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41.
  • Obon-Santacana, Mireia, et al. (författare)
  • Acrylamide and Glycidamide Hemoglobin Adducts and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer : A Nested Case-Control Study in Nonsmoking Postmenopausal Women from the EPIC Cohort
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 25:1, s. 127-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Acrylamide was classified as “probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case–control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent.Methods: A nested case–control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk.Results: No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but nonstatistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.96–3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.94–3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose–response trends were observed.Conclusion: This EPIC nested case–control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC.Impact: It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk.
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42.
  • Obón-Santacana, Mireia, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755 .- 1055-9965. ; 24:1, s. 291-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as 'probably carcinogenic' to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results, and could not further examine histological subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) sub-cohort of women (n=325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method, and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10µg/day) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histological EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/day. No associations, and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10µg/day:1.02, 95%CI:0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1:0.97, 95%CI:0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed.
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43.
  • Ose, Jennifer, et al. (författare)
  • Endogenous androgens and risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer by tumor characteristics in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 136:2, s. 399-410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of endogenous androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in ovarian carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous disease and there are no prospective data on endogenous androgens and EOC risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage) or the dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis (i.e. type I vs. type II, leading to less or more aggressive tumors). We conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort evaluating androgens and SHBG and invasive EOC risk by tumor characteristics. Female participants who provided a blood sample and were not using exogenous hormones at blood donation were eligible (n = 183,257). A total of 565 eligible women developed EOC; two controls (n = 1,097) were matched per case. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression models. We observed no association between androgens, SHBG and EOC overall. A doubling of androstenedione reduced risk of serous carcinomas by 21% (odds ratio (OR)log2=0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]=[0.64-0.97]). Moreover, associations differed for low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, with positive associations for low-grade and inverse associations for high-grade carcinomas (e.g. androstenedione: low grade: ORlog2=1.99 [0.98-4.06]; high grade: ORlog2=0.75 [0.61-0.93], p(het)0.01), similar associations were observed for type I/II tumors. This is the first prospective study to evaluate androgens, SHBG and EOC risk by tumor characteristics and type I/II status. Our findings support a possible role of androgens in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional studies exploring this association are needed. What's new? There appear to be several types of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC), and hormone-related risk factors are poorly understood. In this study, the authors found that the impact of endogenous androgens on the risk of developing EOC differed depending upon tumor characteristics. Androgen concentrations were positively associated with the risk of low-grade and type-I carcinomas, but the study found an inverse association for high-grade tumors. These findings support a possible role for androgens in ovarian carcinogenesis, and emphasize the need for additional research.
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44.
  • Ose, Jennifer, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory markers and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer by tumor subtypes: the EPIC cohort.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755 .- 1055-9965. ; 24:6, s. 951-961
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Evidence suggests an etiologic role for inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis and heterogeneity between tumor subtypes and anthropometric indices. Prospective studies on circulating inflammatory markers and epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) have predominantly investigated overall risk; data characterizing risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage, dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis) and anthropometric indices are sparse.
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45.
  • Ose, Jennifer, et al. (författare)
  • Pre-diagnosis insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer by histological subtypes : A collaborative re-analysis from the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : SPRINGER. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 28:5, s. 429-435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biologic evidence suggests that the Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-family may be involved in the etiology of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC). However, prospective studies investigating the role of IGF-I in ovarian carcinogenesis have yielded conflicting results. We pooled and harmonized data from 6 case-control studies nested within the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnosis IGF-I concentrations and subsequent risk of EOC. We evaluated IGF-I concentrations and risk of EOC overall and by tumor subtype (defined by histology, grade, stage) in 1,270 cases and 2,907 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Doubling of IGF-I concentration was associated with significantly lower risk of overall EOC [ORlog2 = 0.82; CI 0.72-0.93]. We observed no heterogeneity by tumor characteristics (e.g., histology, p (het) = 0.62), menopausal status at blood collection (p (het) = 0.79), or age at diagnosis (p (het) = 0.60). These results suggest that IGF-I concentrations are inversely associated with EOC risk, independent of histological phenotype. Future prospective research should consider potential mechanisms for this association, including, considering other members of the IGF-family to better characterize the role of IGF-signaling in the etiology of EOC.
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46.
