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51.
  • Knip, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Hydrolyzed Infant Formula vs Conventional Formula on Risk of Type 1 Diabetes The TRIGR Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 319:1, s. 38-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Early exposure to complex dietary proteins may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes in children with genetic disease susceptibility. There are no intact proteins in extensively hydrolyzed formulas. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula decreases the cumulative incidence of type 1 diabetes in young children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An international double-blind randomized clinical trial of 2159 infants with human leukocyte antigen-conferred disease susceptibility and a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes recruited from May 2002 to January 2007 in 78 study centers in 15 countries; 1081 were randomized to be weaned to the extensively hydrolyzed casein formula and 1078 to a conventional formula. The follow-up of the participants ended on February 28, 2017. INTERVENTIONS The participants received either a casein hydrolysate or a conventional adapted cows milk formula supplemented with 20% of the casein hydrolysate. The minimum duration of study formula exposure was 60 days by 6 to 8 months of age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcome was type 1 diabetes diagnosed according to World Health Organization criteria. Secondary outcomes included age at diabetes diagnosis and safety (adverse events). RESULTS Among 2159 newborn infants (1021 female [47.3%]) who were randomized, 1744 (80.8%) completed the trial. The participants were observed for a median of 11.5 years (quartile [Q] 1-Q3, 10.2-12.8). The absolute risk of type 1 diabetes was 8.4% among those randomized to the casein hydrolysate (n = 91) vs 7.6% among those randomized to the conventional formula (n = 82) (difference, 0.8%[95% CI, -1.6% to 3.2%]). The hazard ratio for type 1 diabetes adjusted for human leukocyte antigen risk group, duration of breastfeeding, duration of study formula consumption, sex, and region while treating study center as a random effect was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.8 to 1.5; P = .46). The median age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was similar in the 2 groups (6.0 years [Q1-Q3, 3.1-8.9] vs 5.8 years [Q1-Q3, 2.6-9.1]; difference, 0.2 years [95% CI, -0.9 to 1.2]). Upper respiratory infections were the most common adverse event reported (frequency, 0.48 events/year in the hydrolysate group and 0.50 events/year in the control group). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among infants at risk for type 1 diabetes, weaning to a hydrolyzed formula compared with a conventional formula did not reduce the cumulative incidence of type 1 diabetes after median follow-up for 11.5 years. These findings do not support a need to revise the dietary recommendations for infants at risk for type 1 diabetes.
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52.
  • Knobler, R., et al. (författare)
  • European dermatology forum : Updated guidelines on the use of extracorporeal photopheresis 2020 - Part 2
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0926-9959 .- 1468-3083.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundFollowing the first investigational study on the use of extracorporeal photopheresis for the treatment of cutaneous T‐cell lymphoma published in 1983, this technology has received continued use and further recognition for additional earlier as well as refractory forms. After the publication of the first guidelines for this technology in the JEADV in 2014, this technology has maintained additional promise in the treatment of other severe and refractory conditions in a multidisciplinary setting. It has confirmed recognition in well‐known documented conditions such as graft‐vs.‐host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, systemic sclerosis, solid organ transplant rejection including lung, heart and liver and to a lesser extent inflammatory bowel disease.Materials and methodsIn order to further provide recognized expert practical guidelines for the use of this technology for all indications, the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) again proceeded to address these questions in the hands of the recognized experts within and outside the field of dermatology. This was done using the recognized and approved guidelines of EDF for this task. All authors had the opportunity to review each contribution as it was added.Results and conclusionThese updated 2020 guidelines provide at present the most comprehensive available expert recommendations for the use of extracorporeal photopheresis based on the available published literature and expert consensus opinion. The guidelines were divided into two parts: PART I covers Cutaneous T‐cell lymphoma, chronic graft‐vs.‐host disease and acute graft‐vs.‐host disease, while PART II will cover scleroderma, solid organ transplantation, Crohn’s disease, use of ECP in paediatric patients, atopic dermatitis, type 1 diabetes, pemphigus, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and erosive oral lichen planus.
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53.
  • Knobler, R., et al. (författare)
  • European dermatology forum - updated guidelines on the use of extracorporeal photopheresis 2020-part 1
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. - : WILEY. - 0926-9959 .- 1468-3083.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Following the first investigational study on the use of extracorporeal photopheresis for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma published in 1983, this technology has received continued use and further recognition for additional earlier as well as refractory forms. After the publication of the first guidelines for this technology in the JEADV in 2014, this technology has maintained additional promise in the treatment of other severe and refractory conditions in a multi-disciplinary setting. It has confirmed recognition in well-known documented conditions such as graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, systemic sclerosis, solid organ transplant rejection including lung, heart and liver and to a lesser extent inflammatory bowel disease. Materials and methods In order to further provide recognized expert practical guidelines for the use of this technology for all indications, the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) again proceeded to address these questions in the hands of the recognized experts within and outside the field of dermatology. This was done using the recognized and approved guidelines of EDF for this task. All authors had the opportunity to review each contribution as it was added. Results and conclusion These updated 2020 guidelines provide at present the most comprehensive available expert recommendations for the use of extracorporeal photopheresis based on the available published literature and expert consensus opinion. The guidelines are divided in two parts: PART I covers cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, chronic graft-versus-host disease and acute graft-versus-host disease while PART II will cover scleroderma, solid organ transplantation, Crohns disease, use of ECP in paediatrics practice, atopic dermatitis, type 1 diabetes, pemphigus, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and erosive oral lichen planus.
