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Sökning: WFRF:(Müller Heiko)

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  • Föregående 12[3]
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21.
  • Müller, Florian, et al. (författare)
  • Towards a conceptual framework for explaining variation in nocturnal departure time of songbird migrants
  • Ingår i: Movement Ecology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 2051-3933. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most songbird migrants travel between their breeding areas and wintering grounds by a series of nocturnal flights. The exact nocturnal departure time for these flights varies considerably between individuals even of the same species. Although the basic circannual and circadian rhythms of songbirds, their adaptation to migration, and the factors influencing the birds' day-to-day departure decision are reasonably well studied, we do not understand how birds time their departures within the night. These decisions are crucial, because the nocturnal departure time defines the potential flight duration of the migratory night. The distances covered during the nocturnal migratory flights in the course of migration in turn directly affect the overall speed of migration. To understand the factors influencing the arrival of the birds in the breeding/wintering areas, we need to investigate the mechanisms that control nocturnal departure time. Here, we provide the first conceptual framework for explaining the variation commonly observed in this migratory trait. The basic schedule of nocturnal departure is likely regulated by both the circannual and circadian rhythms of the innate migration program. We postulate that the endogenously controlled schedule of nocturnal departures is modified by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. So far there is only correlative evidence that birds with a high fuel load or a considerable increase in fuel load and significant wind (flow) assistance towards their migratory goal depart early within the night. In contrast, birds migrating with little fuel and under unfavorable wind conditions show high variation in their nocturnal departure time. The latter may contain an unknown proportion of nocturnal movements not directly related to migratory flights. Excluding such movements is crucial to clearly identify the main drivers of the variation in nocturnal departure time. In general we assume that the observed variation in the nocturnal departure time is explained by individually different reactions norms of the innate migration program to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.
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22.
  • Sié, Ali, et al. (författare)
  • The health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in Nouna, Burkina Faso, 1993-2007
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - 1654-9716 .- 1654-9880. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) is located in rural Burkina Faso and has existed since 1992. Currently, it has about 78,000 inhabitants. It is a member of the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH), a global network of members who conducts longitudinal health and demographic evaluation of populations in low- and middle-income countries. The health facilities consist of one hospital and 13 basic health centres (locally known as CSPS). The Nouna HDSS has been used as a sampling frame for numerous studies in the fields of clinical research, epidemiology, health economics, and health systems research. In this paper we review some of the main findings, and we describe the effects that almost 20 years of health research activities have shown in the population in general and in terms of the perception, economic implications, and other indicators. Longitudinal data analyses show that childhood, as well as overall mortality, has significantly decreased over the observation period 1993-2007. The under-five mortality rate dropped from about 40 per 1,000 person-years in the mid-1990s to below 30 per 1,000 in 2007. Further efforts are needed to meet goal four of the Millennium Development Goals, which is to reduce the under-five mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015.
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