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Sökning: WFRF:(Lawrence Charles)

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  • Föregående 123[4]56Nästa
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31.
  • Hudson, Lawrence N., et al. (författare)
  • The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 2045-7758. ; 7:1, s. 145-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
32.
  • Justice, Anne E, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis of 241,258 adults accounting for smoking behaviour identifies novel loci for obesity traits
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for environmental exposures, like smoking, potentially impacting the overall trait variance when investigating the genetic contribution to obesity-related traits. Here, we use GWAS data from 51,080 current smokers and 190,178 nonsmokers (87% European descent) to identify loci influencing BMI and central adiposity, measured as waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio both adjusted for BMI. We identify 23 novel genetic loci, and 9 loci with convincing evidence of gene-smoking interaction (GxSMK) on obesity-related traits. We show consistent direction of effect for all identified loci and significance for 18 novel and for 5 interaction loci in an independent study sample. These loci highlight novel biological functions, including response to oxidative stress, addictive behaviour, and regulatory functions emphasizing the importance of accounting for environment in genetic analyses. Our results suggest that tobacco smoking may alter the genetic susceptibility to overall adiposity and body fat distribution.
33.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J, et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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34.
  • Koven, Charles D., et al. (författare)
  • Higher climatological temperature sensitivity of soil carbon in cold than warm climates
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Climate Change. - 1758-678X. ; 7:11, s. 817-822
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The projected loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere resulting from climate change is a potentially large but highly uncertain feedback to warming. The magnitude of this feedback is poorly constrained by observations and theory, and is disparately represented in Earth system models (ESMs)(1-3). To assess the climatological temperature sensitivity of soil carbon, we calculate apparent soil carbon turnover times(4) that reflect long-term and broad-scale rates of decomposition. Here, we show that the climatological temperature control on carbon turnover in the top metre of global soils is more sensitive in cold climates than in warm climates and argue that it is critical to capture this emergent ecosystem property in global-scale models. We present a simplified model that explains the observed high cold-climate sensitivity using only the physical scaling of soil freeze-thaw state across climate gradients. Current ESMs fail to capture this pattern, except in anESMthat explicitly resolves vertical gradients in soil climate and carbon turnover. An observed weak tropical temperature sensitivity emerges in a different model that explicitly resolves mineralogical control on decomposition. These results support projections of strong carbon- climate feedbacks from northern soils(5,6) and demonstrate a method for ESMs to capture this emergent behaviour.
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35.
  • Kuzovkina, Yulia A., et al. (författare)
  • Salix: Botany and Global Horticulture
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Horticultural Reviews, Volume 34. - 9780470171530
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This chapter discusses the taxonomy and systematics, morphology, genetics, ecophysiology of Salix spp., as well as the cultivation practices throughout history, diversity and research programmes in different countries (UK, Sweden, Russia, India, New Zealand, Chile, Canada and USA)
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36.
  • Labbate, Lawrence, et al. (författare)
  • Psychiatric Syndromes in Persian Gulf War Veterans: An Association of Handling Dead Bodies with Somatoform Disorders
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. - Karger. - 0033-3190. ; s. 275-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Traumatic combat experience has been associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, but there have been few studies about the association of military combat experience and the development of somatoform disorders. The authors evaluated 131 referred Gulf War veterans for medical and psychiatric syndromes thought related to their involvement in the Gulf War. Patients completed questionnaires regarding their traumatic experiences and were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R. For the sample, 69% had axis I conditions. Major depression, undifferentiated somatoform and posttraumatic stress disorders were the most common diagnoses. Reports of traumatic events were associated with both posttraumatic stress disorder (p < 0.05) and somatoform diagnoses (p < 0.05). Veterans who handled dead bodies had a 3-fold risk of receiving a somatoform diagnosis (p < 0.05). Psychiatric syndromes may explain some medical complaints following involvement in the Persian Gulf War. The results suggest that some psychological and nonspecific somatic symptoms persisting since the Gulf War may be related to exposure to psychological trauma.
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37.
