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  • Willeit, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Baseline and on-statin treatment lipoprotein(a) levels for prediction of cardiovascular events: individual patient-data meta-analysis of statin outcome trials
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 392:10155, s. 1311-1320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Elevated lipoprotein(a) is a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease in general population studies. However, its contribution to risk for cardiovascular events in patients with established cardiovascular disease or on statin therapy is uncertain. Methods Patient-level data from seven randomised, placebo-controlled, statin outcomes trials were collated and harmonised to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular events, defined as fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease, stroke, or revascularisation procedures. HRs for cardiovascular events were estimated within each trial across predefined lipoprotein(a) groups (15 to amp;lt;30 mg/dL, 30 to amp;lt;50 mg/dL, and amp;gt;= 50 mg/dL, vs amp;lt;15 mg/dL), before pooling estimates using multivariate random-effects meta-analysis. Findings Analyses included data for 29 069 patients with repeat lipoprotein(a) measurements (mean age 62 years [SD 8]; 8064 [28%] women; 5751 events during 95 576 person-years at risk). Initiation of statin therapy reduced LDL cholesterol (mean change -39% [95% CI -43 to -35]) without a significant change in lipoprotein(a). Associations of baseline and on-statin treatment lipoprotein(a) with cardiovascular disease risk were approximately linear, with increased risk at lipoprotein(a) values of 30 mg/dL or greater for baseline lipoprotein(a) and 50 mg/dL or greater for on-statin lipoprotein(a). For baseline lipoprotein(a), HRs adjusted for age and sex (vs amp;lt;15 mg/dL) were 1.04 (95% CI 0.91-1.18) for 15 mg/dL to less than 30 mg/dL, 1.11 (1.00-1.22) for 30 mg/dL to less than 50 mg/dL, and 1.31 (1.08-1.58) for 50 mg/dL or higher; respective HRs for on-statin lipoprotein(a) were 0.94 (0.81-1.10), 1.06 (0. 94-1.21), and 1.43 (1.15-1.76). HRs were almost identical after further adjustment for previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. The association of on-statin lipoprotein(a) with cardiovascular disease risk was stronger than for on-placebo lipoprotein(a) (interaction p=0.010) and was more pronounced at younger ages (interaction p=0.008) without effect-modification by any other patient-level or study-level characteristics. Interpretation In this individual-patient data meta-analysis of statin-treated patients, elevated baseline and on-statin lipoprotein(a) showed an independent approximately linear relation with cardiovascular disease risk. This study provides a rationale for testing the lipoprotein(a) lowering hypothesis in cardiovascular disease outcomes trials. Copyright (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ahmad, Shafqat, et al. (författare)
  • Adiposity and genetic factors in relation to triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the women's genome health study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : American Association for Clinical Chemistry. - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 64:1, s. 231-241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Previous results from Scandinavian cohorts have shown that obesity accentuates the effects of common genetic susceptibility variants on increased triglycerides (TG). Whether such interactions are present in the US population and further selective for particular TG-rich lipoprotein subfractions is unknown. METHODS: We examined these questions using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among women of European ancestry from the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS) (n = 21840 for BMI; n = 19313 for WC). A weighted genetic risk score (TGwGRS) based on 40 published TG-associated singlenucleotide polymorphisms was calculated using published effect estimates. RESULTS: Comparing overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and normal weight (BMI = 25 kg/m2) WGHS women, each unit increase of TG-wGRS was associated with TG increases of 1.013% and 1.011%, respectively, and this differential association was significant (Pinteraction = 0.014). Metaanalyses combining results forWGHSBMI with the 4 Scandinavian cohorts (INTER99, HEALTH2006, GLACIER, MDC) (total n = 40026) yielded a more significant interaction (Pinteraction = 0.001). Similarly, we observed differential association of the TG-wGRS with TG (Pinteraction = 0.006) in strata of WC ( <80 cm vs <80 cm). Metaanalysis with 2 additional cohorts reporting WC (INTER99 and HEALTH2006) (total n = 27834) was significant with consistent effects (Pinteraction = 0.006). We also observed highly significant interactions of the TG-wGRS across the strata of BMI with very large, medium, and small TG-rich lipoprotein subfractions measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (all Pinteractions = 0.0001). The differential effects were strongest for very large TG-rich lipoprotein. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the original findings and suggest that obese individuals may be more susceptible to aggregated genetic risk associated with common TG-raising alleles, with effects accentuated in the large TG-rich lipoprotein subfraction.