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54.
  • Lahdenperä, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Up-regulation of small intestinal interleukin-17 immunity in untreated coeliac disease but not in potential coeliac disease or in type 1 diabetes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0009-9104 .- 1365-2249. ; 167:2, s. 226-234
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Up-regulation of interleukin (IL)-17 in small intestinal mucosa has been reported in coeliac disease (CD) and in peripheral blood in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We explored mucosal IL-17 immunity in different stages of CD, including transglutaminase antibody (TGA)-positive children with potential CD, children with untreated and gluten-free diet-treated CD and in children with T1D. Immunohistochemistry was used for identification of IL-17 and forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)-positive cells and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for IL-17, FoxP3, retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)c and interferon (IFN)-γ transcripts. IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17 were studied in supernatants from biopsy cultures. Expression of the apoptotic markers BAX and bcl-2 was evaluated in IL-17-stimulated CaCo-2 cells. The mucosal expression of IL-17 and FoxP3 transcripts were elevated in individuals with untreated CD when compared with the TGA-negative reference children, children with potential CD or gluten-free diet-treated children with CD (P andlt; 0·005 for all IL-17 comparisons and P andlt; 0·01 for all FoxP3 comparisons). The numbers of IL-17-positive cells were higher in lamina propria in children with CD than in children with T1D (P andlt; 0·05). In biopsy specimens from patients with untreated CD, enhanced spontaneous secretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17 was seen. Activation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 in IL-17-treated CaCo-2 epithelial cells suggests that IL-17 might be involved in mucosal protection. Up-regulation of IL-17 could, however, serve as a biomarker for the development of villous atrophy and active CD.
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55.
  • Landegren, N, et al. (författare)
  • AIREing out autoimmunity
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE. - 1946-6234. ; 7:292
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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56.
  • Liu, Po-Hong, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary Gluten Intake and Risk of Microscopic Colitis Among US Women without Celiac Disease : A Prospective Cohort Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 0002-9270 .- 1572-0241. ; 114:1, s. 127-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea among the elderly. Although the prevalence of celiac disease appears to be higher in patients with microscopic colitis, the relationship between dietary gluten intake and risk of microscopic colitis among individuals without celiac disease has not been explored.METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 160,744 US women without celiac disease enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the NHSII. Dietary gluten intake was estimated using validated food frequency questionnaires every 4 years. Microscopic colitis was confirmed through medical records review. We used Cox proportional hazard modeling to estimate the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).RESULTS: We documented 219 incident cases of microscopic colitis over more than 20 years of follow-up encompassing 3,716,718 person-years (crude incidence rate: 5.9/100,000 person-years) in NHS and NHSII. Dietary gluten intake was not associated with risk of microscopic colitis (Ptrend = 0.88). Compared to individuals in the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted gluten intake, the adjusted HR of microscopic colitis was 1.18 (95% CI: 0.77-1.78) for the middle quintile and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.67-1.58) for the highest quintile. Additional adjustment for primary dietary sources of gluten including refined and whole grains did not materially alter the effect estimates (All Ptrend ≥ 0.69). The null association did not differ according to lymphocytic or collagenous subtypes (Pheterogeneity = 0.72) and was not modified by age, smoking status, or body mass index (All Pinteraction ≥ 0.17).CONCLUSION: Dietary gluten intake during adulthood was not associated with risk of microscopic colitis among women without celiac disease.
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57.
