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Sökning: WFRF:(Liao Linda M)

  • Resultat 11-17 av 17
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11.
  • Jackson, Sarah S., et al. (författare)
  • Anthropometric Risk Factors for Cancers of the Biliary Tract in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - : AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 79:15, s. 3973-3982
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. Significance: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.
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12.
  • Jackson, Sarah S., et al. (författare)
  • Associations between reproductive factors and biliary tract cancers in women from the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hepatology. - : ELSEVIER. - 0168-8278 .- 1600-0641. ; 73, s. 863-872
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear. Methods: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study. Results: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR >= 5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only. Conclusion: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography. Lay summary: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association for the Study of the Liver.
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13.
  • McGee, Emma E., et al. (författare)
  • Smoking, Alcohol, and Biliary Tract Cancer Risk : A Pooling Project of 26 Prospective Studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 111:12, s. 1263-1278
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear. Methods: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random-effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Over a period of 38 369 156 person-years of follow-up, 1391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (eg, current vs never smokers HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all P-trend<.01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (eg, >40 cigarettes per day vs never smokers HR = 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.15 to 4.00; P-trend = .001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming five or more vs zero drinks per day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; P-trend = .04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity among several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers. Conclusions: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.
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14.
  • Campbell, Peter T, et al. (författare)
  • Body Size Indicators and Risk of Gallbladder Cancer : Pooled Analysis of Individual-Level Data from 19 Prospective Cohort Studies.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 26:4, s. 597-606
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There are few established risk factors for gallbladder cancer beyond gallstones. Recent studies suggest a higher risk with high body mass index (BMI), an indicator of general heaviness, but evidence from other body size measures is lacking.Methods: Associations of adult BMI, young adult BMI, height, adult weight gain, waist circumference (WC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), hip circumference (HC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with gallbladder cancer risk were evaluated. Individual-level data from 1,878,801 participants in 19 prospective cohort studies (14 studies had circumference measures) were harmonized and included in this analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).Results: After enrollment, 567 gallbladder cancer cases were identified during 20.1 million person-years of observation, including 361 cases with WC measures. Higher adult BMI (per 5 kg/m2, HR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.13-1.35), young adult BMI (per 5 kg/m2, HR: 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26), adult weight gain (per 5 kg, HR: 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12), height (per 5 cm, HR: 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17), WC (per 5 cm, HR: 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.17), WHtR (per 0.1 unit, HR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.00-1.54), and HC (per 5 cm, HR: 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22), but not WHR (per 0.1 unit, HR: 1.03; 95% CI, 0.87-1.22), were associated with higher risks of gallbladder cancer, and results did not differ meaningfully by sex or other demographic/lifestyle factors.Conclusions: These findings indicate that measures of overall and central excess body weight are associated with higher gallbladder cancer risks.Impact: Excess body weight is an important, and potentially preventable, gallbladder cancer risk factor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 597-606. ©2017 AACR.
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15.
  • van den Brandt, Piet A, et al. (författare)
  • Body size and weight change over adulthood and risk of breast cancer by menopausal and hormone receptor status : a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohort studies.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.
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16.
  • Petimar, Joshua, et al. (författare)
  • A Pooled Analysis of 15 Prospective Cohort Studies on the Association between Fruit, Vegetable, and Mature Bean Consumption and Risk of Prostate Cancer.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 26:8, s. 1276-1287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Relationships between fruit, vegetable, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk are unclear.Methods: We examined associations between fruit and vegetable groups, specific fruits and vegetables, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk overall, by stage and grade, and for prostate cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohorts, including 52,680 total cases and 3,205 prostate cancer-related deaths among 842,149 men. Diet was measured by a food frequency questionnaire or similar instrument at baseline. We calculated study-specific relative risks using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then pooled these estimates using a random effects model.Results: We did not observe any statistically significant associations for advanced prostate cancer or prostate cancer mortality with any food group (including total fruits and vegetables, total fruits, total vegetables, fruit and vegetable juice, cruciferous vegetables, and tomato products), nor specific fruit and vegetables. In addition, we observed few statistically significant results for other prostate cancer outcomes. Pooled multivariable relative risks comparing the highest versus lowest quantiles across all fruit and vegetable exposures and prostate cancer outcomes ranged from 0.89 to 1.09. There was no evidence of effect modification for any association by age or body mass index.Conclusions: Results from this large, international, pooled analysis do not support a strong role of collective groupings of fruits, vegetables, or mature beans in prostate cancer.Impact: Further investigation of other dietary exposures, especially indicators of bioavailable nutrient intake or specific phytochemicals, should be considered for prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1276-87. ©2017 AACR.
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17.
  • Yu, Danxia, et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnostic calcium intake and lung cancer survival : A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965. ; 26:7, s. 1060-1070
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Little is known about whether prediagnostic nutritional factors may affect survival. We examined the associations of prediagnostic calcium intake from foods and/or supplements with lung cancer survival. Methods: The present analysis included 23,882 incident, primary lung cancer patients from 12 prospective cohort studies. Dietary calcium intake was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires at baseline in each cohort and standardized to caloric intake of 2,000 kcal/d for women and 2,500 kcal/d for men. Stratified, multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The 5-year survival rates were 56%, 21%, and 5.7% for localized, regional, and distant stage lung cancer, respectively. Low prediagnostic dietary calcium intake (<500-600 mg/d, less than half of the recommendation) was associated with a small increase in risk of death compared with recommended calcium intakes (800-1,200 mg/d); HR (95% CI) was 1.07 (1.01-1.13) after adjusting for age, stage, histology, grade, smoking status, pack-years, and other potential prognostic factors. The association between low calcium intake and higher lung cancer mortality was evident primarily among localized/regional stage patients, with HR (95% CI) of 1.15 (1.04-1.27). No association was found for supplemental calcium with survival in the multivariable-adjusted model. Conclusions: This large pooled analysis is the first, to our knowledge, to indicate that low prediagnostic dietary calcium intake may be associated with poorer survival among early-stage lung cancer patients. Impact: This multinational prospective study linked low calcium intake to lung cancer prognosis.
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