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Sökning: WFRF:(Leeb Tosso)

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  • Föregående 1[2]3Nästa
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11.
  • Drögemüller, Cord, et al. (författare)
  • A mutation in hairless dogs implicates FOXI3 in ectodermal development
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 321:5895, s. 1462-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mexican and Peruvian hairless dogs and Chinese crested dogs are characterized by missing hair and teeth, a phenotype termed canine ectodermal dysplasia (CED). CED is inherited as a monogenic autosomal semidominant trait. With genomewide association analysis we mapped the CED mutation to a 102-kilo-base pair interval on chromosome 17. The associated interval contains a previously uncharacterized member of the forkhead box transcription factor family (FOXI3), which is specifically expressed in developing hair and teeth. Mutation analysis revealed a frameshift mutation within the FOXI3 coding sequence in hairless dogs. Thus, we have identified FOXI3 as a regulator of ectodermal development.
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12.
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13.
  • Eriksson, Jonas (författare)
  • Genetic and Genomic Studies in Chicken : Assigning Function to Vertebrate Genes
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A major challenge in the post-genomic era is to understand how genome sequence variants (genotype) give rise to the enormous diversity observed in terms of morphology, physiology and behavior (phenotype) among living organisms. Domestic animals—with their tremendous phenotypic variation—are excellent model organisms for determining the relationships between genotype and phenotype. In this thesis, I describe the utilization of the chicken, in combination with modern genetic and genomic approaches, in developing our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation. These studies provide novel information on the genetics behind variation in carotenoid- and melanin-based pigmentation—observed in many organisms—and also cast light on the genetic basis of chicken domestication. In paper I, we report that the yellow skin phenotype—observed in most commercial chickens—is caused by one or several tissue-specific mutations altering the expression of beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2 or BCDO2) in skin. In addition, we present the first conclusive evidence of a hybrid origin of the domestic chicken, since the allele causing yellow skin most likely originates from the grey jungle fowl (Gallus sonneratii) and not from the previously described sole ancestor, the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus). In paper II, we detect a number of loci that were likely important during the domestication process of chicken and the later specialization into meat (broiler) and egg (layer) producing lines. One of the major findings was that worldwide, almost all domestic chickens carry a missense mutation in TSHR (thyroid stimulating hormone receptor) in a position that is completely conserved amongst vertebrates. We speculate that this “domestication-mutation” has played an important role in the transformation of the wild red jungle fowl ancestor into the modern domestic chicken. In paper III, we demonstrate that the dilution of red (pheomelanin) pigmentation—observed in the plumage of the Inhibitor of Gold chicken—is caused by a frame-shift mutation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase domain containing 1 (COMTD1) gene. The production and regulation of pheomelanin is poorly understood and this discovery advances our current knowledge of this pathway.
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14.
  • Felkel, Sabine, et al. (författare)
  • The horse Y chromosome as an informative marker for tracing sire lines
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group: Open Access Journals - Option C / Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analysis of the Y chromosome is the best-established way to reconstruct paternal family history in humans. Here, we applied fine-scaled Y-chromosomal haplotyping in horses with biallelic markers and demonstrate the potential of our approach to address the ancestry of sire lines. We de novo assembled a draft reference of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome from Illumina short reads and then screened 5.8 million basepairs for variants in 130 specimens from intensively selected and rural breeds and nine Przewalski's horses. Among domestic horses we confirmed the predominance of a young'crown haplogroup' in Central European and North American breeds. Within the crown, we distinguished 58 haplotypes based on 211 variants, forming three major haplogroups. In addition to two previously characterised haplogroups, one observed in Arabian/Coldblooded and the other in Turkoman/Thoroughbred horses, we uncovered a third haplogroup containing Iberian lines and a North African Barb Horse. In a genealogical showcase, we distinguished the patrilines of the three English Thoroughbred founder stallions and resolved a historic controversy over the parentage of the horse 'Galopin', born in 1872. We observed two nearly instantaneous radiations in the history of Central and Northern European Y-chromosomal lineages that both occurred after domestication 5,500 years ago.
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15.
  • Jagannathan, Vidhya, et al. (författare)
  • A Mutation in the SUV39H2 Gene in Labrador Retrievers with Hereditary Nasal Parakeratosis (HNPK) Provides Insights into the Epigenetics of Keratinocyte Differentiation
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 9:10, s. e1003848-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hereditary nasal parakeratosis (HNPK), an inherited monogenic autosomal recessive skin disorder, leads to crusts and fissures on the nasal planum of Labrador Retrievers. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 13 HNPK cases and 23 controls. We obtained a single strong association signal on chromosome 2 (p(raw) = 4.4x10(-14)). The analysis of shared haplotypes among the 13 cases defined a critical interval of 1.6 Mb with 25 predicted genes. We re-sequenced the genome of one case at 38x coverage and detected 3 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval with respect to the reference genome assembly. We genotyped these variants in larger cohorts of dogs and only one was perfectly associated with the HNPK phenotype in a cohort of more than 500 dogs. This candidate causative variant is a missense variant in the SUV39H2 gene encoding a histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase, which mediates chromatin silencing. The variant c.972T>G is predicted to change an evolutionary conserved asparagine into a lysine in the catalytically active domain of the enzyme (p.N324K). We further studied the histopathological alterations in the epidermis in vivo. Our data suggest that the HNPK phenotype is not caused by hyperproliferation, but rather delayed terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Thus, our data provide evidence that SUV39H2 is involved in the epigenetic regulation of keratinocyte differentiation ensuring proper stratification and tight sealing of the mammalian epidermis.
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16.
