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41.
  • Chen, C. Y., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic validation of bipolar disorder identified by automated phenotyping using electronic health records
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 8:1, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) is a heritable mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression. Although genomewide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genetic loci contributing to BD risk, sample size has become a rate-limiting obstacle to genetic discovery. Electronic health records (EHRs) represent a vast but relatively untapped resource for high-throughput phenotyping. As part of the International Cohort Collection for Bipolar Disorder (ICCBD), we previously validated automated EHR-based phenotyping algorithms for BD against in-person diagnostic interviews (Castro et al. Am J Psychiatry 172:363-372, 2015). Here, we establish the genetic validity of these phenotypes by determining their genetic correlation with traditionally ascertained samples. Case and control algorithms were derived from structured and narrative text in the Partners Healthcare system comprising more than 4.6 million patients over 20 years. Genomewide genotype data for 3330 BD cases and 3952 controls of European ancestry were used to estimate SNP-based heritability (h 2 g) and genetic correlation (r g) between EHR-based phenotype definitions and traditionally ascertained BD cases in GWAS by the ICCBD and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) using LD score regression. We evaluated BD cases identified using 4 EHR-based algorithms: an NLP-based algorithm (95-NLP) and three rule-based algorithms using codified EHR with decreasing levels of stringency-"coded-strict", "coded-broad", and "coded-broad based on a single clinical encounter" (coded-broad-SV). The analytic sample comprised 862 95-NLP, 1968 coded-strict, 2581 coded-broad, 408 coded-broad-SV BD cases, and 3 952 controls. The estimated h 2 g were 0.24 (p = 0.015), 0.09 (p = 0.064), 0.13 (p = 0.003), 0.00 (p = 0.591) for 95-NLP, coded-strict, coded-broad and coded-broad-SV BD, respectively. The h 2 g for all EHR-based cases combined except coded-broad-SV (excluded due to 0 h 2 g) was 0.12 (p = 0.004). These h 2 g were lower or similar to the h 2 g observed by the ICCBD + PGCBD (0.23, p = 3.17E-80, total N = 33,181). However, the r g between ICCBD + PGCBD and the EHR-based cases were high for 95-NLP (0.66, p = 3.69 × 10-5), coded-strict (1.00, p = 2.40 × 10-4), and coded-broad (0.74, p = 8.11 × 10-7). The r g between EHR-based BD definitions ranged from 0.90 to 0.98. These results provide the first genetic validation of automated EHR-based phenotyping for BD and suggest that this approach identifies cases that are highly genetically correlated with those ascertained through conventional methods. High throughput phenotyping using the large data resources available in EHRs represents a viable method for accelerating psychiatric genetic research.
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42.
  • Maier, R., et al. (författare)
  • Joint Analysis of Psychiatric Disorders Increases Accuracy of Risk Prediction for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - 0002-9297. ; 96:2, s. 283-294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of risk prediction is low. Here we use a multivariate linear mixed model and apply multi-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction for genetic risk prediction. This method exploits correlations between disorders and simultaneously evaluates individual risk for each disorder. We show that the multivariate approach significantly increases the prediction accuracy for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder in the discovery as well as in independent validation datasets. By grouping SNPs based on genome annotation and fitting multiple random effects, we show that the prediction accuracy could be further improved. The gain in prediction accuracy of the multivariate approach is equivalent to an increase in sample size of 34% for schizophrenia, 68% for bipolar disorder, and 76% for major depressive disorders using single trait models. Because our approach can be readily applied to any number of GWAS datasets of correlated traits, it is a flexible and powerful tool to maximize prediction accuracy. With current sample size, risk predictors are not useful in a clinical setting but already are a valuable research tool, for example in experimental designs comparing cases with high and low polygenic risk.
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43.
