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241.
  • Flannick, Jason, et al. (författare)
  • Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 protect against type 2 diabetes.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 46:4, s. 357-357
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Loss-of-function mutations protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets, but none have yet been described for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Through sequencing or genotyping of ∼150,000 individuals across 5 ancestry groups, we identified 12 rare protein-truncating variants in SLC30A8, which encodes an islet zinc transporter (ZnT8) and harbors a common variant (p.Trp325Arg) associated with T2D risk and glucose and proinsulin levels. Collectively, carriers of protein-truncating variants had 65% reduced T2D risk (P = 1.7 × 10(-6)), and non-diabetic Icelandic carriers of a frameshift variant (p.Lys34Serfs*50) demonstrated reduced glucose levels (-0.17 s.d., P = 4.6 × 10(-4)). The two most common protein-truncating variants (p.Arg138* and p.Lys34Serfs*50) individually associate with T2D protection and encode unstable ZnT8 proteins. Previous functional study of SLC30A8 suggested that reduced zinc transport increases T2D risk, and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed in mouse Slc30a8 knockouts. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in humans provide strong evidence that SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D, suggesting ZnT8 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in T2D prevention.
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242.
  • Flannick, Jason, et al. (författare)
  • Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 protect against type 2 diabetes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:4, s. 357-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Loss-of-function mutations protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets1-3, but none have yet been described for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Through sequencing or genotyping of -150,000 individuals across 5 ancestry groups, we identified 12 rare protein-truncating variants in SLC30A8, which encodes an islet zinc transporter (ZnT8) 4 and harbors a common variant (p. Trp325Arg) associated with T2D risk and glucose and proinsulin levels5-7. Collectively, carriers of protein-truncating variants had 65% reduced T2D risk (P = 1.7 x 10(-6)), and non-diabetic Icelandic carriers of a frameshift variant (p. Lys34Serfs* 50) demonstrated reduced glucose levels (-0.17 s. d., P = 4.6 x 10(-4)). The two most common proteintruncating variants (p. Arg138* and p. Lys34Serfs* 50) individually associate with T2D protection and encode unstable ZnT8 proteins. Previous functional study of SLC30A8 suggested that reduced zinc transport increases T2D risk(8,9), and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed in mouse Slc30a8 knockouts(10-15). In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in humans provide strong evidence that SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D, suggesting ZnT8 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in T2D prevention.</p>
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243.
  • Flannick, Jason, et al. (författare)
  • Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 protect against type 2 diabetes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:4, s. 357-363
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Loss-of-function mutations protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets1-3, but none have yet been described for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Through sequencing or genotyping of -150,000 individuals across 5 ancestry groups, we identified 12 rare protein-truncating variants in SLC30A8, which encodes an islet zinc transporter (ZnT8) 4 and harbors a common variant (p. Trp325Arg) associated with T2D risk and glucose and proinsulin levels5-7. Collectively, carriers of protein-truncating variants had 65% reduced T2D risk (P = 1.7 x 10(-6)), and non-diabetic Icelandic carriers of a frameshift variant (p. Lys34Serfs* 50) demonstrated reduced glucose levels (-0.17 s. d., P = 4.6 x 10(-4)). The two most common proteintruncating variants (p. Arg138* and p. Lys34Serfs* 50) individually associate with T2D protection and encode unstable ZnT8 proteins. Previous functional study of SLC30A8 suggested that reduced zinc transport increases T2D risk(8,9), and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed in mouse Slc30a8 knockouts(10-15). In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in humans provide strong evidence that SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D, suggesting ZnT8 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in T2D prevention.</p>
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244.
  • Foote, Andrew D., et al. (författare)
  • Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 47:3, s. 272-275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.</p>
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245.
