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  • Robinson, Matthew R., et al. (författare)
  • Population genetic differentiation of height and body mass index across Europe
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 47:11, s. 1357-1362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Across-nation differences in the mean values for complex traits are common(1-8), but the reasons for these differences are unknown. Here we find that many independent loci contribute to population genetic differences in height and body mass index (BMI) in 9,416 individuals across 14 European countries. Using discovery data on over 250,000 individuals and unbiased effect size estimates from 17,500 sibling pairs, we estimate that 24% (95% credible interval (CI) = 9%, 41%) and 8% (95% CI = 4%, 16%) of the captured additive genetic variance for height and BMI, respectively, reflect population genetic differences. Population genetic divergence differed significantly from that in a null model (height, P < 3.94 x 10(-8); BMI, P < 5.95 x 10(-4)), and we find an among-population genetic correlation for tall and slender individuals (r = -0.80, 95% CI = -0.95, -0.60), consistent with correlated selection for both phenotypes. Observed differences in height among populations reflected the predicted genetic means (r = 0.51; P < 0.001), but environmental differences across Europe masked genetic differentiation for BMI (P < 0.58).
  • Stolk, Lisette, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analyses identify 13 loci associated with age at menopause and highlight DNA repair and immune pathways
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 44:3, s. 260-268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To newly identify loci for age at natural menopause, we carried out a meta-analysis of 22 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 38,968 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,435 women. In addition to four known loci, we identified 13 loci newly associated with age at natural menopause (at P < 5 × 10(-8)). Candidate genes located at these newly associated loci include genes implicated in DNA repair (EXO1, HELQ, UIMC1, FAM175A, FANCI, TLK1, POLG and PRIM1) and immune function (IL11, NLRP11 and PRRC2A (also known as BAT2)). Gene-set enrichment pathway analyses using the full GWAS data set identified exoDNase, NF-κB signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction as biological processes related to timing of menopause.
  • Wiklund, Fredrik E, et al. (författare)
  • Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) : a new marker of all-cause mortality
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Aging Cell. - Wiley. - 1474-9718. ; 9:6, s. 1057-1064
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) is a member of the TGF-b superfamily, previously studied in cancer and inflammation. In addition to regulating body weight, MIC-1/GDF15 may be used to predict mortality and/or disease course in cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic renal and heart failure, as well as pulmonary embolism. These data suggested that MIC-1/GDF15 may be a marker of all-cause mortality. To determine whether serum MIC-1/GDF15 estimation is a predictor of all-cause mortality, we examined a cohort of 876 male subjects aged 35-80 years, selected from the Swedish Population Registry, and followed them for overall mortality. Serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels were determined for all subjects from samples taken at study entry. A second (independent) cohort of 324 same-sex twins (69% female) from the Swedish Twin Registry was similarly examined. All the twins had telomere length measured and 183 had serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) available. Patients were followed for up to 14 years and had cause-specific and all-cause mortality determined. Serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels predicted mortality in the all-male cohort with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of death of 3.38 (95%CI 1.38-8.26). This finding was validated in the twin cohort. Serum MIC-1/GDF15 remained an independent predictor of mortality when further adjusted for telomere length, IL-6 and CRP. Additionally, serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels were directly correlated with survival time independently of genetic background. Serum MIC-1/GDF15 is a novel predictor of all-cause mortality.