  • Nilsson, I. A. K., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma neurofilament light chain concentration is increased in anorexia nervosa
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe psychiatric disorder with high mortality and, to a large extent, unknown pathophysiology. Structural brain differences, such as global or focal reductions in grey or white matter volumes, as well as enlargement of the sulci and the ventricles, have repeatedly been observed in individuals with AN. However, many of the documented aberrances normalize with weight recovery, even though some studies show enduring changes. To further explore whether AN is associated with neuronal damage, we analysed the levels of neurofilament light chain (NfL), a marker reflecting ongoing neuronal injury, in plasma samples from females with AN, females recovered from AN (AN-REC) and normal-weight age-matched female controls (CTRLS). We detected significantly increased plasma levels of NfL in AN vs CTRLS (median(AN) = 15.6 pg/ml, IQR(AN) = 12.1-21.3, median(CTRL) = 9.3 pg/ml, IQR(CTRL) = 6.4-12.9, and p < 0.0001), AN vs AN-REC (median(AN-REC) = 11.1 pg/ml, IQR(AN-REC) = 8.6-15.5, and p < 0.0001), and AN-REC vs CTRLS (p = 0.004). The plasma levels of NfL are negatively associated with BMI overall samples (beta (+/- se) = -0.62 +/- 0.087 and p = 6.9. 10(-12)). This indicates that AN is associated with neuronal damage that partially normalizes with weight recovery. Further studies are needed to determine which brain areas are affected, and potential long-term sequelae.
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44.
  • Bridel, Claire, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein in Neurology : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA Neurology. - 2168-6149 .- 2168-6157. ; 76:9, s. 1035-1048
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Importance  Neurofilament light protein (NfL) is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a number of neurological conditions compared with healthy controls (HC) and is a candidate biomarker for neuroaxonal damage. The influence of age and sex is largely unknown, and levels across neurological disorders have not been compared systematically to date.Objectives  To assess the associations of age, sex, and diagnosis with NfL in CSF (cNfL) and to evaluate its potential in discriminating clinically similar conditions.Data Sources  PubMed was searched for studies published between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2016, reporting cNfL levels (using the search terms neurofilament light and cerebrospinal fluid) in neurological or psychiatric conditions and/or in HC.Study Selection  Studies reporting NfL levels measured in lumbar CSF using a commercially available immunoassay, as well as age and sex.Data Extraction and Synthesis  Individual-level data were requested from study authors. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the fixed effects of age, sex, and diagnosis on log-transformed NfL levels, with cohort of origin modeled as a random intercept.Main Outcome and Measure  The cNfL levels adjusted for age and sex across diagnoses.Results  Data were collected for 10 059 individuals (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [18.8] years; 54.1% female). Thirty-five diagnoses were identified, including inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (n = 2795), dementias and predementia stages (n = 4284), parkinsonian disorders (n = 984), and HC (n = 1332). The cNfL was elevated compared with HC in a majority of neurological conditions studied. Highest levels were observed in cognitively impaired HIV-positive individuals (iHIV), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Huntington disease. In 33.3% of diagnoses, including HC, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD), cNfL was higher in men than women. The cNfL increased with age in HC and a majority of neurological conditions, although the association was strongest in HC. The cNfL overlapped in most clinically similar diagnoses except for FTD and iHIV, which segregated from other dementias, and PD, which segregated from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.Conclusions and Relevance  These data support the use of cNfL as a biomarker of neuroaxonal damage and indicate that age-specific and sex-specific (and in some cases disease-specific) reference values may be needed. The cNfL has potential to assist the differentiation of FTD from AD and PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.
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45.
