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51.
  • Kim, Jae-Young, et al. (författare)
  • Event Horizon Telescope imaging of the archetypal blazar 3C 279 at an extreme 20 microarcsecond resolution
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 3C 279 is an archetypal blazar with a prominent radio jet that show broadband flux density variability across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. We use an ultra-high angular resolution technique - global Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at 1.3mm (230 GHz) - to resolve the innermost jet of 3C 279 in order to study its fine-scale morphology close to the jet base where highly variable-ray emission is thought to originate, according to various models. The source was observed during four days in April 2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope at 230 GHz, including the phased Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, at an angular resolution of ∼20 μas (at a redshift of z = 0:536 this corresponds to ∼0:13 pc ∼ 1700 Schwarzschild radii with a black hole mass MBH = 8 × 108 M⊙). Imaging and model-fitting techniques were applied to the data to parameterize the fine-scale source structure and its variation.We find a multicomponent inner jet morphology with the northernmost component elongated perpendicular to the direction of the jet, as imaged at longer wavelengths. The elongated nuclear structure is consistent on all four observing days and across diffierent imaging methods and model-fitting techniques, and therefore appears robust. Owing to its compactness and brightness, we associate the northern nuclear structure as the VLBI "core". This morphology can be interpreted as either a broad resolved jet base or a spatially bent jet.We also find significant day-to-day variations in the closure phases, which appear most pronounced on the triangles with the longest baselines. Our analysis shows that this variation is related to a systematic change of the source structure. Two inner jet components move non-radially at apparent speeds of ∼15 c and ∼20 c (∼1:3 and ∼1:7 μas day-1, respectively), which more strongly supports the scenario of traveling shocks or instabilities in a bent, possibly rotating jet. The observed apparent speeds are also coincident with the 3C 279 large-scale jet kinematics observed at longer (cm) wavelengths, suggesting no significant jet acceleration between the 1.3mm core and the outer jet. The intrinsic brightness temperature of the jet components are ≤1010 K, a magnitude or more lower than typical values seen at ≥7mm wavelengths. The low brightness temperature and morphological complexity suggest that the core region of 3C 279 becomes optically thin at short (mm) wavelengths.
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52.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8627 .- 1554-8635. ; 4:2, s. 151-175
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,1 and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.2,3 There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.
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53.
  • Lai, Ian-Lin, et al. (författare)
  • Gas outflow and dust transport of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 462, s. S533-S546
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Because of the diurnal thermal cycle and the irregular shape of the nucleus, gas outflow of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko could be highly anisotropic as indicated by the colliminated dust jet structures on the sunlit side. Based on the OSIRIS imaging observations of the outgassing effect, a simple model of surface sublimation can be constructed by taking into account the dependence on the solar insolation. With preliminary information on the time variability of the global gas production rate, a sequence of gas coma models can be generated at different epochs before and after perihelion. We also investigate different patterns of dust particle dynamics under the influences of nuclear rotation and gas drag. From these considerations, a consistent picture of the spatial distribution of dusty materials across the surface of comet 67P as it moves around the perihelion can be developed. It is found that because of the redeposition of the ejected dust from the Southern hemisphere to the Northern hemisphere during the southern summer season the Hapi region could gain up to 0.4 m while the Wosret region would lose up to 1.8 m of dust mantle per orbit.
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54.
  • Lee, Jui-Chi, et al. (författare)
  • Geomorphological mapping of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's Southern hemisphere
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 462, s. S573-S592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2015 May, the Southern hemisphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko became visible by the OSIRIS cameras on-board the Rosetta spacecraft. The resolution was high enough to carry out a detailed analysis of the surface morphology, which is quite different from the Northern hemisphere. Previous works show that fine particle deposits are the most extensive geological unit in the Northern hemisphere. In contrast, the Southern hemisphere is dominated by outcropping consolidated terrain. In this work, we provide geomorphological maps of the Southern hemisphere with the distinction of both geological units and linear features. The geomorphological maps described in this study allow us to gain a better understanding of the processes shaping the comet nucleus and the distribution of primary structures such as fractures and strata.