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58.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Association Between IgA Deficiency & Other Autoimmune Conditions : A Population-Based Matched Cohort Study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: ; 34:4, s. 444-451
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To examine autoimmune disorders in patients with IgA deficiency compared with the general population.Methods: Nationwide prospective population-based cohort study. Through six university hospitals in Sweden we identified 2100 individuals with IgA deficiency (IgA levels < .07 g/L) diagnosed between 1980 and 2011. Each patient with IgA deficiency was matched on age, sex, place of residence, and year of diagnosis with up to 10 general population controls (n = 18,653). Data on nine autoimmune disorders were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register (including inpatient and non-primary outpatient care). Autoimmune disorders were defined as having at least two visits listing the relevant international classification of disease (ICD) code as main diagnosis. Prevalences and prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated.Results: Individuals with IgA deficiency more often had celiac disease (6.7 % vs. 0.19 % in controls) and type 1 diabetes (5.9 % vs. 0.57 %) corresponding to a 35-fold higher PR for celiac disease and 10-fold higher for type 1 diabetes. Also for the other autoimmune diseases did we see statistically significantly elevated prevalences and PRs (juvenile idiopathic arthritis (0.76 % vs. 0.09 % in controls, PR = 8.9), systemic lupus erythematosus (0.57 % vs. 0.06 %; PR = 8.9), inflammatory bowel disease (3.9 % vs. 0.81 %; PR = 5.0; specifically Crohn's disease (2.4 % vs. 0.42 %; PR = 5.7) and ulcerative colitis (1.7 % vs. 0.46 %; PR = 3.9)), hypothyreosis (0.76 % vs. 0.16 %; PR = 4.6), rheumatoid arthritis (2.2 % vs. 0.50 %; PR = 4.5), and hyperthyreosis (1.7 % vs. 0.43 %; PR = 3.9), but not with myasthenia gravis (0.05 % vs. 0.02 %; PR = 3.0).Conclusions: Individuals with IgA deficiency have a higher prevalence of several other autoimmune disorders.
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59.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • IgA Deficiency and Risk of Cancer : A Population-Based Matched Cohort Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Immunology. - 0271-9142 .- 1573-2592. ; 35:2, s. 182-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate the risk of cancer in individuals with IgA deficiency compared with the general population.Prospective nationwide population-based cohort study. We identified 2320 individuals with IgA deficiency (IgA levels < 0.07 g/L) diagnosed between 1980 and 2010 in six Swedish university hospitals. Individuals with IgA deficiency were then matched on age, sex, place of residence, and year of diagnosis with up to 10 general population controls (n = 23,130). Through linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register we calculated conditional hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer diagnosed after IgA deficiency diagnosis in patients without a previous cancer diagnosis.During follow-up, 125 individuals with IgA deficiency (61/10,000 person-years) and 984 controls (47/10,000 person-years) developed cancer (HR 1.31; 95%CI = 1.09-1.58). In cause-specific analyses, we found an increased risk of any gastrointestinal cancer (HR = 1.64; 95%CI = 1.07-2.50), but not for lymphoproliferative malignancy (HR 1.68; 95%CI = 0.89-3.19). Relative risk estimates for overall cancer were very high in the first year of follow-up (overall: HR = 2.80; 95%CI = 1.74-4.49), but failed to reach statistical significance thereafter. IgA deficiency diagnosed in childhood (n = 487) was not associated with overall cancer (HR = 3.26; 0.88-12.03).Individuals with IgA deficiency are at a moderately increased risk of cancer, with excess risks of gastrointestinal cancer. This excess risk is highest just after diagnosis suggesting a degree of surveillance bias. Children with IgA deficiency were at no increased risk of cancer but the statistical power was limited in subanalyses.
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60.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • IgA Deficiency, Autoimmunity & Pregnancy : A Population-Based Matched Cohort Study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: ; 34:7, s. 853-863
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several autoimmune disorders have been linked to adverse pregnancy outcome. IgA deficiency shares many autoimmune traits, but its association with pregnancy outcome is unknown.Methods: Prospective population-based cohort study in Sweden of 613 mothers with IgA deficiency (IgA levels < .07 g/L) diagnosed in 1980-2010 in six university hospitals. In 1973-2010, these women delivered 1,172 singleton infants registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Each delivery to a woman with IgA deficiency was matched on maternal age, parity, early pregnancy smoking status, education level, and delivery year with up to 5 control births (n = 5,758).Results: Offspring to women with IgA deficiency had 79 g lower birth weight than controls (mean +/- SD: 3,457 +/- 559 vs 3,537 +/- 553 g, P < 0.001), and 1.4 days shorter gestational age (mean +/- SD: 278 +/- 13 vs 280 +/- 14 days, P = 0.001). No difference in preterm birth (< 37 weeks) could be detected in deliveries to women with IgA deficiency vs control deliveries (5.8 % vs 5.2 %; odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95%CI = 0.85-1.49), but small for gestational age birth was more common (4.3 % vs 2.8 %; OR = 1.48, 95%CI = 1.04-2.10). Women with IgA deficiency also delivered more often by caesarean section (16.9 % vs 11.9 %; OR = 1.51, 95%CI = 1.26-1.82), while no difference was observed regarding low Apgar score (< 7 at 5 min; 1.1 % vs 1.0 %; OR = 1.18; 95%CI = 0.62-2.27). When excluding women with autoimmune diseases, the excess risks of adverse pregnancy outcome diminished.Conclusion: There is a small excess risk of certain adverse delivery and perinatal outcomes among offspring to women with IgA deficiency. These excess risks are attenuated when considering the presence of autoimmune diseases.
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