  • Foster, Josh, et al. (författare)
  • Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Induces Hypothermia During Acute Cold Stress
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical drug investigation. - 1173-2563 .- 1179-1918. ; 37:11, s. 1055-1065
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Acetaminophen is an over-the-counter drug used to treat pain and fever, but it has also been shown to reduce core temperature (Tc) in the absence of fever. However, this side effect is not well examined in humans, and it is unknown if the hypothermic response to acetaminophen is exacerbated with cold exposure. Objective: To address this question, we mapped the thermoregulatory responses to acetaminophen and placebo administration during exposure to acute cold (10 °C) and thermal neutrality (25 °C). Methods: Nine healthy Caucasian males (aged 20–24 years) participated in the experiment. In a double-blind, randomised, repeated measures design, participants were passively exposed to a thermo-neutral or cold environment for 120 min, with administration of 20 mg/kg lean body mass acetaminophen or a placebo 5 min prior to exposure. Tc, skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate, and thermal sensation were measured every 10 min, and mean arterial pressure was recorded every 30 min. Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models. Differences in thermal sensation were analysed using a cumulative link mixed model. Results: Acetaminophen had no effect on Tc in a thermo-neutral environment, but significantly reduced Tc during cold exposure, compared with a placebo. Tc was lower in the acetaminophen compared with the placebo condition at each 10-min interval from 80 to 120 min into the trial (all p &amp;lt; 0.05). On average, Tc decreased by 0.42 ± 0.13 °C from baseline after 120 min of cold exposure (range 0.16–0.57 °C), whereas there was no change in the placebo group (0.01 ± 0.1 °C). Tsk, heart rate, thermal sensation, and mean arterial pressure were not different between conditions (p &amp;gt; 0.05). Conclusion: This preliminary trial suggests that acetaminophen-induced hypothermia is exacerbated during cold stress. Larger scale trials seem warranted to determine if acetaminophen administration is associated with an increased risk of accidental hypothermia, particularly in vulnerable populations such as frail elderly individuals. </p>
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246.
  • Gaccioli, Francesca, et al. (författare)
  • Fetal inheritance of chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 predisposes the mother to pre-eclampsia.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Microbiology. - 2058-5276. ; 5:7, s. 901-908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Pre-eclampsia (typically characterized by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria in the second half of pregnancy) represents a major determinant of the global burden of disease<sup>1,2</sup>. Its pathophysiology involves placental dysfunction, but the mechanism is unclear. Viral infection can cause organ dysfunction, but its role in placentally related disorders of human pregnancy is unknown<sup>3</sup>. We addressed this using RNA sequencing metagenomics<sup>4-6</sup> of placental samples from normal and complicated pregnancies. Here, we show that human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6, A or B) RNA was detected in 6.1% of cases of pre-eclampsia and 2.2% of other pregnancies. Fetal genotyping demonstrated that 70% of samples with HHV-6 RNA in the placenta exhibited inherited, chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6). We genotyped 467 pre-eclampsia cases and 3,854 controls and found an excess of iciHHV-6 in the cases (odds ratio of 2.8, 95% confidence intervals of 1.4-5.6, P = 0.008). We validated this finding by comparing iciHHV-6 in a further 740 cases with controls from large-scale population studies (odds ratio of 2.5, 95% confidence intervals of 1.4-4.4, P = 0.0013). We conclude that iciHHV-6 results in the transcription of viral RNA in the human placenta and predisposes the mother to pre-eclampsia.</p>
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247.
  • Gruber, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Allantoin in human plasma, serum, and nasal-lining fluids as a biomarker of oxidative stress : avoiding artifacts and establishing real in vivo concentrations.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling. - 1523-0864 .- 1557-7716. ; 11:8, s. 1767-1776
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Urate is the terminal product of purine metabolism in primates, including humans. Urate is also an efficient scavenger of oxidizing species and is thought to be an important antioxidant in human body fluids. Allantoin, the major oxidation product of urate, has been suggested as a candidate biomarker of oxidative stress because it is not produced metabolically. Although urate is converted to allantoin under strongly alkaline pH, such conditions have been used in the past to facilitate extraction of allantoin. We evolved a method for the determination of allantoin concentrations in human plasma and serum by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without such artifact. With this method, we show that alkaline conditions do indeed cause breakdown of urate, leading to significant overestimation of allantoin concentration in human samples. By using our alternative method, serum samples from 98 volunteers were analyzed, and allantoin levels were found to be significantly lower than was previously reported. The in vivo utility and sensitivity of our method was further evaluated in human nasal-lining fluids. We were able to demonstrate an ozone-induced increase in allantoin, in the absence of increases in either ascorbate or glutathione oxidation products.</p>
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248.