  • Ahlén, Karina, et al. (författare)
  • Platelet-derived growth factor-BB modulates membrane mobility of ß1 integrins
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC. - 0006-291X. ; 314:1, s. 89-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB elicits a migratory response including reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in different cell types. Here we have investigated the effects of PDGF-BB stimulation on ß 1 integrin containing focal adhesions in human diploid fibroblasts adhered to collagen type I. Stimulation with PDGF-BB dissociated focal adhesions and relocated ß1 integrins from focal adhesions to the periphery of the cells. These changes were rapid and transient in character. Relocation of ß1 integrins was prevented by inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3-kinase and protein kinase C. PDGF-BB stimulated fibroblasts exhibited an increased diffusion coefficient of cell surface ß1 integrins as determined by fluorescence recovery of photobleaching. The cell surface expression of ß1 integrins was not changed after stimulation with PDGF-BB. Our data suggest that PDGF-BB increases the dynamic properties of cell-surface ß1 integrins, which most likely are important for the migratory response elicited by PDGF-BB. © 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Ameur, Adam, et al. (författare)
  • SweGen a whole-genome data resource of genetic variability in a cross-section of the Swedish population
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 25:11, s. 1253-1260
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here we describe the SweGen data set, a comprehensive map of genetic variation in the Swedish population. These data represent a basic resource for clinical genetics laboratories as well as for sequencing-based association studies by providing information on genetic variant frequencies in a cohort that is well matched to national patient cohorts. To select samples for this study, we first examined the genetic structure of the Swedish population using high-density SNP-array data from a nation-wide cohort of over 10 000 Swedish-born individuals included in the Swedish Twin Registry. A total of 1000 individuals, reflecting a cross-section of the population and capturing the main genetic structure, were selected for whole-genome sequencing. Analysis pipelines were developed for automated alignment, variant calling and quality control of the sequencing data. This resulted in a genome-wide collection of aggregated variant frequencies in the Swedish population that we have made available to the scientific community through the website https://swefreq.nbis.se. A total of 29.2 million single-nucleotide variants and 3.8 million indels were detected in the 1000 samples, with 9.9 million of these variants not present in current databases. Each sample contributed with an average of 7199 individual-specific variants. In addition, an average of 8645 larger structural variants (SVs) were detected per individual, and we demonstrate that the population frequencies of these SVs can be used for efficient filtering analyses. Finally, our results show that the genetic diversity within Sweden is substantial compared with the diversity among continental European populations, underscoring the relevance of establishing a local reference data set.
  • Anckarsäter, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS).
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - 1832-4274. ; 14:6, s. 495-508
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing longitudinal twin study targeting all twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Since 2004, parents of twins are interviewed regarding the children's somatic and mental health and social environment in connection with their 9th or 12th birthdays (CATSS-9/12). By January 2010, 8,610 parental interviews concerning 17,220 twins had been completed, with an overall response rate of 80%. At age 15 (CATSS-15) and 18 (CATSS-18), twins and parents complete questionnaires that, in addition to assessments of somatic and mental health, include measures of personality development and psychosocial adaptation. Twin pairs in CATSS-9/12 with one or both twins screening positive for autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, developmental coordination disorder, learning disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or eating problems have been followed with in-depth questionnaires on family, social environment and personality, and subsequently by clinical assessments at age 15 together with randomly selected population controls, including 195 clinically assessed twin pairs from the first 2 year cohorts (CATSS-15/DOGSS). This article describes the cohorts and study groups, data collection, and measures used. Prevalences, distributions, heritability estimates, ages at onset, and sex differences of mental health problems in the CATSS-9/12, that were analyzed and found to be overall comparable to those of other clinical and epidemiological studies. The CATSS study has the potential of answering important questions on the etiology of childhood mental health problems and their role in the development of later adjustment problems.
  • Arpegard, Johannes, et al. (författare)
  • Cystatin C Predicts Incident Cardiovascular Disease in Twins
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association : Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 5:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background - Cystatin C is associated with both renal function and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We have previously shown a genetic correlation between cystatin C and prevalent ASCVD. The objective of this article is to study whether variation in cystatin C or creatinine predicts incident ASCVD when controlled for genetic factors.Methods and Results - The predictive value of cystatin C and creatinine for incident ASCVD was studied in 11 402 Swedish twins, free of CVD at baseline, in an adjusted Cox-regression model during a median follow-up of 71 months. Twin pairs discordant for incident stroke, myocardial infarction and ASCVD during follow-up were identified and within-pair comparisons regarding cystatin C and creatinine levels were performed. We also investigated whether contact frequency and degree of shared environment influences were associated with similarity in cystatin C levels. In univariate analysis, cystatin C predicted incident ASCVD hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI 1.47-1.67. When adjusted for traditional Framingham risk factors as covariates, cystatin C remained a predictor of incident stroke hazard ratio 1.45, 95% CI (1.25-1.70), ASCVD hazard ratio 1.26, 95% CI (1.13-1.41), and myocardial infarction hazard ratio 1.16, 95% CI (1.01-1.33). In twins discordant for incident stroke, cystatin C at baseline was higher in the twin who experienced a stroke compared to the healthy co-twin (1.11 +/- 0.3 mg/L versus 1.06 +/- 0.3 mg/L), whereas creatinine was lower in the twin who developed CVD compared to their healthy co-twins (76.1 +/- 16.9 mu mol/L versus 79.4 +/- 20.3 mu mol/L).Conclusions - Variation in cystatin C relates to incident ASCVD and to stroke when adjusted for genetic confounding. In identical twins, cystatin C may be a sensitive marker of early hypertensive end-organ damage and small-vessel disease, whereas creatinine level may reflect nutritional status. The findings in disease-discordant monozygotic twins indicate that unique, possibly preventable, environmental factors are important.