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55.
  • Leung, Hildie, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement invariance across young adults from Hong Kong and Taiwan among three internet-related addiction scales : Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS), and Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9) (Study Part A).
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Addictive Behaviours. - : Elsevier. - 0306-4603 .- 1873-6327. ; 101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Internet addiction has been found to be prevalent worldwide, including Asian countries, and related to several negative outcomes and other behavioral addictions. The Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS), and nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9) have been extensively used to assess internet-related addictions. However, the three aforementioned instruments have rarely been used in Asian countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the BSMAS, SABAS, and IGDS-SF9 were appropriate for use in heterogeneous subsamples from Hong Kong and Taiwan. University students from Hong Kong (n = 306) and Taiwan (n = 336) were recruited via an online survey. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was used to assess measurement invariance of the BSMAS, SABAS, and IGDS-SF9 across the two subcultures. The original unidimensional structures of BSMAS, SABAS and IGDS-SF9 were confirmed through confirmatory factorial analysis in both subcultures. The MGCFA results showed that the unidimensional structures of the BSMAS and IGDS-SF9 were invariant across the two Chinese cultural areas (Hong Kong and Taiwan). However, the measurement invariance of the SABAS was established after some model modifications. In conclusion, the present study found that the Chinese BSMAS, SABAS, and IGDS-SF9 were all adequate instruments to validly assess internet-related addictions among university students. The three brief instruments used for assessing addictions to social media, smartphone applications, and online gaming are valid and psychometrically robust across two Chinese subcultures and can be used by healthcare professionals in these regions.
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56.
  • Lin, Chia-Yeh, et al. (författare)
  • H2B Mono-ubiquitylation Facilitates Fork Stalling and Recovery during Replication Stress by Coordinating Rad53 Activation and Chromatin Assembly
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - : Public library science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 10:10, s. e1004667-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The influence of mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub) on transcription via nucleosome reassembly has been widely documented. Recently, it has also been shown that H2Bub promotes recovery from replication stress; however, the underling molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that H2B ubiquitylation coordinates activation of the intra-S replication checkpoint and chromatin re-assembly, in order to limit fork progression and DNA damage in the presence of replication stress. In particular, we show that the absence of H2Bub affects replication dynamics (enhanced fork progression and reduced origin firing), leading to γH2A accumulation and increased hydroxyurea sensitivity. Further genetic analysis indicates a role for H2Bub in transducing Rad53 phosphorylation. Concomitantly, we found that a change in replication dynamics is not due to a change in dNTP level, but is mediated by reduced Rad53 activation and destabilization of the RecQ helicase Sgs1 at the fork. Furthermore, we demonstrate that H2Bub facilitates the dissociation of the histone chaperone Asf1 from Rad53, and nucleosome reassembly behind the fork is compromised in cells lacking H2Bub. Taken together, these results indicate that the regulation of H2B ubiquitylation is a key event in the maintenance of genome stability, through coordination of intra-S checkpoint activation, chromatin assembly and replication fork progression.
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57.
  • Lin, Ke, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of Free OH and its Implication on Structural Changes of Liquid Water
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics. - 1674-0068. ; 26:2, s. 121-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The molecular structure of liquid water has been an outstanding issue for many years. The identification of free -OH holds the key in differentiating structure models for liquid water. By analyzing the relative changes of the intensity and depolarization ratio in temperature dependent Raman spectra, the occurrence of free -OH in liquid water is unambiguously determined. Furthermore, upon the increase of temperature from 5 degrees C to 85 degrees C, the structure of liquid water undergoes significant change, but the relative proportion of free -OH is considerably small and remains almost unchanged. This implies that the breaking of hydrogen bond from the tetrahedral structure prefers to occur at the site of the hydrogen acceptor. The energetic favoring of the structural change for liquid water is thus clearly revealed from experiments.
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58.