  • Ahmad, Shafqat (författare)
  • Assessment of Risk Factors and Biomarkers Associated With Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Women Consuming a Mediterranean Diet
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 1:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Higher Mediterranean diet (MED) intake has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but limited data are available about the underlying molecular mechanisms of this inverse disease association in human populations.OBJECTIVE To better characterize the relative contribution of traditional and novel factors to the MED-related risk reduction in CVD events in a US population.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Using a prospective cohort design, baseline MED intake was assessed in 25 994 initially healthy US women in theWomen's Health Study who were followed up to 12 years. Potential mediating effects of a panel of 40 biomarkers were evaluated, including lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, inflammation, glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, branched-chain amino acids, small-molecule metabolites, and clinical factors. Baseline study information and samples were collected between April 30, 1993, and January 24, 1996. Analyses were conducted between August 1, 2017, and October 30, 2018.EXPOSURES Intake of MED is a 9-category measure of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. Participants were categorized into 3 levels based on their adherence to the MED.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incident CVD confirmed through medical records and the proportion of CVD risk reduction explained by mediators.RESULTS Among 25 994women (mean [SD] age, 54.7 [7.1] years), those with low, middle, and upper MED intakes composed 39.0%, 36.2%, and 24.8% of the study population and experienced 428 (4.2%), 356 (3.8%), and 246 (3.8%) incident CVD events, respectively. Compared with the reference group who had low MED intake, CVD risk reductions were observed for the middle and upper groups, with respective HRs of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.90) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.61-0.86) (P for trend < .001). The largest mediators of the CVD risk reduction of MED intake were biomarkers of inflammation (accounting for 29.2% of the MED-CVD association), glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (27.9%), and body mass index (27.3%), followed by blood pressure (26.6%), traditional lipids (26.0%), high-density lipoprotein measures (24.0%) or very low-density lipoprotein measures (20.8%), with lesser contributions from low-density lipoproteins (13.0%), branched-chain amino acids (13.6%), apolipoproteins (6.5%), or other small-molecule metabolites (5.8%).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this study, higher MED intake was associated with approximately one-fourth relative risk reduction in CVD events, which could be explained in part by known risk factors, both traditional and novel.
  • Ridker, Paul M, et al. (författare)
  • Relationship of C-reactive protein reduction to cardiovascular event reduction following treatment with canakinumab: a secondary analysis from the CANTOS randomised controlled trial.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - 1474-547X. ; 391:10118, s. 319-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Canakinumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting interleukin-1β, reduces inflammation and cardiovascular event rates with no effect on lipid concentrations. However, it is uncertain which patient groups benefit the most from treatment and whether reductions in the inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) correlate with clinical benefits for individual patients.The Canakinumab Anti-Inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study (CANTOS) used computer-generated codes to randomly allocate 10 061 men and women with a history of myocardial infarction to placebo or one of three doses of canakinumab (50 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg) given subcutaneously once every 3 months. In a prespecified secondary analysis designed to address the relationship of hsCRP reduction to event reduction in CANTOS, we evaluated the effects of canakinumab on rates of major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality according to on-treatment concentrations of hsCRP. We used multivariable modelling to adjust for baseline factors associated with achieved hsCRP and multiple sensitivity analyses to address the magnitude of residual confounding. The median follow-up was 3·7 years. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01327846.Baseline clinical characteristics did not define patient groups with greater or lesser cardiovascular benefits when treated with canakinumab. However, trial participants allocated to canakinumab who achieved hsCRP concentrations less than 2 mg/L had a 25% reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio [HRadj]=0·75, 95% CI 0·66-0·85, p<0·0001), whereas no significant benefit was observed among those with on-treatment hsCRP concentrations of 2 mg/L or above (HRadj=0·90, 0·79-1·02, p=0·11). For those treated with canakinumab who achieved on-treatment hsCRP concentrations less than 2 mg/L, cardiovascular mortality (HRadj=0·69, 95% CI 0·56-0·85, p=0·0004) and all-cause mortality (HRadj=0·69, 0·58-0·81, p<0·0001) were both reduced by 31%, whereas no significant reduction in these endpoints was observed among those treated with canakinumab who achieved hsCRP concentrations of 2 mg/L or above. Similar differential effects were found in analyses of the trial prespecified secondary cardiovascular endpoint (which additionally included hospitalisation for unstable angina requiring unplanned revascularisation) and in sensitivity analyses alternatively based on median reductions in hsCRP, on 50% or greater reductions in hsCRP, on the median percent reduction in hsCRP, in dose-specific analyses, and in analyses using a causal inference approach to estimate the effect of treatment among individuals who would achieve a targeted hsCRP concentration.The magnitude of hsCRP reduction following a single dose of canakinumab might provide a simple clinical method to identify individuals most likely to accrue the largest benefit from continued treatment. These data further suggest that lower is better for inflammation reduction with canakinumab.Novartis Pharmaceuticals.
