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Sökning: WFRF:(Müller Heiko)

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  • Föregående 1[2]3Nästa
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11.
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12.
  • Brenner, David, et al. (författare)
  • Hot-spot KIF5A mutations cause familial ALS
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 141, s. 688-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using whole exome sequencing followed by rare variant analysis of 426 patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6137 control subjects, we detected an enrichment of KIF5A splice-site mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2/426 compared to 0/6137 in controls; P = 4.2 x 10-3), both located in a hot-spot in the C-terminus of the protein and predicted to affect splicing exon 27. We additionally show co-segregation with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of two canonical splice-site mutations in two families. Investigation of lymphoblast cell lines from patients with KIF5A splice-site mutations revealed the loss of mutant RNA expression and suggested haploinsufficiency as the most probable underlying molecular mechanism. Furthermore, mRNA sequencing of a rare non-synonymous missense mutation (predicting p. Arg1007Gly) located in the C-terminus of the protein shortly upstream of the splice donor of exon 27 revealed defective KIF5A pre-mRNA splicing in respective patient-derived cell lines owing to abrogation of the donor site. Finally, the non-synonymous single nucleotide variant rs113247976 (minor allele frequency = 1.00% in controls, n = 6137), also located in the C-terminal region [p.(Pro986Leu) in exon 26], was significantly enriched in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (minor allele frequency = 3.40%; P = 1.28 x 10-7). Our study demonstrates that mutations located specifically in a C-terminal hotspot of KIF5A can cause a classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotype, and underline the involvement of intracellular transport processes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis.
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13.
  • Fortmann, Jutta, et al. (författare)
  • Demo Hour
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Interactions. - : Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). - 1072-5520. ; 22:1, January + February 2015, s. 6-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • NordiCHI'14 conference attendees got hands-on experience with a number of great new interactive systems. Among the accepted poster, video, and demo submissions, we selected the following four prototypes to illustrate the high-quality design research displayed during the conference, which was held in Helsinki, Finland, October 26--30, 2014.
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14.
  • Herwald, Heiko, et al. (författare)
  • Activation of the contact-phase system on bacterial surfaces - A clue to serious comlications in infections deseases
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1078-8956. ; 4:3, s. 298-302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fever, hypotension and bleeding disorders are common symptoms of sepsis and septic shock. The activation of the contact-phase system is thought to contribute to the development of these severe disease states by triggering proinflammatory and procoagulatory cascades; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are obscure. Here we report that the components of the contact-phase system are assembled on the surface of Escherichia coil and Salmonella through their specific interactions with fibrous bacterial surface proteins, curli and fimbriae. As a consequence, the proinflammatory pathway is activated through the release of bradykinin, a potent inducer of fever, pain and hypotension. Absorption of contact-phase proteins and fibrinogen by bacterial surface proteins depletes relevant coagulation factors and causes a hypocoagulatory state. Thus, the complex interplay of microbe surface proteins and host contact-phase factors may contribute to the symptoms of sepsis and septic shock.
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15.