  • Harpham, Michael R., et al. (författare)
  • X-ray Transient Absorption and Picosecond IR Spectroscopy of Fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on Photoexcitation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Angewandte Chemie - International Edition. - 1433-7851 .- 1521-3773. ; 51:31, s. 7692-7696
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Caught in the light: The fulvalene diruthenium complex shown on the left side of the picture captures sun light, causing initial Ru–Ru bond rupture to furnish a long-lived triplet biradical of syn configuration. This species requires thermal activation to reach a crossing point (middle) into the singlet manifold on route to its thermal storage isomer on the right through the anti biradical.
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249.
  • Hayes, Anthony J., et al. (författare)
  • Spinal Deformity in Aged Zebrafish Is Accompanied by Degenerative Changes to Their Vertebrae that Resemble Osteoarthritis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 8:9, s. e75787
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Age-related degenerative changes within the vertebral column are a significant cause of morbidity with considerable socio-economic impact worldwide. An improved understanding of these changes through the development of experimental models may lead to improvements in existing clinical treatment options. The zebrafish is a well-established model for the study of skeletogenesis with significant potential in gerontological research. With advancing age, zebrafish frequently develop gross deformities of their vertebral column, previously ascribed to reduced trunk muscle tone. In this study, we assess degenerative changes specifically within the bone and cartilage of the vertebral column of zebrafish at 1, 2 and 3-years of age. We show increased frequency and severity of spinal deformities/curvatures with age. Underlying the most severe phenotypes are partial or complete vertebral dislocations and focal thickening of the vertebral bone at the joint margins. MicroCT examination demonstrates small defects, fractures and morphological evidence suggestive of bone erosion and remodeling (i.e. osteophytes) within the vertebrae during aging, but no significant change in bone density. Light and electron microscopic examination reveal striking agerelated changes in cell morphology, suggestive of chondroptosis, and tissue remodelling of the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. Glycosaminoglycan analysis of the vertebral column by HPLC demonstrates a consistent, age-related increase in the yield of total chondroitin sulfate disaccharide, but no change in sulfation pattern, supported by immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry strongly identifies all three chondroitin/dermatan sulphate isoforms (C-0-S, C-4-S/DS and C-6-S) within the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. In contrast, keratan sulfate immunolocalises specifically with the notochordal tissue of the intervertebral disc, and its labelling diminishes with age. In summary, these observations raise the prospect that zebrafish, in addition to modelling skeletal development, may have utility in modelling age-related degenerative changes that affect the skeleton during senescence.</p>
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250.
  • Houssaye, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • Microanatomical and Histological Features in the Long Bones of Mosasaurine Mosasaurs (Reptilia, Squamata) - Implications for Aquatic Adaptation and Growth Rates
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: During their evolution in the Late Cretaceous, mosasauroids attained a worldwide distribution, accompanied by a marked increase in body size and open ocean adaptations. This transition from land-dwellers to highly marine-adapted forms is readily apparent not only at the gross anatomic level but also in their inner bone architecture, which underwent profound modifications. Methodology/Principal Findings: The present contribution describes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the internal organization (microanatomy) and tissue types and characteristics (histology) of propodial and epipodial bones in one lineage of mosasauroids; i.e., the subfamily Mosasaurinae. By using microanatomical and histological data from limb bones in combination with recently acquired knowledge on the inner structure of ribs and vertebrae, and through comparisons with extant squamates and semi-aquatic to fully marine amniotes, we infer possible implications on mosasaurine evolution, aquatic adaptation, growth rates, and basal metabolic rates. Notably, we observe the occurrence of an unusual type of parallel-fibered bone, with large and randomly shaped osteocyte lacunae (otherwise typical of fibrous bone) and particular microanatomical features in Dallasaurus, which displays, rather than a spongious inner organization, bone mass increase in its humeri and a tubular organization in its femora and ribs. Conclusions/Significance: The dominance of an unusual type of parallel-fibered bone suggests growth rates and, by extension, basal metabolic rates intermediate between that of the extant leatherback turtle, Dermochelys, and those suggested for plesiosaur and ichthyosaur reptiles. Moreover, the microanatomical features of the relatively primitive genus Dallasaurus differ from those of more derived mosasaurines, indicating an intermediate stage of adaptation for a marine existence. The more complete image of the various microanatomical trends observed in mosasaurine skeletal elements supports the evolutionary convergence between this lineage of secondarily aquatically adapted squamates and cetaceans in the ecological transition from a coastal to a pelagic lifestyle.
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