  • Brundin, L., et al. (författare)
  • An enzyme in the kynurenine pathway that governs vulnerability to suicidal behavior by regulating excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2158-3188. ; 6:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Emerging evidence suggests that inflammation has a key role in depression and suicidal behavior. The kynurenine pathway is involved in neuroinflammation and regulates glutamate neurotransmission. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of suicidal patients, levels of inflammatory cytokines and the kynurenine metabolite quinolinic acid (QUIN), an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonist, are increased. The enzyme amino-β-carboxymuconate-semialdehyde-decarboxylase (ACMSD) limits QUIN formation by competitive production of the neuroprotective metabolite picolinic acid (PIC). Therefore, decreased ACMSD activity can lead to excess QUIN. We tested the hypothesis that deficient ACMSD activity underlies suicidal behavior. We measured PIC and QUIN in CSF and plasma samples from 137 patients exhibiting suicidal behavior and 71 healthy controls. We used DSM-IV and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Suicide Assessment Scale to assess behavioral changes. Finally, we genotyped ACMSD tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 77 of the patients and 150 population-based controls. Suicide attempters had reduced PIC and a decreased PIC/QUIN ratio in both CSF (P<0.001) and blood (P=0.001 and P<0.01, respectively). The reductions of PIC in CSF were sustained over 2 years after the suicide attempt based on repeated measures. The minor C allele of the ACMSD SNP rs2121337 was more prevalent in suicide attempters and associated with increased CSF QUIN. Taken together, our data suggest that increased QUIN levels may result from reduced activity of ACMSD in suicidal subjects. We conclude that measures of kynurenine metabolites can be explored as biomarkers of suicide risk, and that ACMSD is a potential therapeutic target in suicidal behavior.
46.
  • Chang, Hong, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of a Bipolar Disorder Vulnerable Gene CHDH at 3p21.1.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Molecular neurobiology. - 1559-1182. ; 54:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide analysis (GWA) is an effective strategy to discover extreme effects surpassing genome-wide significant levels in studying complex disorders; however, when sample size is limited, the true effects may fail to achieve genome-wide significance. In such case, there may be authentic results among the pools of nominal candidates, and an alternative approach is to consider nominal candidates but are replicable across different samples. Here, we found that mRNA expression of the choline dehydrogenase gene (CHDH) was uniformly upregulated in the brains of bipolar disorder (BPD) patients compared with healthy controls across different studies. Follow-up genetic analyses of CHDH variants in multiple independent clinical datasets (including 11,564 cases and 17,686 controls) identified a risk SNP rs9836592 showing consistent associations with BPD (P meta = 5.72 × 10(-4)), and the risk allele indicated an increased CHDH expression in multiple neuronal tissues (lowest P = 6.70 × 10(-16)). These converging results may identify a nominal but true BPD susceptibility gene CHDH. Further exploratory analysis revealed suggestive associations of rs9836592 with childhood intelligence (P = 0.044) and educational attainment (P = 0.0039), a "proxy phenotype" of general cognitive abilities. Intriguingly, the CHDH gene is located at chromosome 3p21.1, a risk region implicated in previous BPD genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but CHDH is lying outside of the core GWAS linkage disequilibrium (LD) region, and our studied SNP rs9836592 is ∼1.2 Mb 3' downstream of the previous GWAS loci (e.g., rs2251219) with no LD between them; thus, the association observed here is unlikely a reflection of previous GWAS signals. In summary, our results imply that CHDH may play a previously unknown role in the etiology of BPD and also highlight the informative value of integrating gene expression and genetic code in advancing our understanding of its biological basis.
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47.
  • Cremaschi, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalences of autoimmune diseases in schizophrenia, bipolar I and II disorder, and controls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research. - 0165-1781. ; 258, s. 9-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies on the relationship between autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder are mainly based on hospital discharge registers with insufficient coverage of outpatient data. Furthermore, data is scant on the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in bipolar subgroups. Here we estimate the self-reported prevalences of autoimmune diseases in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I and II, and controls. Lifetime prevalence of autoimmune diseases was assessed through a structured interview in a sample of 9076 patients (schizophrenia N = 5278, bipolar disorder type I N = 1952, type II N = 1846) and 6485 controls. Comparative analyses were performed using logistic regressions. The prevalence of diabetes type 1 did not differ between groups. Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism regardless of lithium effects, rheumatoid arthritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica were most common in bipolar disorder. Systemic lupus erythematosus was less common in bipolar disorder than in the other groups. The rate of autoimmune diseases did not differ significantly between bipolar subgroups. We conclude that prevalences of autoimmune diseases show clear differences between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but not between the bipolar subgroups. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
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48.