  • Herwald, Heiko, et al. (författare)
  • Isolation and characterization of the kininogen-binding protein p33 from endothelial cells : Identity with the gClq receptor
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 0021-9258. ; 271:22, s. 13040-13047
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Kininogens, the precursor proteins of the vasoactive kinins, bind specifically, reversibly, and saturably to platelets, neutrophils, and endothelial cells. Two domains of the kininogens expose major cell binding sites: domain D3 that is shared by H- and L-kininogen and domain D5H that is exclusively present in H-kininogen. Previously we have mapped the kininogen cell binding sites to 27 residues of D3 ("LDC27") and 20 residues of D5H ("HKH20"), respectively (Herwald, H., Hasan, A. A. K., Godovac-Zimmermann, J., Schmaler, A. H., and MÜller-Esterl, W. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 14634-14642; Hasan, A. A. K., Cines, D. B., Herwald, H., Schmaler, A. H., and Müller-Esterl, W. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 19256-19261). The corresponding kininogen acceptor site(s) exposed by the cell surfaces are still poorly defined. Using a non-ionic detergent, Nonidet P-40, we have been able to solubilize kininogen binding sites from an endothelial cell line, EA.hy926, in their functionally active form. Affinity chromatography of the solubilized kininogen binding sites on HKH20, a synthetic peptide representing the D5H cell binding site, allowed us to isolate a 33-kDa protein ("p33") that binds specifically and reversibly to H-kininogen with a KD (apparent dissociation constant) of 9 ±2 nM. Preparative SDS electrophoresis followed by NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis identified the kininogen-binding protein p33 as the gC1q receptor ("gC1qR"), an extrinsic membrane protein that interacts with the globular domains of the complement component C1q. The purified p33 binds C1q with moderate affinity, KD = 240 ±10 nM. Recombinant expression of the corresponding cDNA in Eacherichia coli demonstrated that p33 binds H-kininogen, but not L-kininogen. Peptide HKH20 but not peptide LDC27 inhibited binding of H-kininogen to the recombinant p33 in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that H-kininogen binds to p33 via domain D5H. Recombinant p33 efficiently inhibited the binding of H-kininogen to EA.hy926 cells. Factor XII, but not prekallikrein, competed with H-kininogen binding to p33. These findings suggest that an endothelial binding protein mediates the assembly of critical components of the kinin-generating pathway on the surface of endothelial cells, thereby linking the early events of kinin formation and complement activation.
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16.
  • Herwald, Heiko, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping of the discontinuous kininogen binding site of prekallikrein : A distal binding segment is located in the heavy chain domain A4
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 0021-9258. ; 271:22, s. 13061-13067
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prekallikrein, the precursor to the serine proteinase kailikrein, circulates in plasma in an equimolar complex with H-kininogen. The binding to H-kininogen is mediated by the kallikrein heavy chain consisting of four "apple" domains, A1-A4, which attaches to H-kininogen with high specificity and affinity (KD = 83 UM). At least two distinct portions of the kallikrein heavy chain form this H-kininogen binding site: a proximal segment located in the NH2-terminal fragment of the heavy chain encompassing A1, and distal segment(s) located in COOH-terminal fragment spanning domains A2-A4. The proximal binding segment has been located to amino acid positions 56-86 of A1. To precisely map the distal binding segment, we have identified monoclonal antibodies directed to the COOH-terminal fragment which interfere with the H-kininogen-prekallikrein complex formation. Monoclonal antibody 13G11 binds to recombinant apple domain A4 but not to domain A3 of the prekallikrein heavy chain. Deletion mutagenesis of domain A4 narrowed down the target epitope of 13G11 to the center portion of domain A4, positions 284-331. Direct binding studies of H-kininogen to various domain A4 constructs revealed that the distal H-kininogen binding portion is located on a segment of 48 residues, which overlaps the 13G11 epitope. Hence the tight interaction of H-kininogen and prekallikrein is mediated by at least two separate sequence segments located in domains A1 and A4, respectively, of the prekallikrein heavy chain. The isolated distal binding segment significantly prolongs the partial thromboplastin time of reconstituted Williams plasma thus stressing the critical role of the prekallikrein-H-kininogen complex formation in the initiation of the endogenous blood coagulation cascade.
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17.
  • Herwald, Heiko, et al. (författare)
  • Streptococcal cysteine proteinase releases kinins: a novel virulence mechanism
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Medicine. - : Rockefeller University Press. - 1540-9538. ; 184:2, s. 665-673
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous work has indicated a crucial role for the extracellular cysteine proteinase of Streptococcus pyogenes in the pathogenicity and virulence of this important human pathogen. Here we find that the purified streptococcal cysteine proteinase releases biologically active kinins from their purified precursor protein, H-kininogen, in vitro, and from kininogens present in the human plasma, ex vivo. Kinin liberation in the plasma is due to the direct action of the streptococcal proteinase on the kininogens, and does not involve the previous activation of plasma prekallikrein, the physiological plasma kininogenase. Judged from the amount of released plasma kinins the bacterial proteinase is highly efficient in its action. This is also the case in vivo. Injection of the purified cysteine proteinase into the peritoneal cavity of mice resulted in a progressive cleavage of plasma kininogens and the concomitant release of kinins over a period of 5 h. No kininogen degradation was seen in mice when the cysteine proteinase was inactivated by the specific inhibitor, Z-Leu-Val-Gly-CHN2, before administration. Intraperitoneal administration into mice of living S. pyogenes bacteria producing the cysteine proteinase induced a rapid breakdown of endogenous plasma kininogens and release of kinins. Kinins are hypotensive, they increase vascular permeability, contract smooth muscle, and induce fever and pain. The release of kinins by the cysteine proteinase of S. pyogenes could therefore represent an important and previously unknown virulence mechanism in S. pyogenes infections.