  • Beskow, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Susceptibility locus for epidermodysplasia verruciformis not linked to cervical cancer in situ
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Hereditas. - 0018-0661 .- 1601-5223. ; 135:1, s. 61-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cervical cancer is strongly associated with infection by oncogenic forms of human papillomavirus (HPV), mainly HPV 16 and HPV 18. The aim of this study was to test if a locus previously mapped to a region on chromosome 17 qter in patients with epidermodysplasia verucciformis (EV) and psoriasis and considered to be responsible for an increased susceptibility to HPV 5, also is linked to increased HPV susceptibility in cervical cancer in situ. We also wanted to test whether HPV 16 positivity cluster in families with cervical cancer. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed biopsies of 224 affected from 77 families diagnosed with cervical cancer in situ. Two microsatellite markers (D17S939 and D17S802) containing the locus were genotyped and linkage analysis was performed. No linkage was found to any of the two markers, neither when considering all cancer cases as affected nor when only considering HPV 16 infected cancer cases as affected in the analysis. We conclude that the susceptibility locus for HPV 5 infections associated with EV and psoriasis does not seem to affect susceptibility to HPV 16, frequently detected in cervical cancer. Also, positivity for HPV 16 did not show a significant clustering in families.
  • Carrasquilla, Germán D, et al. (författare)
  • Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of stroke : : A pooled analysis of data from population-based cohort studies
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - Public Library of Science. - 1549-1277. ; 14:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Recent research indicates a favourable influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) if initiated early, but not late, on subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the clinical relevance of timing of HT initiation for hard end points such as stroke remains to be determined. Further, no previous research has considered the timing of initiation of HT in relation to haemorrhagic stroke risk. The importance of the route of administration, type, active ingredient, and duration of HT for stroke risk is also unclear. We aimed to assess the association between HT and risk of stroke, considering the timing of initiation, route of administration, type, active ingredient, and duration of HT. Methods and findings: Data on HT use reported by the participants in 5 population-based Swedish cohort studies, with baseline investigations performed during the period 1987–2002, were combined in this observational study. In total, 88,914 postmenopausal women who reported data on HT use and had no previous cardiovascular disease diagnosis were included. Incident events of stroke (ischaemic, haemorrhagic, or unspecified) and haemorrhagic stroke were identified from national population registers. Laplace regression was employed to assess crude and multivariable-adjusted associations between HT and stroke risk by estimating percentile differences (PDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The fifth and first PDs were calculated for stroke and haemorrhagic stroke, respectively. Crude models were adjusted for age at baseline only. The final adjusted models included age at baseline, level of education, smoking status, body mass index, level of physical activity, and age at menopause onset. Additional variables evaluated for potential confounding were type of menopause, parity, use of oral contraceptives, alcohol consumption, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, family history of cardiovascular disease, and cohort. During a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 6,371 first-time stroke events were recorded; of these, 1,080 were haemorrhagic. Following multivariable adjustment, early initiation (<5 years since menopause onset) of HT was associated with a longer stroke-free period than never use (fifth PD, 1.00 years; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.57), but there was no significant extension to the time period free of haemorrhagic stroke (first PD, 1.52 years; 95% CI −0.32 to 3.37). When considering timing as a continuous variable, the stroke-free and the haemorrhagic stroke-free periods were maximal if HT was initiated approximately 0–5 years from the onset of menopause. If single conjugated equine oestrogen HT was used, late initiation of HT was associated with a shorter stroke-free (fifth PD, −4.41 years; 95% CI −7.14 to −1.68) and haemorrhagic stroke-free (first PD, −9.51 years; 95% CI −12.77 to −6.24) period than never use. Combined HT when initiated late was significantly associated with a shorter haemorrhagic stroke-free period (first PD, −1.97 years; 95% CI −3.81 to −0.13), but not with a shorter stroke-free period (fifth PD, −1.21 years; 95% CI −3.11 to 0.68) than never use. Given the observational nature of this study, the possibility of uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded. Further, immortal time bias, also related to the observational design, cannot be ruled out. Conclusions: When initiated early in relation to menopause onset, HT was not associated with increased risk of incident stroke, regardless of the route of administration, type of HT, active ingredient, and duration. Generally, these findings held also for haemorrhagic stroke. Our results suggest that the initiation of HT 0–5 years after menopause onset, as compared to never use, is associated with a decreased risk of stroke and haemorrhagic stroke. Late initiation was associated with elevated risks of stroke and haemorrhagic stroke when conjugated equine oestrogen was used as single therapy. Late initiation of combined HT was associated with haemorrhagic stroke risk.
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