mania (defined as hospitalization for mania or a new dispensation of stabilizing medication) 0-3 months and 3-6 months after medication start following nontreated periods.Patients on methylphenidate monotherapy displayed an increased rate of manic episodes within 3 months of medication initiation (hazard ratio=6.7, 95% CI=2.0-22.4), with similar results for the subsequent 3 months. By contrast, for patients taking mood stabilizers, the risk of mania was lower after starting methylphenidate (hazard ratio=0.6, 95% CI=0.4-0.9). Comparable results were observed when only hospitalizations for mania were counted.No evidence was found for a positive association between methylphenidate and treatment-emergent mania among patients with bipolar disorder who were concomitantly receiving a mood-stabilizing medication. This is clinically important given that up to 20% of people with bipolar disorder suffer from comorbid ADHD. Given the markedly increased hazard ratio of mania following methylphenidate initiation in bipolar patients not taking mood stabilizers, careful assessment to rule out bipolar disorder is indicated before initiating monotherapy with psychostimulants.
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