  • Siddiqui, Moneeza K., et al. (författare)
  • A common missense variant of LILRB5 is associated with statin intolerance and myalgia
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 38:48, s. 3569-U31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: A genetic variant in LILRB5 (leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily-B) (rs12975366: T > C: Asp247Gly) has been reported to be associated with lower creatine phosphokinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Both biomarkers are released from injured muscle tissue, making this variant a potential candidate for susceptibility to muscle-related symptoms. We examined the association of this variant with statin intolerance ascertained from electronic medical records in the GoDARTS study.Methods and results: In the GoDARTS cohort, the LILRB5 Asp247 variant was associated with statin intolerance (SI) phenotypes; one defined as having raised CK and being non-adherent to therapy [odds ratio (OR) 1.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34–2.45] and the other as being intolerant to the lowest approved dose of a statin before being switched to two or more other statins (OR 1.36; 95% CI: 1.07–1.73). Those homozygous for Asp247 had increased odds of developing both definitions of intolerance. Importantly the second definition did not rely on CK elevations. These results were replicated in adjudicated cases of statin-induced myopathy in the PREDICTION-ADR consortium (OR1.48; 95% CI: 1.05–2.10) and for the development of myalgia in the JUPITER randomized clinical trial of rosuvastatin (OR1.35, 95% CI: 1.10–1.68). A meta-analysis across the studies showed a consistent association between Asp247Gly and outcomes associated with SI (OR1.34; 95% CI: 1.16–1.54).Conclusion: This study presents a novel immunogenetic factor associated with statin intolerance, an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. The results suggest that true statin-induced myalgia and non-specific myalgia are distinct, with a potential role for the immune system in their development. We identify a genetic group that is more likely to be intolerant to their statins.
  • Ahmad, Shafqat, et al. (författare)
  • Gene-Based Elevated Triglycerides and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk in the Women's Genome Health Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 39:1, s. 97-106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective- Higher triglyceride (TG) is a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but paradoxically, genetic susceptibility for higher TG has been associated with lower T2DM risk. There is also evidence that the genetic association may be modified by baseline TG. Whether such associations can be replicated and the interaction is selective for certain TG-rich lipoprotein particles remains to be explored.Approach and Results-Cox regression involving TG, TG-rich lipoprotein particles, and genetic determinants of TG was performed among 15 813 participants with baseline fasting status in the WGHS (Women's Genome Health Study), including 1453 T2DM incident cases during a mean 18.6 (SD= 5.3) years of follow-up. A weighted, 40-single-nucleotide polymorphism TG genetic risk score was inversely associated with incident T2DM (hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.66 [0.580.75]/ 10-TG risk alleles; P< 0.0001) with adjustment for baseline body mass index, HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, and TG. TG-associated risk was higher among individuals in the low compared with the high 40-singlenucleotide polymorphism TG genetic risk score tertile (hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.98 [1.83-2.14] versus 1.68 [1.58-1.80] per mmol/L; P-interaction = 0.0007). In TG-adjusted analysis, large and medium but not small TG-rich lipoprotein particles were associated with higher T2DM incidence for successively lower 40-single-nucleotide polymorphism TG genetic risk score tertiles, P-interaction = 0.013, 0.012, and 0.620 across tertiles, respectively.Conclusions-Our results confirm the previous observations of the paradoxical associations of TG with T2DM while focusing attention on the larger TG-rich lipoprotein particle subfractions, suggesting their importance in clinical profiling of T2DM risk.
