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  • Ban, Lu, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of First Stroke in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age : A Population-Based Cohort Study From England
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 6:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Pregnant women may have an increased risk of stroke compared with nonpregnant women of similar age, but the magnitude and the timing of such risk are unclear. We examined the risk of a first stroke event in women of childbearing age and compared the risk during pregnancy and in the early postpartum period with the background risk outside these periods.METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted an open cohort study of 2 046 048 women aged 15 to 49 years between April 1, 1997, and March 31, 2014, using linked primary (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) and secondary (Hospital Episode Statistics) care records in England. Risk of first stroke was assessed by calculating the incidence rate of stroke in antepartum, peripartum (2 days before until 1 day after delivery), and early (first 6 weeks) and late (second 6 weeks) postpartum periods compared with nonpregnant time using a Poisson regression model with adjustment for maternal age, socioeconomic group, and calendar time. A total of 2511 women had a first stroke. The incidence rate of stroke was 25.0 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 24.0-26.0) in nonpregnant time. The rate was lower antepartum (10.7 per 100 000 person-years, 95% CI 7.6-15.1) but 9-fold higher peripartum (161.1 per 100 000 person-years, 95% CI 80.6-322.1) and 3-fold higher early postpartum (47.1 per 100 000 person-years, 95% CI 31.3-70.9). Rates of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke both increased peripartum and early postpartum.CONCLUSIONS: Although the absolute risk of first stroke is low in women of childbearing age, healthcare professionals should be aware of a considerable increase in relative risk during the peripartum and early postpartum periods.
  • Bozorg, Soran R., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of serrated polyps (SPs) in Swedish pathology registers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology. - : BMC. - 1471-230X .- 1471-230X. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Little is known about the natural history of serrated polyps (SPs), partly due to the lack of large-scale epidemiologic data. In this study, we examined the validity of SP identification according to SNOMED (Systematised Nomenclature of Medicine) codes and free text from colorectal histopathology reports.Methods: Through the ESPRESSO (Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden) study, we retrieved data on SPs from all pathology departments in Sweden in 2015-2017 by using SNOMED codes and free-text search in colorectal histopathology reports. Randomly selected individuals with a histopathology report of SPs were validated against patient charts using a structured, retrospective review.Results: SPs were confirmed in 101/106 individuals with a histopathology report of SPs, yielding a positive predictive value (PPV) of 95% (95%CI = 89-98%). By year of diagnosis, the PPV was 89% (95%CI = 69-97%), 96% (95%CI = 81-99%) and 97% (95%CI = 89-99%) for individuals diagnosed before 2001 (n = 19), between 2001 and 2010 (n = 26) and after 2010 (n = 61), respectively. According to search method, the PPV for individuals identified by SNOMED codes was 100% (95%CI = 93-100%), and 93% (95%CI = 86-97%) using free-text search. Recorded location (colon vs. rectum) was correct in 94% of all SP histopathology reports (95%CI = 84-98%) identified by SNOMED codes. Individuals with SPs were classified into hyperplastic polyps (n = 34; 32%), traditional serrated adenomas (n = 3; 3%), sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) (n = 70; 66%), unspecified SPs (n = 3, 3%), and false positive SPs (n = 5, 5%). For individuals identified by SNOMED codes, SSA/Ps were confirmed in 49/52 individuals, resulting in a PPV of 94% (95%CI: 84-98%). In total, 57% had >= 2 polyps (1: n = 44, 2-3: n = 33 and >= 4: n = 27). Some 46% of SPs (n = 71) originated from the proximal colon and 24% were >= 10 mm in size (n = 37). Heredity for colorectal cancer, intestinal polyposis syndromes, or both was reported in seven individuals (7%). Common comorbidities included diverticulosis (n = 45, 42%), colorectal cancer (n = 19, 18%), and inflammatory bowel disease (n = 10, 9%).Conclusion: Colorectal histopathology reports are a reliable data source to identify individuals with SPs.
  • Ciacci, Carolina, et al. (författare)
  • The gluten-free diet and its current application in coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: United European Gastroenterology journal. - : Sage Publications. - 2050-6406 .- 2050-6414. ; 3:2, s. 121-135
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available therapy for coeliac disease (CD). Objectives: We aim to review the literature on the GFD, the gluten content in naturally gluten-free (GF) and commercially available GF food, standards and legislation concerning the gluten content of foods, and the vitamins and mineral content of a GFD. Methods: We carried out a PubMed search for the following terms: Gluten, GFD and food, education, vitamins, minerals, calcium, Codex wheat starch and oats. Relevant papers were reviewed and for each topic a consensus among the authors was obtained. Conclusion: Patients with CD should avoid gluten and maintain a balanced diet to ensure an adequate intake of nutrients, vitamins, fibre and calcium. A GFD improves symptoms in most patients with CD. The practicalities of this however, are difficult, as (i) many processed foods are contaminated with gluten, (ii) staple GF foods are not widely available, and (iii) the GF substitutes are often expensive. Furthermore, (iv) the restrictions of the diet may adversely affect social interactions and quality of life. The inclusion of oats and wheat starch in the diet remains controversial.
  • Kack, U, et al. (författare)
  • Reply
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. - 1097-6825. ; 71:2, s. 325-327
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Kang, Xiaoying, et al. (författare)
  • Clostridium difficile infection and risk of Parkinson's disease : A Swedish population-based cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal inflammation has been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study examined whether individuals with a history of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are at elevated risk of PD.METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study using Swedish national register data. Adults aged ≥ 35 years were identified from the Swedish Population and Housing Census 1990 and followed during 1997-2013. Diagnoses of CDI and PD were extracted from the National Patient Register. Associations of CDI history with PD risk were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. We also explored whether the association differed by the source of CDI diagnosis (inpatient vs outpatient), presence of recurrent infections, and pre-infection use of antibiotics.RESULTS: Amongst the study population (N = 4,670,423), 34,868 (0.75%) had a history of CDI. A total of 165 and 47,035 incident PD cases were identified from individuals with and without CDI history, respectively. Across the entire follow-up, a 16% elevation of PD risk was observed among CDI group (hazard ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.36), which was mainly driven by increased PD risk within the first 2 years since CDI diagnosis (hazard ratio: 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.69). In longer follow-up, CDI was not associated with subsequent PD occurrence. This temporal pattern of CDI-PD associations was generally observed across all CDI subgroups.CONCLUSIONS: CDI may be associated with an increased short-term PD risk, but this might be explained by reverse causation and/or surveillance bias. Our results do not imply that CDI history affects long-term PD risk.
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