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Sökning: WFRF:(Leboyer M)

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  • Föregående 1234[5]6Nästa
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41.
  • Henningsson, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Possible association between the androgen receptor gene and autism spectrum disorder.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530. ; 34:5, s. 752-761
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism is a highly heritable disorder but the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. The higher prevalence of autism in men than in women, in conjunction with a number of other observations, has led to the suggestion that prenatal brain exposure to androgens may be of importance for the development of this condition. Prompted by this hypothesis, we investigated the potential influence of variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene on the susceptibility for autism. To this end, 267 subjects with autism spectrum disorder and 617 controls were genotyped for three polymorphisms in exon I of the AR gene: the CAG repeat, the GGN repeat and the rs6152 SNP. In addition, parents and affected siblings were genotyped for 118 and 32 of the cases, respectively. Case-control comparisons revealed higher prevalence of short CAG alleles as well as of the A allele of the rs6152 SNP in female cases than in controls, but revealed no significant differences with respect to the GGN repeat. Analysis of the 118 families using transmission disequilibrium test, on the other hand, suggested an association with the GGN polymorphism, the rare 20-repeat allele being undertransmitted to male cases and the 23-repeat allele being overtransmitted to female cases. Sequencing of the AR gene in 46 patients revealed no mutations or rare variants. The results tend some support for an influence of the studied polymorphisms on the susceptibility for autism, but argue against the possibility that mutations in the AR gene are common in subjects with this condition. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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42.
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43.
  • Leblond, Claire S., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and functional analyses of SHANK2 mutations suggest a multiple hit model of autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390. ; 8:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n = 396 patients and n = 659 controls). We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4%) patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5%) controls (P = 0.004, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.23-4.70). In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P = 0.0013). Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11-q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the "multiple hit model'' for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD.
44.
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45.
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46.
  • Durand, Christelle M, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in the gene encoding the synaptic scaffolding protein SHANK3 are associated with autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 39:1, s. 25-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SHANK3 (also known as ProSAP2) regulates the structural organization of dendritic spines and is a binding partner of neuroligins; genes encoding neuroligins are mutated in autism and Asperger syndrome. Here, we report that a mutation of a single copy of SHANK3 on chromosome 22q13 can result in language and/or social communication disorders. These mutations concern only a small number of individuals, but they shed light on one gene dosage-sensitive synaptic pathway that is involved in autism spectrum disorders.
47.
  • Leblond, Claire S, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Gradient of Severity in Cognitive Impairments.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404. ; 10:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ∼1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability-more than 1 in 50-warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice.
48.
  • Nava, C, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of the chromosome X exome in patients with autism spectrum disorders identified novel candidate genes, including TMLHE.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The striking excess of affected males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggests that genes located on chromosome X contribute to the etiology of these disorders. To identify new X-linked genes associated with ASD, we analyzed the entire chromosome X exome by next-generation sequencing in 12 unrelated families with two affected males. Thirty-six possibly deleterious variants in 33 candidate genes were found, including PHF8 and HUWE1, previously implicated in intellectual disability (ID). A nonsense mutation in TMLHE, which encodes the ɛ-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase catalyzing the first step of carnitine biosynthesis, was identified in two brothers with autism and ID. By screening the TMLHE coding sequence in 501 male patients with ASD, we identified two additional missense substitutions not found in controls and not reported in databases. Functional analyses confirmed that the mutations were associated with a loss-of-function and led to an increase in trimethyllysine, the precursor of carnitine biosynthesis, in the plasma of patients. This study supports the hypothesis that rare variants on the X chromosome are involved in the etiology of ASD and contribute to the sex-ratio disequilibrium.
49.
  • Pagan, C, et al. (författare)
  • The serotonin-N-acetylserotonin-melatonin pathway as a biomarker for autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated whole-blood serotonin and decreased plasma melatonin (a circadian synchronizer hormone that derives from serotonin) have been reported independently in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here, we explored, in parallel, serotonin, melatonin and the intermediate N-acetylserotonin (NAS) in a large cohort of patients with ASD and their relatives. We then investigated the clinical correlates of these biochemical parameters. Whole-blood serotonin, platelet NAS and plasma melatonin were assessed in 278 patients with ASD, their 506 first-degree relatives (129 unaffected siblings, 199 mothers and 178 fathers) and 416 sex- and age-matched controls. We confirmed the previously reported hyperserotonemia in ASD (40% (35-46%) of patients), as well as the deficit in melatonin (51% (45-57%)), taking as a threshold the 95th or 5th percentile of the control group, respectively. In addition, this study reveals an increase of NAS (47% (41-54%) of patients) in platelets, pointing to a disruption of the serotonin-NAS-melatonin pathway in ASD. Biochemical impairments were also observed in the first-degree relatives of patients. A score combining impairments of serotonin, NAS and melatonin distinguished between patients and controls with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 85%. In patients the melatonin deficit was only significantly associated with insomnia. Impairments of melatonin synthesis in ASD may be linked with decreased 14-3-3 proteins. Although ASDs are highly heterogeneous, disruption of the serotonin-NAS-melatonin pathway is a very frequent trait in patients and may represent a useful biomarker for a large subgroup of individuals with ASD.
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50.
  • Tamouza, Ryad, et al. (författare)
  • HLA Polymorphism in Regressive and Non-Regressive Autism: A Preliminary Study.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research. - 1939-3806. ; 13:2, s. 182-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprises heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions with symptom onset usually during infancy. However, about 10%-30% of affected cases experience a loss of language and social skills around 18-30 months, so-called regressive autism. In this subset with regression, immune dysfunctions including inflammation and autoimmunity have been proposed to be at risk factors. Given the implication of the human histocompatibility antigens (HLA) system in various aspects of immune responses, including autoimmunity, and in ASD, we investigate here the distribution of the HLA Class I and Class II haplotypes in 131 children with ASD meeting DSM-IV TR criteria, with and without regression. We found that 62 of the 98 non-regressive ASD patients carry the HLA-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 sub-haplotype as compared to 14 of the 33 patients with regression (63% vs. 43% respectively, Pc = 0.02), suggesting that this HLA haplotype may exert a protective effect against regression. Similarly, the HLA-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 has also been found to be more represented in healthy controls as compared to patients affected with common nonpsychiatric autoimmune disorders. Overall our findings suggest a possible involvement of HLA polymorphism in the context of regressive ASD. © 2019 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Immune dysfunctions including inflammatory and autoimmune processes have been reported in autism, particularly in regressive forms. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of HLA haplotypes among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with and without regression from Sweden and observed that HLA-DPA1*01-DPB1*04 sub-haplotype was less represented in patients with regressive autism as compared with those without regression. Such possible protective effect, also observed in other common autoimmune disorders, may constitute a link between HLA-mediated immune processes and regressive ASD.
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