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Sökning: WFRF:(Linet Martha S.)

  • Resultat 11-20 av 32
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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11.
  • Kapoor, Pooja Middha, et al. (författare)
  • Combined associations of a polygenic risk score and classical risk factors with breast cancer risk.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72,284 cases and 80,354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression, and a newly developed case-only method, for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history), and on average 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.
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12.
  • Wang, Sophia S., et al. (författare)
  • HLA Class I and II Diversity Contributes to the Etiologic Heterogeneity of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 78:14, s. 4086-4096
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A growing number of loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been implicated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Here, we test a complementary hypothesis of "heterozygote advantage" regarding the role of HLA and NHL, whereby HLA diversity is beneficial and homozygous HLA loci are associated with increased disease risk. HLA alleles at class I and II loci were imputed from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP2HLA for 3,617 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 2,686 follicular lymphomas (FL), 2,878 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas (CLL/SLL), 741 marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), and 8,753 controls of European descent. Both DLBCL and MZL risk were elevated with homozygosity at class I HLA-B and -C loci (OR DLBCL = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.06-1.60; OR MZL = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.89) and class II HLA-DRB1 locus (OR DLBCL = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24-3.55; OR MZL = 2.10, 95% CI = 0.99-4.45). Increased FL risk was observed with the overall increase in number of homozygous HLA class II loci (P trend < 0.0001, FDR = 0.0005). These results support a role for HLA zygosity in NHL etiology and suggests that distinct immune pathways may underly the etiology of the different NHL subtypes. Significance: HLA gene diversity reduces risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
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13.
  • Kitahara, Cari M., et al. (författare)
  • Personal History of Diabetes, Genetic Susceptibility to Diabetes, and Risk of Brain Glioma : A Pooled Analysis of Observational Studies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 23:1, s. 47-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Brain glioma is a relatively rare and fatal malignancy in adulthood with few known risk factors. Some observational studies have reported inverse associations between diabetes and subsequent glioma risk, but possible mechanisms are unclear. Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of original data from five nested case-control studies and two case-control studies from the United States and China that included 962 glioma cases and 2,195 controls. We examined self-reported diabetes history in relation to glioma risk, as well as effect modification by seven glioma risk associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP). We also examined the associations between 13 diabetes risk associated SNPs, identified from genome-wide association studies, and glioma risk. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Results: We observed a 42% reduced risk of glioma for individuals with a history of diabetes (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.84). The association did not differ by sex, study design, or after restricting to glioblastoma, the most common histological subtype. We did not observe any significant per-allele trends among the 13 diabetes related SNPs examined in relation to glioma risk. Conclusion: These results support an inverse association between diabetes history and glioma risk. The role of genetic susceptibility to diabetes cannot be excluded, and should be pursued in future studies together with other factors that might be responsible for the diabetes-glioma association. Impact: These data suggest the need for studies that can evaluate, separately, the association between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and subsequent risk of adult glioma. 
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14.
  • Ostrom, Quinn T., et al. (författare)
  • Sex-specific glioma genome-wide association study identifies new risk locus at 3p21.31 in females, and finds sex-differences in risk at 8q24.21
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Incidence of glioma is approximately 50% higher in males. Previous analyses have examined exposures related to sex hormones in women as potential protective factors for these tumors, with inconsistent results. Previous glioma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not stratified by sex. Potential sex-specific genetic effects were assessed in autosomal SNPs and sex chromosome variants for all glioma, GBM and non-GBM patients using data from four previous glioma GWAS. Datasets were analyzed using sex-stratified logistic regression models and combined using meta-analysis. There were 4,831 male cases, 5,216 male controls, 3,206 female cases and 5,470 female controls. A significant association was detected at rs11979158 (7p11.2) in males only. Association at rs55705857 (8q24.21) was stronger in females than in males. A large region on 3p21.31 was identified with significant association in females only. The identified differences in effect of risk variants do not fully explain the observed incidence difference in glioma by sex.
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15.
