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Sökning: WFRF:(Leboyer Marion)

  • Resultat 11-20 av 55
  • Föregående 1[2]3456Nästa
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11.
  • Betancur, Catalina, et al. (författare)
  • Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and hyperserotonemia in autistic disorder
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184. ; 7:1, s. 67-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies have provided conflicting evidence regarding the association of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene with autism. Two polymorphisms have been identified in the human 5-HTT gene, a VNTR in intron 21 and a functional deletion/insertion in the promoter region (5-HTTLPR) with short and long variants.2 Positive associations of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with autism have been reported by two family-based studies, but one found preferential transmission of the short allele3 and the other of the long allele.4 Two subsequent studies failed to find evidence of transmission disequilibrium at the 5-HTTLPR locus.5,6 These conflicting results could be due to heterogeneity of clinical samples with regard to serotonin (5-HT) blood levels, which have been found to be elevated in some autistic subjects.7–9 Thus, we examined the association of the 5-HTTLPR and VNTR polymorphisms of the 5-HTT gene with autism, and we investigated the relationship between 5-HTT variants and whole-blood 5-HT. The transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) revealed no linkage disequilibrium at either loci in a sample of 96 families comprising 43 trios and 53 sib pairs. Furthermore, no significant relationship between 5-HT blood levels and 5-HTT gene polymorphisms was found. Our results suggest that the 5-HTT gene is unlikely to play a major role as a susceptibility factor in autism.
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12.
  • Buxbaum, Joseph D, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation analysis of the NSD1 gene in patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - 1471-2350. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by macrocephaly, advanced bone age, characteristic facial features, and learning disabilities, caused by mutations or deletions of the NSD1 gene, located at 5q35. Sotos syndrome has been described in a number of patients with autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that NSD1 could be involved in other cases of autism and macrocephaly. Methods: We screened the NSD1 gene for mutations and deletions in 88 patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly (head circumference 2 standard deviations or more above the mean). Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions. Dosage analysis of NSD1 was carried out using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results: We identified three missense variants (R604L, S822C and E1499G) in one patient each, but none is within a functional domain. In addition, segregation analysis showed that all variants were inherited from healthy parents and in two cases were also present in unaffected siblings, indicating that they are probably nonpathogenic. No partial or whole gene deletions/duplications were observed. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Sotos syndrome is a rare cause of autism spectrum disorders and that screening for NSD1 mutations and deletions in patients with autism and macrocephaly is not warranted in the absence of other features of Sotos syndrome.
13.
  • Buxbaum, Joseph D, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation screening of the PTEN gene in patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. - 1552-4841. ; 144B:4, s. 484-491
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the PTEN gene are associated with a broad spectrum of disorders, including Cowden syndrome (CS), Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, Proteus syndrome, and Lhermitte-Duclos disease. In addition, PTEN mutations have been described in a few patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and macrocephaly. In this study, we screened the PTEN gene for mutations and deletions in 88 patients with ASDs and macrocephaly (defined as >or=2 SD above the mean). Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions, as well as the promoter region. Dosage analysis of PTEN was carried out using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). No partial or whole gene deletions were observed. We identified a de novo missense mutation (D326N) in a highly conserved amino acid in a 5-year-old boy with autism, mental retardation, language delay, extreme macrocephaly (+9.6 SD) and polydactyly of both feet. Polydactyly has previously been described in two patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease and CS and is thus likely to be a rare sign of PTEN mutations. Our findings suggest that PTEN mutations are a relatively infrequent cause of ASDs with macrocephaly. Screening of PTEN mutations is warranted in patients with autism and pronounced macrocephaly, even in the absence of other features of PTEN-related tumor syndromes.
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14.
