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  • Gyllenberg, A, et al. (författare)
  • Age-dependent variation of genotypes in MHC II transactivator gene (CIITA) in controls and association to type 1 diabetes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Genes and Immunity. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1466-4879 .- 1476-5470. ; 13:8, s. 632-640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The major histocompatibility complex class II transactivator (CIITA) gene (16p13) has been reported to associate with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and myocardial infarction, recently also to celiac disease at genome-wide level. However, attempts to replicate association have been inconclusive. Previously, we have observed linkage to the CIITA region in Scandinavian type 1 diabetes (T1D) families. Here we analyze five Swedish T1D cohorts and a combined control material from previous studies of CIITA. We investigate how the genotype distribution within the CIITA gene varies depending on age, and the association to T1D. Unexpectedly, we find a significant difference in the genotype distribution for markers in CIITA (rs11074932, P = 4 x 10(-5) and rs3087456, P = 0.05) with respect to age, in the collected control material. This observation is replicated in an independent cohort material of about 2000 individuals (P = 0.006, P = 0.007). We also detect association to T1D for both markers, rs11074932 (P = 0.004) and rs3087456 (P = 0.001), after adjusting for age at sampling. The association remains independent of the adjacent T1D risk gene CLEC16A. Our results indicate an age-dependent variation in CIITA allele frequencies, a finding of relevance for the contrasting outcomes of previously published association studies.</p>
  • Hedman, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Bidirectional relationship between eating disorders and autoimmune diseases
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0021-9630.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Immune system dysfunction may be associated with eating disorders, and associations could have implications for detection, risk assessment, and treatment of both autoimmune diseases and eating disorders. However, questions regarding the nature of the relationship between these two disease entities remain. We evaluated the strength of associations for the bidirectional relationships between eating disorders and autoimmune diseases. Methods: In this nationwide population-based cohort study, Swedish registers were linked to establish a cohort of more than 2.5 million individuals born in Sweden between January 1, 1979 and December 31, 2005 and followed-up until December 2013. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to investigate: 1) subsequent risk of eating disorders in individuals with autoimmune diseases; and 2) subsequent risk of autoimmune diseases in individuals with eating disorders. Results: We observed a strong, bidirectional relationship between the two classes of illness indicating that diagnosis in one illness class increased the risk of the other. In women, autoimmune disease diagnoses increased subsequent hazard of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders. Similarly, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders increased subsequent hazard of autoimmune diseases. The gastrointestinal-related autoimmune diseases celiac disease and Crohn's disease showed a bidirectional relationship with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. Psoriasis showed a bidirectional relationship with other eating disorders. Prior type 1 diabetes increased risk for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders. In men, we did not observe a bidirectional pattern, but prior autoimmune arthritis increased risk for other eating disorders. Conclusions: The associations between eating disorders and autoimmune diseases provide additional support for previously reported associations. The bidirectional risk pattern observed in women suggests either a shared mechanism or a third mediating variable contributing to the association of these illnesses.
  • Sharma, S., et al. (författare)
  • Human Sera Collected between 1979 and 2010 Possess Blocking-Antibody Titers to Pandemic GII.4 Noroviruses Isolated over Three Decades
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Virology. - 0022-538X. ; 91:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The emergence of pandemic GII.4 norovirus (NoV) strains has been proposed to occur due to changes in receptor usage and thereby to lead to immune evasion. To address this hypothesis, we measured the ability of human sera collected between 1979 and 2010 to block glycan binding of four pandemic GII. 4 noroviruses isolated in the last 4 decades. In total, 268 sera were investigated for 50% blocking titer (BT50) values of virus-like particles (VLPs) against pig gastric mucin (PGM) using 4 VLPs that represent different GII. 4 norovirus variants identified between 1987 and 2012. Pre- and postpandemic sera (sera collected before and after isolation of the reference NoV strain) efficiently prevented binding of VLP strains MD145 (1987), Grimsby (1995), and Houston (2002), but not the Sydney (2012) strain, to PGM. No statistically significant difference in virus-blocking titers was observed between pre- and postpandemic sera. Moreover, paired sera showed that blocking titers of >= 160 were maintained over a 6-year period against MD145, Grimsby, and Houston VLPs. Significantly higher serum blocking titers (geometric mean titer [GMT], 1,704) were found among IgA-deficient individuals than among healthy blood donors (GMT, 90.9) (P < 0.0001). The observation that prepandemic sera possess robust blocking capacity for viruses identified decades later suggests a common attachment factor, at least until 2002. Our results indicate that serum IgG possesses antibody-blocking capacity and that blocking titers can be maintained for at least 6 years against 3 decades of pandemic GII. 4 NoV. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses (NoVs) are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in saliva and gut recognize NoV and are the proposed ligands that facilitate infection. Polymorphisms in HBGA genes, and in particular a nonsense mutation in FUT2 (G428A), result in resistance to global dominating GII. 4 NoV. The emergence of new pandemic GII. 4 strains occurs at intervals of several years and is proposed to be attributable to epochal evolution, including amino acid changes and immune evasion. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to a previous pandemic strain stimulates immunity to a pandemic strain identified decades later. We found that prepandemic sera possess robust virus-blocking capacity against viruses identified several decades later. We also show that serum lacking IgA antibodies is sufficient to block NoV VLP binding to HBGAs. This is essential, considering that 1 in every 600 Caucasian children is IgA deficient.