  • Lauber, Beatrice, et al. (författare)
  • Total IgE and allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibody levels in sera of atopic dermatitis affected and non-affected Labrador- and Golden retrievers
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. - : Elsevier. - 0165-2427 .- 1873-2534. ; 149:1-2, s. 112-118
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is an allergic skin disease associated with IgE and IgG antibodies (Ab) to environmental allergens. The aim of this study was to determine which other factors influence serum Ab levels in CAD-affected and non-affected dogs as this has only been poorly investigated in dogs so far. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels and Dermatophagoides farinae (DF)-specific IgG1 and IgG4 were measured by ELISA in sera of 145 CAD-affected and 271 non-affected Labrador- and Golden retrievers. A multivariable logistic regression analysis including the factors age, breed, gender, castration, clinical CAD status and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) was performed. Golden retrievers had more frequently total (OR=1.87, 95% CI=1.26-2.87, p<0.01) and specific IgE levels above the threshold value than Labrador retrievers, suggesting that genetic factors influence IgE levels in dogs. Castration was generally associated with low Ab levels (OR=0.43-0.65, p<0.05). Surprisingly, dogs with CAD did not have increased odds for high IgE against any of the allergens tested. ASIT with DF was associated with high DF-specific IgG1 (OR=4.32, 95% CI 1.46-12.8, p<0.01) but was not associated with DF-specific IgG4 or decreased IgE levels. Further studies are needed to understand the role of allergen-specific IgE in CAD and of IgG1 in ASIT.
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17.
  • Lequarre, Anne-Sophie, et al. (författare)
  • LUPA : A European initiative taking advantage of the canine genome architecture for unravelling complex disorders in both human and dogs
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Veterinary Journal. - 0007-1935 .- 1879-3606. ; 189:2, s. 155-159
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The domestic dog offers a unique opportunity to explore the genetic basis of disease, morphology and behaviour. Humans share many diseases with our canine companions, making dogs an ideal model organism for comparative disease genetics. Using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be exceptionally powerful. Towards this aim, veterinarians and geneticists from 12 European countries are collaborating to collect and analyse the DNA from large cohorts of dogs suffering from a range of carefully defined diseases of relevance to human health. This project, named LUPA, has already delivered considerable results. The consortium has collaborated to develop a new high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Mutations for four monogenic diseases have been identified and the information has been utilised to find mutations in human patients. Several complex diseases have been mapped and fine mapping is underway. These findings should ultimately lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying complex diseases in both humans and their best friend.
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18.
  • Mausberg, Theresa-Bernadette, et al. (författare)
  • A Locus on Chromosome 5 Is Associated with Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS One. - 1932-6203. ; 6:5, s. e20042-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heterogeneous group of heart diseases with a strong genetic background. Currently, many human DCM cases exist where no causative mutation can be identified. DCM also occurs with high prevalence in several large dog breeds. In the Doberman Pinscher a specific DCM form characterized by arrhythmias and/or echocardiographic changes has been intensively studied by veterinary cardiologists. We performed a genome-wide association study in Doberman Pinschers. Using 71 cases and 70 controls collected in Germany we identified a genome-wide significant association to DCM on chromosome 5. We validated the association in an independent cohort collected in the United Kingdom. There is no known DCM candidate gene under the association signal. Therefore, DCM in Doberman Pinschers offers the chance of identifying a novel DCM gene that might also be relevant for human health.
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19.
  • McCue, Molly E., et al. (författare)
  • A High Density SNP Array for the Domestic Horse and Extant Perissodactyla : Utility for Association Mapping, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny Studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 8:1, s. e1002451-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of similar to 43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50-100 kb and reached background levels within 1-2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of similar to 750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species.
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20.
  • Naboulsi, Rakan (författare)
  • Animal genomics – gene discovery and gene characterization
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis involves two projects. The aim in the first project was to identify genomic regions associated with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT), which is a hereditary autoimmune disease that affects the obese strain (OS) of chicken, an animal model for human Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). In the second project, we study ZBED6, a highly conserved protein unique to placental mammals. Here we explore the functional significance of ZBED6 in general, and its effect on the regulation of Igf2 and miR483 in specific. To identify genomic regions predisposing to SAT, a nine-generation intercross between OS and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl (RJF), was previously generated. In paper I, we developed a cell-based assay to phenotype the F9 chickens by measuring the TSH levels in their serum. We found that 1) SAT is similar to HT in the sense that the serum-TSH levels increase in affected individuals, and 2) that TSH levels in SAT-affected chickens starts to increase after 20 weeks of age. In paper II, a whole genome sequencing experiment was performed to compare a healthy and a severely SAT-affected groups of chicken. This analysis revealed 12 genomic loci to be significantly different between the two groups. In the second project, we utilized a mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12, to characterize the function of ZBED6. In paper III, we affect ZBED6 function, by either mutating its binding site in Igf2 (Igf2dGGCT), or by completely knocking it out (Zbed6-/-). Functional analysis of the mutant cells revealed that ZBED6 overexpression induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, that ZBED6 directly affects mitochondrial activity, and that ZBED6 in myoblast cells mainly exerts its effect through regulating Igf2. In paper IV, we use ZBED6 knock-out and knock-in mice to investigate the effect of ZBED6 on the regulation of miRNA expression. We found that ZBED6 is not a general regulator for miRNA, with the exception of miR483, which exists in an intron of Igf2. Thereafter, we generated miR483-/- cells, using the Igf2dGGCT cell line. In this analysis we found that the main function of miR483 in myoblast cells is to regulate the expression of Igf2, and that ZBED6 partially regulates Igf2 through regulating miR483.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 25
  • Föregående 1[2]3Nästa
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