  • Casey, Jillian P, et al. (författare)
  • A novel approach of homozygous haplotype sharing identifies candidate genes in autism spectrum disorder.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717. ; 131:4, s. 565-579
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable disorder of complex and heterogeneous aetiology. It is primarily characterized by altered cognitive ability including impaired language and communication skills and fundamental deficits in social reciprocity. Despite some notable successes in neuropsychiatric genetics, overall, the high heritability of ASD (~90%) remains poorly explained by common genetic risk variants. However, recent studies suggest that rare genomic variation, in particular copy number variation, may account for a significant proportion of the genetic basis of ASD. We present a large scale analysis to identify candidate genes which may contain low-frequency recessive variation contributing to ASD while taking into account the potential contribution of population differences to the genetic heterogeneity of ASD. Our strategy, homozygous haplotype (HH) mapping, aims to detect homozygous segments of identical haplotype structure that are shared at a higher frequency amongst ASD patients compared to parental controls. The analysis was performed on 1,402 Autism Genome Project trios genotyped for 1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We identified 25 known and 1,218 novel ASD candidate genes in the discovery analysis including CADM2, ABHD14A, CHRFAM7A, GRIK2, GRM3, EPHA3, FGF10, KCND2, PDZK1, IMMP2L and FOXP2. Furthermore, 10 of the previously reported ASD genes and 300 of the novel candidates identified in the discovery analysis were replicated in an independent sample of 1,182 trios. Our results demonstrate that regions of HH are significantly enriched for previously reported ASD candidate genes and the observed association is independent of gene size (odds ratio 2.10). Our findings highlight the applicability of HH mapping in complex disorders such as ASD and offer an alternative approach to the analysis of genome-wide association data.
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15.
  • Chang, Hong, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of a Bipolar Disorder Vulnerable Gene CHDH at 3p21.1.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Molecular neurobiology. - 1559-1182. ; 54:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide analysis (GWA) is an effective strategy to discover extreme effects surpassing genome-wide significant levels in studying complex disorders; however, when sample size is limited, the true effects may fail to achieve genome-wide significance. In such case, there may be authentic results among the pools of nominal candidates, and an alternative approach is to consider nominal candidates but are replicable across different samples. Here, we found that mRNA expression of the choline dehydrogenase gene (CHDH) was uniformly upregulated in the brains of bipolar disorder (BPD) patients compared with healthy controls across different studies. Follow-up genetic analyses of CHDH variants in multiple independent clinical datasets (including 11,564 cases and 17,686 controls) identified a risk SNP rs9836592 showing consistent associations with BPD (P meta = 5.72 × 10(-4)), and the risk allele indicated an increased CHDH expression in multiple neuronal tissues (lowest P = 6.70 × 10(-16)). These converging results may identify a nominal but true BPD susceptibility gene CHDH. Further exploratory analysis revealed suggestive associations of rs9836592 with childhood intelligence (P = 0.044) and educational attainment (P = 0.0039), a "proxy phenotype" of general cognitive abilities. Intriguingly, the CHDH gene is located at chromosome 3p21.1, a risk region implicated in previous BPD genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but CHDH is lying outside of the core GWAS linkage disequilibrium (LD) region, and our studied SNP rs9836592 is ∼1.2 Mb 3' downstream of the previous GWAS loci (e.g., rs2251219) with no LD between them; thus, the association observed here is unlikely a reflection of previous GWAS signals. In summary, our results imply that CHDH may play a previously unknown role in the etiology of BPD and also highlight the informative value of integrating gene expression and genetic code in advancing our understanding of its biological basis.
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16.
  • Chaste, Pauline, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variations of the melatonin pathway in patients with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorders.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pineal Research. - 0742-3098. ; 51:4, s. 394-399
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and a synchronizer of many physiological processes. Alteration in melatonin signaling has been reported in a broad range of diseases, but little is known about the genetic variability of this pathway in humans. Here, we sequenced all the genes of the melatonin pathway -AA-NAT, ASMT, MTNR1A, MTNR1B and GPR50 - in 321 individuals from Sweden including 101 patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 220 controls from the general population. We could find several damaging mutations in patients with ADHD, but no significant enrichment compared with the general population. Among these variations, we found a splice site mutation in ASMT (IVS5+2T>C) and one stop mutation in MTNR1A (Y170X) - detected exclusively in patients with ADHD - for which biochemical analyses indicated that they abolish the activity of ASMT and MTNR1A. These genetic and functional results represent the first comprehensive ascertainment of melatonin signaling deficiency in ADHD.
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17.