  • Sun, Chengjun, et al. (författare)
  • CRYAB-650 C&gt;G (rs2234702) affects susceptibility to type 1 diabetes and IAA-positivity in Swedish population
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Immunology. - Elsevier. - 0198-8859 .- 1879-1166. ; 73:7, s. 759-766
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of CRYAB gene have been associated with in multiple sclerosis. CRYAB gene, which encodes alpha B-crystallin (a member of small heat shock protein), was reported as a potential autoimmune target. In this study we investigated whether SNPs in the promoter region of CRYAB gene were also important in the etiology of Type 1 diabetes (T1D).</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> Genotyping of SNPs in the promoter region of CRYAB gene was performed in a Swedish cohort containing 444 T1D patients and 350 healthy controls. Three SNPs were included in this study: CRYAB-652 A&gt;G (rs762550), -650 C&gt;G (rs2234702) and -249 C &gt; G (rs14133). Two SNPs (CRYAB-652 and -650) were not included in previous genome wide association studies.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> CRYAB-650 (rs2234702)*C allele was significantly more frequent in patients than in controls (OR = 1.48, Pc = 0.03). CRYAB-650*C allele was associated with IAA positivity (OR = 8.17, Pc &lt; 0.0001) and IA-2A positivity (OR = 2.14, Pc = 0.005) in T1D patients. This association with IAA was amplified by high-risk HLA carrier state (OR = 10.6, P &lt; 0.0001). No association was found between CRYAB-650 and other autoantibody positivity (GADA and ICA). CRYAB haplotypes were also associated with IAA and IA-2A positivity (highest OR = 2.07 and 2.11, respectively), these associations remain in high HLA-risk T1D patients.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> CRYAB-650 was associated with T1D in the Swedish cohort we studied. CRYAB-650*C allele might confers susceptibility to the development of T1D. CRYAB-650 was also associated with the development of IAA-positivity in T1D patients, especially in those carrying T1D high-risk HLA haplotypes.</p>
  • Cardwell, C R, et al. (författare)
  • Birthweight and the risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies using individual patient data
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: DIABETOLOGIA. - 0012-186X. ; 53:4, s. 641-651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We investigated whether children who are heavier at birth have an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. Relevant studies published before February 2009 were identified from literature searches using MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. Authors of all studies containing relevant data were contacted and asked to provide individual patient data or conduct pre-specified analyses. Risk estimates of type 1 diabetes by category of birthweight were calculated for each study, before and after adjustment for potential confounders. Meta-analysis techniques were then used to derive combined ORs and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Data were available for 29 predominantly European studies (five cohort, 24 case-control studies), including 12,807 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, studies consistently demonstrated that children with birthweight from 3.5 to 4 kg had an increased risk of diabetes of 6% (OR 1.06 [95% CI 1.01-1.11]; p = 0.02) and children with birthweight over 4 kg had an increased risk of 10% (OR 1.10 [95% CI 1.04-1.19]; p = 0.003), compared with children weighing 3.0 to 3.5 kg at birth. This corresponded to a linear increase in diabetes risk of 3% per 500 g increase in birthweight (OR 1.03 [95% CI 1.00-1.06]; p = 0.03). Adjustments for potential confounders such as gestational age, maternal age, birth order, Caesarean section, breastfeeding and maternal diabetes had little effect on these findings. Children who are heavier at birth have a significant and consistent, but relatively small increase in risk of type 1 diabetes.</p>
  • Eriksson, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term effectiveness of vedolizumab in inflammatory bowel disease : a national study based on the Swedish National Quality Registry for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SWIBREG)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5521. ; 52:6-7, s. 722-729
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of vedolizumab in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, these findings may not reflect the clinical practice. Therefore, we aimed to describe a vedolizumab-treated patient population and assess long-term effectiveness. Materials and methods: Patients initiating vedolizumab between 1 June 2014 and 30 May 2015 were identified through the Swedish National Quality Registry for IBD. Prospectively collected data on treatment and disease activity were extracted. Clinical remission was defined as Patient Harvey Bradshaw index <5 in Crohn’s disease (CD) and Patient Simple Clinical Colitis Activity index <3 in ulcerative colitis (UC). Results: Two-hundred forty-six patients (147 CD, 92 UC and 7 IBD-Unclassified) were included. On study entry, 86% had failed TNF-antagonist and 48% of the CD patients had undergone ≥1 surgical resection. After a median follow-up of 17 (IQR: 14–20) months, 142 (58%) patients remained on vedolizumab. In total, 54% of the CD- and 64% of the UC patients were in clinical remission at the end of follow-up, with the clinical activity decreasing (p < .0001 in both groups). Faecal-calprotectin decreased in CD (p < .0001) and in UC (p = .001), whereas CRP decreased in CD (p = .002) but not in UC (p = .11). Previous anti-TNF exposure (adjusted HR: 4.03; 95% CI: 0.96–16.75) and elevated CRP at baseline (adjusted HR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.10–4.35) seemed to be associated with discontinuation because of lack of response. Female sex was associated with termination because of intolerance (adjusted HR: 2.75; 95% CI: 1.16–6.48). Conclusion: Vedolizumab-treated patients represent a treatment-refractory group. A long-term effect can be achieved, even beyond 1 year of treatment.
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