  • Schoemaker, Minouk J., et al. (författare)
  • Association of body mass index and age With subsequent breast cancer risk in premenopausal women
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - : American Medical Assocation. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 4:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as wei ght in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation.OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1,1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1.2013, through December 31, 2017.EXPOSURES Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34,35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer.RESULTS Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m(2) [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI >= 35.0 vs <17.0) at ages 18 to 24 years (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.14-0.40). Hazard ratios did not appreciably vary by attained age or between strata of other breast cancer risk factors. Associations were stronger for estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive than for hormone receptor-negative breast cancer for BMI at every age group (eg, for BMI at age 18 to 24 years: HR per 5.0-U difference for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.70-0.81] vs hormone receptor-negative tumors, 0.85 [95% CI: 0.76-0.95]); BMI at ages 25 to 54 years was not consistently associated with triple-negative or hormone receptor-negative breast cancer overall.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.
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16.
  • Kitahara, Cari M., et al. (författare)
  • Anthropometric Factors and Thyroid Cancer Risk by Histological Subtype : Pooled Analysis of 22 Prospective Studies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Thyroid. - : MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC. - 1050-7256 .- 1557-9077. ; 26:2, s. 306-318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Greater height and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, particularly papillary carcinoma, the most common and least aggressive subtype. Few studies have evaluated these associations in relation to other, more aggressive histologic types or thyroid cancer-specific mortality. Methods: This large pooled analysis of 22 prospective studies (833,176 men and 1,260,871 women) investigated thyroid cancer incidence associated with greater height, BMI at baseline and young adulthood, and adulthood BMI gain (difference between young-adult and baseline BMI), overall and separately by sex and histological subtype using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Associations with thyroid cancer mortality were investigated in a subset of cohorts (578,922 men and 774,373 women) that contributed cause of death information. Results: During follow-up, 2996 incident thyroid cancers and 104 thyroid cancer deaths were identified. All anthropometric factors were positively associated with thyroid cancer incidence: hazard ratios (HR) [confidence intervals (CIs)] for height (per 5cm)=1.07 [1.04-1.10], BMI (per 5kg/m(2))=1.06 [1.02-1.10], waist circumference (per 5cm)=1.03 [1.01-1.05], young-adult BMI (per 5kg/m(2))=1.13 [1.02-1.25], and adulthood BMI gain (per 5kg/m(2))=1.07 [1.00-1.15]. Associations for baseline BMI and waist circumference were attenuated after mutual adjustment. Baseline BMI was more strongly associated with risk in men compared with women (p=0.04). Positive associations were observed for papillary, follicular, and anaplastic, but not medullary, thyroid carcinomas. Similar, but stronger, associations were observed for thyroid cancer mortality. Conclusion: The results suggest that greater height and excess adiposity throughout adulthood are associated with higher incidence of most major types of thyroid cancer, including the least common but most aggressive form, anaplastic carcinoma, and higher thyroid cancer mortality. Potential underlying biological mechanisms should be explored in future studies.
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17.
  • Ostrom, Quinn T., et al. (författare)
  • Age‐specific genome‐wide association study in glioblastoma identifies increased proportion of 'lower grade glioma'‐like features associated with younger age
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : WILEY. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 143:10, s. 2359-2366
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in the United States. Incidence of GBM increases with age, and younger age‐at‐diagnosis is significantly associated with improved prognosis. While the relationship between candidate GBM risk SNPs and age‐at‐diagnosis has been explored, genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) have not previously been stratified by age. Potential age‐specific genetic effects were assessed in autosomal SNPs for GBM patients using data from four previous GWAS. Using age distribution tertiles (18–53, 54–64, 65+) datasets were analyzed using age‐stratified logistic regression to generate p values, odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), and then combined using meta‐analysis. There were 4,512 total GBM cases, and 10,582 controls used for analysis. Significant associations were detected at two previously identified SNPs in 7p11.2 (rs723527 [p54–63 = 1.50x10−9, OR54–63 = 1.28, 95%CI54–63 = 1.18–1.39; p64+ = 2.14x10−11, OR64+ = 1.32, 95%CI64+ = 1.21–1.43] and rs11979158 [p54–63 = 6.13x10−8, OR54–63 = 1.35, 95%CI54–63 = 1.21–1.50; p64+ = 2.18x10−10, OR64+ = 1.42, 95%CI64+ = 1.27–1.58]) but only in persons >54. There was also a significant association at the previously identified lower grade glioma (LGG) risk locus at 8q24.21 (rs55705857) in persons ages 18–53 (p18–53 = 9.30 × 10−11, OR18–53 = 1.76, 95%CI18–53 = 1.49–2.10). Within The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) there was higher prevalence of ‘LGG’‐like tumor characteristics in GBM samples in those 18–53, with IDH1/2 mutation frequency of 15%, as compared to 2.1% [54–63] and 0.8% [64+] (p = 0.0005). Age‐specific differences in cancer susceptibility can provide important clues to etiology. The association of a SNP known to confer risk for IDH1/2 mutant glioma and higher prevalence of IDH1/2 mutation within younger individuals 18–53 suggests that more younger individuals may present initially with ‘secondary glioblastoma.’