  • Chaste, Pauline, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of pathway-biased and deleterious melatonin receptor mutants in autism spectrum disorders and in the general population.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PloS One. - 1932-6203. ; 5:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and a synchronizer of many physiological processes. Alteration of the melatonin pathway has been reported in circadian disorders, diabetes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, very little is known about the genetic variability of melatonin receptors in humans. Here, we sequenced the melatonin receptor MTNR1A and MTNR1B, genes coding for MT1 and MT2 receptors, respectively, in a large panel of 941 individuals including 295 patients with ASD, 362 controls and 284 individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. We also sequenced GPR50, coding for the orphan melatonin-related receptor GPR50 in patients and controls. We identified six non-synonymous mutations for MTNR1A and ten for MTNR1B. The majority of these variations altered receptor function. Particularly interesting mutants are MT1-I49N, which is devoid of any melatonin binding and cell surface expression, and MT1-G166E and MT1-I212T, which showed severely impaired cell surface expression. Of note, several mutants possessed pathway-selective signaling properties, some preferentially inhibiting the adenylyl cyclase pathway, others preferentially activating the MAPK pathway. The prevalence of these deleterious mutations in cases and controls indicates that they do not represent major risk factor for ASD (MTNR1A case 3.6% vs controls 4.4%; MTNR1B case 4.7% vs 3% controls). Concerning GPR50, we detected a significant association between ASD and two variations, Delta502-505 and T532A, in affected males, but it did not hold up after Bonferonni correction for multiple testing. Our results represent the first functional ascertainment of melatonin receptors in humans and constitute a basis for future structure-function studies and for interpreting genetic data on the melatonin pathway in patients.
18.
  • Chaste, Pauline, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation screening of the ARX gene in patients with autism.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. - 1552-4841. ; 144B:2, s. 228-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the Aristaless related homeobox (ARX) gene are associated with a broad spectrum of disorders, including nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation, sometimes associated with epilepsy, as well as syndromic forms with brain abnormalities and abnormal genitalia. Furthermore, ARX mutations have been described in a few patients with autism or autistic features. In this study, we screened the ARX gene in 226 male patients with autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation; 42 of the patients had epilepsy. The mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions. No ARX mutations were identified in any of the patients tested. These findings indicate that mutations in the ARX gene are very rare in autism.
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19.
  • de Pierrefeu, Amicie, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying a neuroanatomical signature of schizophrenia, reproducible across sites and stages, using machine-learning with structured sparsity
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0001-690X. ; 138, s. 571-580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveStructural MRI (sMRI) increasingly offers insight into abnormalities inherent to schizophrenia. Previous machine learning applications suggest that individual classification is feasible and reliable and, however, is focused on the predictive performance of the clinical status in cross‐sectional designs, which has limited biological perspectives. Moreover, most studies depend on relatively small cohorts or single recruiting site. Finally, no study controlled for disease stage or medication's effect. These elements cast doubt on previous findings’ reproducibility.MethodWe propose a machine learning algorithm that provides an interpretable brain signature. Using large datasets collected from 4 sites (276 schizophrenia patients, 330 controls), we assessed cross‐site prediction reproducibility and associated predictive signature. For the first time, we evaluated the predictive signature regarding medication and illness duration using an independent dataset of first‐episode patients.ResultsMachine learning classifiers based on neuroanatomical features yield significant intersite prediction accuracies (72%) together with an excellent predictive signature stability. This signature provides a neural score significantly correlated with symptom severity and the extent of cognitive impairments. Moreover, this signature demonstrates its efficiency on first‐episode psychosis patients (73% accuracy).ConclusionThese results highlight the existence of a common neuroanatomical signature for schizophrenia, shared by a majority of patients even from an early stage of the disorder.
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20.
  • Delorme, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation screening of NOS1AP gene in a large sample of psychiatric patients and controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Med Genet. - BioMed Central. ; 11:1:108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The gene encoding carboxyl-terminal PDZ ligand of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1AP) is located on chromosome 1q23.3, a candidate region for schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous genetic and functional studies explored the role of NOS1AP in these psychiatric conditions, but only a limited number explored the sequence variability of NOS1AP. METHODS: We analyzed the coding sequence of NOS1AP in a large population (n=280), including patients with schizophrenia (n=72), ASD (n=81) or OCD (n=34), and in healthy volunteers controlled for the absence of personal or familial history of psychiatric disorders (n=93). RESULTS: Two non-synonymous variations, V37I and D423N were identified in two families, one with two siblings with OCD and the other with two brothers with ASD. These rare variations apparently segregate with the presence of psychiatric conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Coding variations of NOS1AP are relatively rare in patients and controls. Nevertheless, we report the first non-synonymous variations within the human NOS1AP gene that warrant further genetic and functional investigations to ascertain their roles in the susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 55
  • Föregående 1[2]3456Nästa
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