  • Law, Phillip J., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis implicates dysregulation of immunity genes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) susceptibility loci have been reported; however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies, imputed using a merged reference panel of 1,000 Genomes and UK10K data, totalling 6,200 cases and 17,598 controls after replication. We identify nine risk loci at 1p36.11 (rs34676223, P = 5.04 X 10 (-) (13)), 1q42.13 (rs41271473, P = 1.06 X 10 (-) (10)), 4q24 (rs71597109, P = 1.37 X 10 (-) (10)), 4q35.1 (rs57214277, P = 3.69 X 10 (-) (8)), 6p21.31 (rs3800461, P = 1.97 X 10 (-) (8)), 11q23.2 (rs61904987, P = 2.64 X 10 (-) (11)), 18q21.1 (rs1036935, P = 3.27 X 10 (-) (8)), 19p13.3 (rs7254272, P = 4.67 X 10 (-) (8)) and 22q13.33 (rs140522, P = 2.70 X 10 (-) (9)). These new and established risk loci map to areas of active chromatin and show an over-representation of transcription factor binding for the key determinants of B-cell development and immune response.
38.
  • Leisawitz, David, et al. (författare)
  • The origins space telescope
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. - 0277786X. ; 11115
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Origins Space Telescope will trace the history of our origins from the time dust and heavy elements permanently altered the cosmic landscape to present-day life. How did galaxies evolve from the earliest galactic systems to those found in the universe today? How do habitable planets form? How common are life-bearing worlds? To answer these alluring questions, Origins will operate at mid-and far-infrared wavelengths and offer powerful spectroscopic instruments and sensitivity three orders of magnitude better than that of Herschel, the largest telescope flown in space to date. After a 3 1/2 year study, the Origins Science and Technology Definition Team will recommend to the Decadal Survey a concept for Origins with a 5.9-m diameter telescope cryocooled to 4.5 K and equipped with three scientific instruments. A mid-infrared instrument (MISC-T) will measure the spectra of transiting exoplanets in the 2.8-20 μm wavelength range and offer unprecedented sensitivity, enabling definitive biosignature detections. The Far-IR Imager Polarimeter (FIP) will be able to survey thousands of square degrees with broadband imaging at 50 and 250 μm. The Origins Survey Spectrometer (OSS) will cover wavelengths from 25-588 μm, make wide-area and deep spectroscopic surveys with spectral resolving power R ∼ 300, and pointed observations at R ∼ 40,000 and 300,000 with selectable instrument modes. Origins was designed to minimize complexity. The telescope has a Spitzer-like architecture and requires very few deployments after launch. The cryo-thermal system design leverages JWST technology and experience. A combination of current-state-of-the-art cryocoolers and next-generation detector technology will enable Origins' natural backgroundlimited sensitivity.
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39.
  • Lemasson, Benjamin, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of perfusion map analysis on early survival prediction accuracy in glioma patients.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Translational Oncology. - Neoplasia Press. - 1936-5233. ; 6:6, s. 766-774
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies investigating dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging-determined relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps as a metric of treatment response assessment have generated conflicting results. We evaluated the potential of various analytical techniques to predict survival of patients with glioma treated with chemoradiation. rCBV maps were acquired in patients with high-grade gliomas at 0, 1, and 3 weeks into chemoradiation therapy. Various analytical techniques were applied to the same cohort of serial rCBV data for early assessment of survival. Three different methodologies were investigated: 1) percentage change of whole tumor statistics (i.e., mean, median, and percentiles), 2) physiological segmentation (low rCBV, medium rCBV, or high rCBV), and 3) a voxel-based approach, parametric response mapping (PRM). All analyses were performed using the same tumor contours, which were determined using contrast-enhanced T1-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. The predictive potential of each response metric was assessed at 1-year and overall survival. PRM was the only analytical approach found to generate a response metric significantly predictive of patient 1-year survival. Time of acquisition and contour volume were not found to alter the sensitivity of the PRM approach for predicting overall survival. We have demonstrated the importance of the analytical approach in early response assessment using serial rCBV maps. The PRM analysis shows promise as a unified early and robust imaging biomarker of treatment response in patients diagnosed with high-grade gliomas.
40.
  • Ligthart, Symen, et al. (författare)
  • Genome Analyses of >200,000 Individuals Identify 58 Loci for Chronic Inflammation and Highlight Pathways that Link Inflammation and Complex Disorders
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. ; 103:5, s. 691-706
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p &lt; 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.
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  • Föregående 123[4]56Nästa
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