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Sökning: WFRF:(Li Jingmei)

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  • Föregående 12[3]4Nästa
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  • Hu, Jingmei, et al. (författare)
  • Speed Control Effect Study on Optical Illusion Deceleration Markings
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents : Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013. - Linköping : Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The optical illusion deceleration marking is one of the commonly used speed control measures. In this research, the authors analyzed operating speed and trajectory of motor vehicle at intersection where optical illusion deceleration marking is installed. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation on effect of optical illusion deceleration marking is conducted. Results showed that optical illusion deceleration marking would help to reduce operating speed and average speed by 5-10km/h, to regulate motorcycle driver behavior, and to reduce speed difference, so that driving safety is ensured. Optical illusion deceleration marking is suitable for accident prone road sections on two-lane highways which main vehicle types are passenger car and motorcycle.</p>
  • Li, Jinhai, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Roadway Segment Alignments and Locations on Rural Two-Lane Highway Crash Rates
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents : Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013. - Linköping : Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This paper investigates the effects of road segment alignment and location on rural two-lane highway crash rates by taking the mileage of segment types into consideration. Roadway segments are classified and redefined according to the segment alignment and location. The definitions of crash rates in terms of segment alignment and location are presented respectively. The study gathers crash data and the roadway geometric information of rural two-lane highways in southwest of China and crash rates of each segment type are proposed by utilizing the proposed definitions. The result indicates that gentle-slope &amp; sharp-curve segments and intersections tend to have extremely higher crash rates than the other types of segments.</p>
  • Li, Jingmei (författare)
  • Genetic determinants of breast cancer risk
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The main purpose of this thesis was to identify genetic risk factors using both hypothesis-based and hypothesis-free approaches. In an attempt to identify common disease susceptibility alleles for breast cancer, we started off with a hypothesis-free approach, and performed a combined analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS), involving 2,702 women of European ancestry with invasive breast cancer and 5,726 controls. As GWAS has been said to underperform for studying complex diseases such as breast cancer, we investigated to see if the variance explained by common variants could be increased by studying specific disease subtypes. Breast cancer may be characterized on the basis of whether estrogen receptors (ER) are expressed in the tumour cells. The two breast cancer tumour subtypes (ER-positive and ERnegative) are generally considered as biologically distinct diseases and have been associated with remarkably different gene expression profiles. ER status is important clinically, and is used both as a prognosticator and treatment predictor since it determines if a patient may benefit from anti-estrogen therapy. We thus performed an independent GWAS using a subset of ER-negative breast cancer cases and all of the controls from the initial genome-wide study, and, in addition, also evaluated whether the two cancer subtypes are fundamentally different on a germline level. Besides hypothesis-free GWAS, we also conducted hypothesis-based analyses based on candidate pathways to identify common variants associated with breast cancer. Several studies have examined the effect of genetic variants in genes involved in the estrogen metabolic pathway on mammographic density, but the number of loci studied and the sample sizes evaluated have been small and pathways have not been evaluated comprehensively. We evaluated a total of 239 SNPs in 34 genes in the estrogen metabolic pathway in 1,731 Swedish women who participated in a breast cancer case-control study. Slightly venturing outside the genetic scope of this thesis, we looked at a breast cancer risk factor - body size - that is associated with very different postmenopausal breast cancer risks at different time points in a woman’s lifetime, namely, birth, childhood, and postmenopausal adult. The significance of these studies will be apparent when, using the new genetic and epidemiological knowledge found, we are able to classify women according to high or low risk of breast cancer on the basis of genetic disposition or other breast cancer risk factors, so that appropriate interventions and disease management decisions may be made, to ultimately reduce incidence and mortality of breast cancer.