  • Khera, Amit V., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic risk, adherence to a healthy lifestyle, and coronary disease
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793. ; 375:24, s. 2349-2358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Both genetic and lifestyle factors contribute to individual-level risk of coronary artery disease. The extent to which increased genetic risk can be offset by a healthy lifestyle is unknown. METHODS Using a polygenic score of DNA sequence polymorphisms, we quantified genetic risk for coronary artery disease in three prospective cohorts - 7814 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 21,222 in the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS), and 22,389 in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) - And in 4260 participants in the cross-sectional BioImage Study for whom genotype and covariate data were available. We also determined adherence to a healthy lifestyle among the participants using a scoring system consisting of four factors: no current smoking, no obesity, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet. RESULTS The relative risk of incident coronary events was 91% higher among participants at high genetic risk (top quintile of polygenic scores) than among those at low genetic risk (bottom quintile of polygenic scores) (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75 to 2.09). A favorable lifestyle (defined as at least three of the four healthy lifestyle factors) was associated with a substantially lower risk of coronary events than an unfavorable lifestyle (defined as no or only one healthy lifestyle factor), regardless of the genetic risk category. Among participants at high genetic risk, a favorable lifestyle was associated with a 46% lower relative risk of coronary events than an unfavorable lifestyle (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.63). This finding corresponded to a reduction in the standardized 10-year incidence of coronary events from 10.7% for an unfavorable lifestyle to 5.1% for a favorable lifestyle in ARIC, from 4.6% to 2.0% in WGHS, and from 8.2% to 5.3% in MDCS. In the BioImage Study, a favorable lifestyle was associated with significantly less coronary-artery calcification within each genetic risk category. CONCLUSIONS Across four studies involving 55,685 participants, genetic and lifestyle factors were independently associated with susceptibility to coronary artery disease. Among participants at high genetic risk, a favorable lifestyle was associated with a nearly 50% lower relative risk of coronary artery disease than was an unfavorable lifestyle.
  • Ross, Stephanie, et al. (författare)
  • Association of cyclooxygenase-2 genetic variant with cardiovascular disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 35:33, s. 2242-2248
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim Agenetic variant (rs20417) of the PTGS2 gene, encoding for COX-2, has been associated with decreased COX-2 activity and a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, this genetic association and the role of COX-2 in CVD remain controversial. Methods and results The association of rs20417 with CVD was prospectively explored in 49 232 subjects (ACTIVE-A, CURE, epiDREAM/DREAM, ONTARGET, RE-LY, and WGHS) and the effect of potentially modifiable risk factors on the genetic association was further explored in 9363 INTERHEART participants. The effect of rs20417 on urinary thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolite concentrations was measured in 117 healthy individuals. Carriage of the rs20417 minor allele was associated with a decreased risk of major CVD outcomes (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.87; P = 1.2 x 10(-5)). The genetic effect was significantly stronger in aspirin users (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.64-0.84; P = 1.20 x 10(-5)) than non-users (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1.06; P = 0.16) (interaction P-value: 0.0041). Among patients with previous coronary artery disease (CAD), rs20417 carriers had a stronger protective effect on risk of major adverse events when compared with individuals without previous CAD (interaction P-value: 0.015). Carriers had significantly lower urinary levels of thromboxane (P = 0.01) and prostacyclin (P = 0.01) metabolites when compared with non-carriers. Conclusion The rs20417 polymorphism is associated with a reduced risk of major cardiovascular events and lower levels of thromboxane and prostacyclin. Our results suggest that a genetic decrease in COX-2 activity may be beneficial with respect to CVD risk, especially, in higher risk patients on aspirin.
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