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18.
  • Johnson, Nichola, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-5411. ; 16:3, s. R51-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age <= 50 years. Methods: We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping of rs10235235 was conducted using a custom Illumina Infinium array. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine whether this association was modified by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, age at menarche or tumor characteristics. Results: We confirmed the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk for women of European ancestry but found no evidence that this association differed with age at diagnosis. Heterozygote and homozygote odds ratios (ORs) were OR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.94, 1.01; P = 0.2) and OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93; P = 0.004), respectively (P-trend = 0.02). There was no evidence of effect modification by tumor characteristics. rs10235235 was, however, associated with age at menarche in controls (P-trend = 0.005) but not cases (P-trend = 0.97). Consequently the association between rs10235235 and breast cancer risk differed according to age at menarche (P-het = 0.02); the rare allele of rs10235235 was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk for women who had their menarche age >= 15 years (ORhet = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75, 0.94; ORhom = 0.81, 95% CI 0.51, 1.30; P-trend = 0.002) but not for those who had their menarche age <= 11 years (ORhet = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95, 1.19, ORhom = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67, 1.72; P-trend = 0.29). Conclusions: To our knowledge rs10235235 is the first single nucleotide polymorphism to be associated with both breast cancer risk and age at menarche consistent with the well-documented association between later age at menarche and a reduction in breast cancer risk. These associations are likely mediated via an effect on circulating hormone levels.
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19.
  • Kahn, Robin, et al. (författare)
  • Contact-system activation in children with vasculitis.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 360:9332, s. 535-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The contact system triggers the kallikrein-kinin cascade, liberating bradykinin from high-molecular-weight kininogen. Effectors of the contact system have proinflammatory and vasoactive properties. Vasculitis is a condition characterised by inflammation around vessel walls, leading to secondary tissue damage for which the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate contact-system activation in children with vasculitis. METHODS: We compared 17 children, aged 4-19 years, with vasculitis, engaging the skin, joints, intestines, or kidneys, with 21 controls, aged 2-18 years. We analysed proteolysis of high-molecular-weight kininogen by immunoblotting. Plasma bradykinin concentrations were quantified by ELISA. Kidney and skin biopsies were stained in situ for kinins. Concentrations of heparin binding protein (HBP) were quantified by ELISA. FINDINGS: We noted extensive proteolysis of high-molecular-weight kininogen in the plasma of 13 of 17 patients, but in only one of 21 controls (p<0.0001). Bradykinin concentrations were higher in the patients' plasma (median 320 ng/L, range <1-19680) than in plasma from controls (11 ng/L, <1-304; p=0.0004). Patients had local release of kinins at sites of inflammation in kidney and skin biopsies. HBP values were raised in patients (17.4 microg/L, 5.4-237.6) compared with controls (6 microg/L, 2.5-43.4; p=0.008). INTERPRETATION: Activation of the contact system could play a part in the pathogenesis of vasculitis, and explain the inflammation, pain, vasodilatation, and oedema seen in patients.
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20.
  • Meyer, Kerstin B., et al. (författare)
  • Fine-Scale Mapping of the FGFR2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus: Putative Functional Variants Differentially Bind FOXA1 and E2F1
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - : Cell Press. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 93:6, s. 1046-1060
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ER alpha to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease.
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