  • Meeks, Huong D., et al. (författare)
  • BRCA2 Polymorphic Stop Codon K3326X and the Risk of Breast, Prostate, and Ovarian Cancers
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874. ; 108:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The K3326X variant in BRCA2 (BRCA2∗c.9976A>T p.Lys3326∗rs11571833) has been found to be associated with small increased risks of breast cancer. However, it is not clear to what extent linkage disequilibrium with fully pathogenic mutations might account for this association. There is scant information about the effect of K3326X in other hormonerelated cancers. Methods: Using weighted logistic regression, we analyzed data from the large iCOGS study including 76637 cancer case patients and 83796 control patients to estimate odds ratios (ORw) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for K3326X variant carriers in relation to breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer risks, with weights defined as probability of not having a pathogenic BRCA2 variant. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, we also examined the associations of K3326X with breast and ovarian cancer risks among 7183 BRCA1 variant carriers. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The K3326X variant was associated with breast (ORw = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.17 to 1.40, P = 5.9×10-6) and invasive ovarian cancer (ORw = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.43, P = 3.8×10-3). These associations were stronger for serous ovarian cancer and for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (ORw = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.70, P = 3.4×10-5 and ORw = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.76, P = 4.1×10-5, respectively). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was a statistically significant inverse association of the K3326X variant with risk of ovarian cancer (HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.84, P = .013) but no association with breast cancer. No association with prostate cancer was observed. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that the K3326X variant is associated with risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers independent of other pathogenic variants in BRCA2. Further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism of action responsible for these associations.
  • Michailidou, Kyriaki, et al. (författare)
  • Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7678, s. 92-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P &lt; 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.</p>
  • Michailidou, Kyriaki, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis of more than 120,000 individuals identifies 15 new susceptibility loci for breast cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 47:4, s. 373-U127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and large-scale replication studies have identified common variants in 79 loci associated with breast cancer, explaining similar to 14% of the familial risk of the disease. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 GWAS, comprising 15,748 breast cancer cases and 18,084 controls together with 46,785 cases and 42,892 controls from 41 studies genotyped on a 211,155-marker custom array (iCOGS). Analyses were restricted to women of European ancestry. We generated genotypes for more than 11 million SNPs by imputation using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel, and we identified 15 new loci associated with breast cancer at P &lt; 5 x 10(-8). Combining association analysis with ChIP-seq chromatin binding data in mammary cell lines and ChIA-PET chromatin interaction data from ENCODE, we identified likely target genes in two regions: SETBP1 at 18q12.3 and RNF115 and PDZK1 at 1q21.1. One association appears to be driven by an amino acid substitution encoded in EXO1.</p>
  • Milne, Roger L, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of ten variants associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:12, s. 1767-1778
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P &lt; 5 × 10-8 with ten variants at nine new loci. At P &lt; 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer.</p>
  • Rietveld, Cornelius A., et al. (författare)
  • GWAS of 126,559 Individuals Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with Educational Attainment
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 340:6139, s. 1467-1471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R-2 approximate to 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for approximate to 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.</p>
  • Shum, Jingmei Li, et al. (författare)
  • Perturbation-induced droplets for manipulating droplet structure and configuration in microfluidics
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. - 0960-1317 .- 1361-6439. ; 25:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In this work, we mechanically perturb a liquid-in-liquid jet to manipulate the size and structure of the droplets formed from break-up of the jet. The induced break-up is relatively insensitive to fluctuations in the surrounding fluid flow. When the amplitude of perturbations is large and the interfacial tension of the liquid–liquid system is low, the size of the droplets can be precisely tuned by controlling the rate at which the liquid exits the tip of the dispensing nozzle through the frequency of perturbation. When applied to microfluidic devices with the appropriate geometry, our perturbation-induced droplet approach offers a strategy to manipulating droplet structures. We demonstrate that by varying the imposed perturbation frequency and phase lag, the structure of the multi-compartmental drops and the configuration of the resultant drops in the same flow condition can be manipulated. Moreover, after careful treatment of the wettability of the devices, we show that the structure of the droplets can be precisely controlled to change from single emulsion to double emulsion within the same device. The perturbation-induced droplet generation represents a new paradigm in the engineering of droplets, enhancing current droplet-based technologies for applications ranging from particle fabrication to confined micro-reactions.</p>
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  • Föregående 12[3]4Nästa
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