  • Goes, Fernando S, et al. (författare)
  • Exome Sequencing of Familial Bipolar Disorder.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - 2168-6238. ; 73:6, s. 590-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Complex disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD), likely result from the influence of both common and rare susceptibility alleles. While common variation has been widely studied, rare variant discovery has only recently become feasible with next-generation sequencing.
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49.
  • Johansson, A. G. M., et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in AKR1C4 and HSD3B2 and differences in serum DHEAS and progesterone are associated with paranoid ideation during mania or hypomania in bipolar disorder
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - 0924-977X. ; 22:9, s. 632-640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Paranoia is commonly a mood-incongruent psychotic symptom of mania which may be related to dopamine dysregulation. Progesterone and its metabolite allopregnanolone (ALLO) have been found in animals to antagonize the effects of dopamine. We therefore examined serum progesterone, its endogenous antagonist DHEAS and polymorphisms of the genes coding for certain steroidogenetic enzymes (AKR1C4, HSD3B2, and SRD5A1) in 64 males and 96 females with bipolar 1 or 2 disorder with or without paranoid ideation during mood elevation. Euthymic morning serum progesterone, DHEAS and cortisol concentrations were measured in males and in premenopausal women who were in follicular phase and not taking oral contraceptives. In women only, SNPs in AKR1C4 reduced the likelihood of having exhibited paranoid ideation by circa 60%. The haplotype of all 4 SNPs in the AKR1C4 gene reduced the risk of exhibiting paranoia by 80% (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.06-0.61, p=0.05). A history of paranoid ideation was not, however, related to progesterone or DHEAS concentration. Serum DHEAS and progesterone concentrations were lower in men who had shown paranoid ideation during mania/hypomania compared with those who had not (F=7.30, p = 0.006) however this was not coupled to polymorphisms in the selected genes. The ancestral G in rs4659174 in HSD3B2 was in men associated with a lower risk of paranoid ideation (likelihood ratio chi(2) 3.97, p = 0.046, OR 0.31 (95% CI 0.10-0.96)) but did not correlate with hormone concentrations. Hence, gene variants in the steroidogenetic pathway and steroids concentration differences may be involved in the susceptibility to paranoia during mood elevation. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
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50.
  • Johansson, V., et al. (författare)
  • Microscopic Particles in Two Fractions of Fresh Cerebrospinal Fluid in Twins with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder and in Healthy Controls
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 7:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Using scanning electron microscopy, microscopic structures have been identified in fresh cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but only rarely in control subjects. However, it has not been determined whether these microscopic particles represent state or trait markers, i.e. if their presence is related to clinical manifestations of the disease or if they also can be found in as yet asymptomatic individuals with a genetic liability. This question can be addressed by studying twins discordant or concordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Methodology/Principal Findings: We investigated microscopic structures in CSF in 102 individuals: 21 monozygotic and 16 dizygotic twins affected or not affected with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder and in 65 healthy singleton controls. A first and a second fraction of CSF was freshly applied on filters and examined by scanning electron microscopy technique. Spherical particles with lipid appearance averaging between 0.1 to 8.0 mu m in diameter were detected in the center of the filter as well as located in the margins of larger aggregates binding in a viscous state. Structures were found in 12 of 17 probands, 5 of 12 healthy co-twins and 3 of 73 healthy controls. Thus, a positive microscopic finding significantly increased the likelihood of belonging to the proband group (OR = 48, 95% CL: 8.2-550, p<0.0001) and the co-twin-group (OR = 16, 95% CL: 2.0-218, p = 0.006). Age, sex, history of alcohol abuse or anxiety syndrome, somatic disorder and markers of acute inflammatory activity did not account for group differences; nor did exposure to psychotropic medication. Conclusion: Presence of microscopic particles in CSF may possibly reflect trait dependent genetic or environmental vulnerability in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder.
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