  • Lin, Ke, et al. (författare)
  • Quantum Effects on Global Structure of Liquid Water
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics. - 1674-0068. ; 26:2, s. 127-132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The structure difference between light and heavy liquid water has been systematically investigated by high precision Raman. spectroscopy over the temperature range of 5-85 degrees C. Distinct difference between the Raman spectral profiles of two different liquid waters is clearly observed. By analyzing the temperature-dependent Raman spectral contour using global fitting procedure, it is found that the micro-structure of heavy water is more ordered than that of light water at the same temperature, and the structure difference between the light and heavy water decreases with the increase of the temperature. The temperature offset, an indicator for the structure difference, is determined to vary from 28 degrees C to 18 degrees C for the low-to-high temperature. It indicates that quantum effect is significantly not only at low temperature, but also at room temperature. The interaction energy among water molecules has also been estimated from van't Hoff's relationship. The detailed structural information should help to develop reliable force fields for molecular modeling of liquid water.
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59.
  • Lindstrom, Linda S., et al. (författare)
  • Intratumor Heterogeneity of the Estrogen Receptor and the Long-term Risk of Fatal Breast Cancer
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 110:7, s. 726-733
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease have a continuous long-term risk for fatal breast cancer, but the biological factors influencing this risk are unknown. We aimed to determine whether high intratumor heterogeneity of ER predicts an increased long-term risk (25 years) of fatal breast cancer. Methods: The STO-3 trial enrolled 1780 postmenopausal lymph node-negative breast cancer patients randomly assigned to receive adjuvant tamoxifen vs not. The fraction of cancer cells for each ER intensity level was scored by breast cancer pathologists, and intratumor heterogeneity of ER was calculated using Raos quadratic entropy and categorized into high and low heterogeneity using a predefined cutoff at the second tertile (67%). Long-term breast cancer-specific survival analyses by intra-tumor heterogeneity of ER were performed using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling adjusting for patient and tumor characteristics. Results: A statistically significant difference in long-term survival by high vs low intratumor heterogeneity of ER was seen for all ER-positive patients (P amp;lt; .001) and for patients with luminal A subtype tumors (P = .01). In multivariable analyses, patients with high intratumor heterogeneity of ER had a twofold increased long-term risk as compared with patients with low intratumor heterogeneity (ER-positive: hazard ratio (HR] = 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI] = 1.31 to 3.00; luminal A subtype tumors: HR = 2.43, 95% CI -1.18 to 4.99). Conclusions: Patients with high intratumor heterogeneity of ER had an increased long-term risk of fatal breast cancer. Interestingly, a similar long-term risk increase was seen in patients with luminal A subtype tumors. Our findings suggest that intratumor heterogeneity of ER is an independent long-term prognosticator with potential to change clinical management, especially for patients with luminal A tumors.
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60.
  • Liu, Xiao-yan, et al. (författare)
  • Anti-ageing and antioxidant effects of sulfate oligosaccharides from green algae Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha prolifera in SAMP8 mice
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. - : ELSEVIER. - 0141-8130 .- 1879-0003. ; 139, s. 342-351
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oligosaccharides from green algae Ulva lactuca (ULO) and Enteromorpha prolifera (EPO) were used for investigation of anti-ageing effects and the underlying mechanism in SAMP8 mice. The structural properties of ULO and EPO were analyzed by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and agarose gel electrophoresis. These oligosaccharides enhanced the glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and telomerase levels and total antioxidant capicity, and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde and advanced glycation end products. After ULO and EPO treatment, the levels of inflammatory factors, including IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-6, decreased; the BDNF and ChAT levels increased; and hippocampal neurons were protected. Downregulation of the p53 and FOXO1 genes and upregulation of the Sirt1 gene indicated that ULO and EPO have potential therapeutic effects in the prevention of ageing in SAMP8 mice. By 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, the abundance of Desulfovibrio was discovered to be markedly different in mice treated with ULO and EPO. The abundances of Verrucomicrobiaceae, Odoribacteraceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Planococcaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae were positively correlated with age-related indicators. These results demonstrated that oligosaccharides from U. lactuca and E. prolifera are ideal candidate compounds that can be used in functional foods and pharmaceuticals to prevent ageing. 
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