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18.
  • Teras, Lauren R., et al. (författare)
  • Body size and multiple myeloma mortality : a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 0007-1048 .- 1365-2141. ; 166:5, s. 667-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare but highly fatal malignancy. High body weight is associated with this cancer, but several questions remain regarding the aetiological relevance of timing and location of body weight. To address these questions, we conducted a pooled analysis of MM mortality using 1.5 million participants (including 1388 MM deaths) from 20 prospective cohorts in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. Proportional hazards regression was used to calculate pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Associations with elevated MM mortality were observed for higher early-adult body mass index (BMI; HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09-1.35 per 5 kg/m(2)) and for higher cohort-entry BMI (HR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.16 per 5 kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10 per 5 cm). In analyses of the joint effect of young adult and baseline BMI, women who were the heaviest, both in early adulthood (BMI 25+) and at cohort entry (BMI 30+) were at greater risk compared to those with BMI 18.5 = 25 at both time points (HR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.33-2.86) but there was no significant association in men. Waist-to-hip ratio and height were not associated with MM mortality. These observations suggest that overall, and possibly also central, obesity influence myeloma mortality, and women have the highest risk of death from this cancer if they remain heavy throughout adulthood.
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19.
  • Wang, Zhaoming, et al. (författare)
  • Further Confirmation of Germline Glioma Risk Variant rs78378222 in TP53 and Its Implication in Tumor Tissues via Integrative Analysis of TCGA Data
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 36:7, s. 684-688
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We confirmed strong association of rs78378222:A>C (per allele odds ratio [OR] = 3.14; P = 6.48 x 10(-11)), a germline rare single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in TP53, via imputation of a genome-wide association study of glioma (1,856 cases and 4,955 controls). We subsequently performed integrative analyses on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data for GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) and LUAD (lung adenocarcinoma). Based on SNP data, we imputed genotypes for rs78378222 and selected individuals carrying rare risk allele (C). Using RNA sequencing data, we observed aberrant transcripts with approximate to 3 kb longer than normal for those individuals. Using exome sequencing data, we further showed that loss of haplotype carrying common protective allele (A) occurred somatically in GBM but not in LUAD. Our bioinformatic analysis suggests rare risk allele (C) disrupts mRNA termination, and an allelic loss of a genomic region harboring common protective allele (A) occurs during tumor initiation or progression for glioma.
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20.
  • de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington, et al. (författare)
  • Body-Mass Index and Mortality among 1.46 Million White Adults.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 363:23, s. 2211-2219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A high body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) is associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, but the precise relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality remains uncertain. Methods: We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for an association between BMI and all-cause mortality, adjusting for age, study, physical activity, alcohol consumption, education, and marital status in pooled data from 19 prospective studies encompassing 1.46 million white adults, 19 to 84 years of age (median, 58). Results: The median baseline BMI was 26.2. During a median follow-up period of 10 years (range, 5 to 28), 160,087 deaths were identified. Among healthy participants who never smoked, there was a J-shaped relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality. With a BMI of 22.5 to 24.9 as the reference category, hazard ratios among women were 1.47 (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.33 to 1.62) for a BMI of 15.0 to 18.4; 1.14 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.22) for a BMI of 18.5 to 19.9; 1.00 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.04) for a BMI of 20.0 to 22.4; 1.13 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.17) for a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9; 1.44 (95% CI, 1.38 to 1.50) for a BMI of 30.0 to 34.9; 1.88 (95% CI, 1.77 to 2.00) for a BMI of 35.0 to 39.9; and 2.51 (95% CI, 2.30 to 2.73) for a BMI of 40.0 to 49.9. In general, the hazard ratios for the men were similar. Hazard ratios for a BMI below 20.0 were attenuated with longer-term follow-up. Conclusions: In white adults, overweight and obesity (and possibly underweight) are associated with increased all-cause mortality. All-cause mortality is generally lowest with a BMI of 20.0 to 24.9. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2211-9.
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