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Sökning: WFRF:(Landen M) > (2015-2019) > (2019)

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  • Föregående 12[3]
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21.
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22.
  • Hollis, Chris, et al. (författare)
  • Methylphenidate and the risk of psychosis in adolescents and young adults: a population-based cohort study.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The lancet. Psychiatry. - 2215-0374. ; 6:8, s. 651-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a clinical concern that prescribing methylphenidate, the most common pharmacological treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), might increase the risk of psychotic events, particularly in young people with a history of psychosis. We aimed to determine whether the risk of psychotic events increases immediately after initiation of methylphenidate treatment or, in the longer term, 1 year after treatment initiation in adolescents and young adults with and without a previously diagnosed psychotic disorder.In this cohort study, we used population-based observational data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, the National Patient Register, and the Total Population Register, three population-based registers containing data on all individuals in Sweden, to attain data on sex, birth, death, migration, medication use, and psychotic events for all eligible participants. We screened individuals on these registers to identify those receiving methylphenidate treatment, and who were aged 12-30 years at the start of treatment, for their inclusion in the study. We used a within-individual design to compare the incidence of psychotic events in these individuals during the 12-week periods immediately before and after methylphenidate initiation. Longer term risk was assessed by comparing the incidence of psychotic events 12 weeks before methylphenidate initiation and during a 12-week period one calendar year before the initiation of methylphenidate with the incidence of these events during the 12-week period one calendar year after methylphenidate initiation. We estimated the incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% CIs of psychotic events after the initation of methylphenidate treatment, relative to the events before treatment, which were defined as any hospital visit (inpatient admission or outpatient attendance, based on data from the National Patient Register) because of psychosis, using the International Classification of Diseases version 10 definition. Analyses were stratified by whether the individual had a history of psychosis.We searched the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register to find eligible individuals who had received methylphenidate between Jan 1, 2007 and June 30, 2012. 61 814 individuals were screened, of whom 23 898 (38·7%) individuals were assessed and 37 916 (61·3%) were excluded from the study because they were outside of the age criteria at the start of treatment, they had immigrated, emigrated, or died during the study period, or because they were administered other ADHD medications. The median age at methylphenidate initiation was 17 years, and a history of psychosis was reported in 479 (2·0%) participants. The IRR of psychotic events in the 12-week period after initiation of methylphenidate treatment relative to that in the 12-week period before treatment start was 1·04 (95% CI 0·80-1·34) in adolescents and young adults without a history of psychosis and 0·95 (0·69-1·30) among those with a history of psychosis.Contrary to clinical concerns, we found no evidence that initiation of methylphenidate treatment increases the risk of psychotic events in adolescents and young adults, including in those individuals with a history of psychosis. Our study should reassure clinicians considering initiating methylphenidate treatment for ADHD in adolescents and young adults, and it challenges the widely held view in clinical practice that methylphenidate should be avoided, or its use restricted, in individuals with a history of psychosis.Swedish Research Council, National Institute of Mental Health, UK National Institute of Health Research Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre.
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24.
  • Salarvan, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropsychological profiles of adult bipolar disorder patients with and without comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International journal of bipolar disorders. - 2194-7511. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in bipolar disorder and associated with worse outcomes. Cognitive testing might be a tool to identify this group. Here we compare the neuropsychological profiles of bipolar disorder patients with (BD + cADHD) and without (BD - cADHD) childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.Adult patients with BD  -  cADHD (n = 66), BD + cADHD (n = 32), and healthy controls (n = 112) were tested using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Patients underwent rigorous diagnostic assessments for bipolar disorder and ADHD, as well as a parental interview to establish childhood ADHD.The neuropsychological profiles of the groups were similar, except that the BD + cADHD group performed significantly worse on working memory. Working memory did not differ between those in the BD + cADHD group who only had a history of childhood ADHD and those that still met criteria for ADHD in adulthood.Cognitive testing had limited power to differentiate between bipolar disorder adults with and without childhood ADHD. The BD + cADHD subgroup cannot explain the significant cognitive heterogeneity seen in bipolar disorder patients.
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25.
  • Smedler, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Association of CACNA1C polymorphisms with serum BDNF levels in bipolar disorder.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. - 1472-1465. ; s. 1-3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Variation in the CACNA1C gene has been associated with bipolar disorder in several genome-wide association studies. This gene encodes the alpha 1C subunit of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, which play an essential role in neurons. We analysed 39 biomarkers in either cerebrospinal fluid or serum in relation to six different CACNA1C variants in 282 patients with bipolar disorder and 90 controls. We report associations of CACNA1C risk alleles with serum levels of BDNF as well as tissue plasminogen activator, which converts pro-BDNF to mature BDNF. This sheds light on links between CACNA1C genetic variants and pathophysiological mechanisms in bipolar disorder.Declaration of interestNone.
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26.
  • Smedler, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Genes, biomarkers, and clinical features associated with the course of bipolar disorder.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. - 1873-7862. ; 29:10, s. 1152-1160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is considerable variability in the severity of bipolar disorder, e.g., in terms of the frequency of inpatient episodes. The long-term progression also differs, where some patients are sensitised with progressively shorter healthy intervals. Little is known about the proportion of patients being sensitised, their clinical characteristics, and biological underpinnings. We analysed long-term progression of bipolar disorder in relation to clinical characteristics (N = 3074), serum biomarkers (N = 745), and genetic variants (N = 1401) in a cohort of Swedish bipolar disorder patients. We took advantage of the National Patient Register, providing reliable data on 35,973 psychiatric inpatient care episodes in Sweden since 1973. First, one third of the cohort cluster together with a maximum of one inpatient episode per year, while the remaining two thirds had >1 episode per year. These groups did not differ with respect to clinical features or biomarkers. Second, among patients with at least five inpatient episodes (defined as severely ill), we find one group with progressively shorter cycle-lengths (one fifth of the total cohort, N = 550). Compared with those with a stable or recuperant trajectory, these patients featured lower functioning, more antidepressant treatment, as well as reduced levels of inflammatory markers in serum. Third, sensitisation was associated with a common genetic variant near the calcium channel gene CACNA2D3 at genome-wide significance. These results suggest the potential for translational research aimed at preventive actions.
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29.
  • Popiolek, K., et al. (författare)
  • Electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression - effectiveness and prognostic factors
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 0001-690X. ; 140:3, s. 196-204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used in patients with severe forms of bipolar depression. ECT is effective but not all patients respond. The aim of this study was to determine prognostic factors for response to ECT in patients hospitalized for bipolar depression. Methods Data were obtained from several national Swedish registers. All patients with bipolar depression treated with ECT in any hospital in Sweden between 2011 and 2016 for whom information about ECT response was available were included (n = 1251). Response was defined as a score on the Clinical Global Impression - Improvement scale of one or two. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to investigate associations between socio-demographic and clinical factors and response. Results Response was achieved in 80.2% patients. Older age was associated with higher response rate to ECT. Patients with comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder or personality disorder, and patients previously treated with lamotrigine had lower response rate. Conclusion Electroconvulsive therapy for bipolar depression was associated with very high response rates. The strongest prognostic factors were higher age, absence of comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder or personality disorder, and less prior pharmacologic treatment.
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