  • Ricceri, Fulvio, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of second primary malignancies in women with breast cancer: Results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 137:4, s. 940-948
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer are at increased risk of second primary cancers, and the identification of risk factors for the latter may have clinical implications. We have followed-up for 11 years 10,045 women with invasive breast cancer from a European cohort, and identified 492 second primary cancers, including 140 contralateral breast cancers. Expected and observed cases and Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) were estimated using Aalen-Johansen Markovian methods. Information on various risk factors was obtained from detailed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the role of risk factors. Women with breast cancer had a 30% excess risk for second malignancies (95% confidence interval-CI 18-42) after excluding contralateral breast cancers. Risk was particularly elevated for colorectal cancer (SIR, 1.71, 95% CI 1.43-2.00), lymphoma (SIR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31-2.40), melanoma (2.12; 1.63-2.70), endometrium (2.18; 1.75-2.70) and kidney cancers (2.40; 1.57-3.52). Risk of second malignancies was positively associated with age at first cancer, body mass index and smoking status, while it was inversely associated with education, post-menopausal status and a history of full-term pregnancy. We describe in a large cohort of women with breast cancer a 30% excess of second primaries. Among risk factors for breast cancer, a history of full-term pregnancy was inversely associated with the risk of second primary cancer. What's new? For the first time, researchers have used cohort data to show that people who survive breast cancer have a higher risk of developing another cancer later. By collecting data on 10,000 breast cancer patients over 11 years, these authors calculated a 30% boost in the patients' risk of developing a second primary malignancy, particularly colorectal cancer, lymphoma, melanoma, endometrial cancer, and kidney cancer. These findings, plus the data they collected on risk factors such as age, smoking, body mass index, and others, will help guide clinicians in screening procedures and follow up care for breast cancer patients.
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47.
  • Rinaldi, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Body size and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinomas: Findings from the EPIC study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 131:6, s. 1004-1014
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results from case-control and prospective studies suggest a moderate positive association between obesity and height and differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC). Little is known on the relationship between other measures of adiposity and differentiated TC risk. Here, we present the results of a study on body size and risk of differentiated TC based on a large European prospective study (EPIC). During follow-up, 508 incident cases of differentiated TC were identified in women, and 58 in men. 78% of cases were papillary TC. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). In women, differentiated TC risk was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) (HR highest vs lowest quintile = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.031.94); height (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.182.20); HR highest vs lowest tertile waist (HR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.001.79) and waist-to-hip ratio (HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.051.91). The association with BMI was somewhat stronger in women below age 50. Corresponding associations for papillary TC were similar to those for all differentiated TC. In men the only body size factors significantly associated with differentiated TC were height (non linear), and leg length (HR highest vs. lowest tertile = 3.03, 95% CI: 1.307.07). Our study lends further support to the presence of a moderate positive association between differentiated TC risk and overweight and obesity in women. The risk increase among taller individuals of both sexes suggests that some genetic characteristics or early environmental exposures may also be implicated in the etiology of differentiated TC.
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48.
  • Ritte, Rebecca, et al. (författare)
  • Reproductive factors and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer : a cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2407 .- 1471-2407. ; 13, s. Article Number: 584-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The association of reproductive factors with hormone receptor (HR)-negative breast tumors remains uncertain. Methods: Within the EPIC cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of reproductive factors (menarcheal age, time between menarche and first pregnancy, parity, number of children, age at first and last pregnancies, time since last full-term childbirth, breastfeeding, age at menopause, ever having an abortion and use of oral contraceptives [OC]) with risk of ER-PR-(n = 998) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,567) breast tumors. Results: A later first full-term childbirth was associated with increased risk of ER+PR+ tumors but not with risk of ER-PR-tumors (= 35 vs. = 19 years HR: 1.47 [95% CI 1.15-1.88] p(trend) < 0.001 for ER+PR+ tumors; = 35 vs. = 19 years HR: 0.93 [95% CI 0.53-1.65] p(trend) = 0.96 for ER-PR-tumors; P-het = 0.03). The risk associations of menarcheal age, and time period between menarche and first full-term childbirth with ER-PR-tumors were in the similar direction with risk of ER+PR+ tumors (p(het) = 0.50), although weaker in magnitude and statistically only borderline significant. Other parity related factors such as ever a full-term birth, number of births, age-and time since last birth were associated only with ER+PR+ malignancies, however no statistical heterogeneity between breast cancer subtypes was observed. Breastfeeding and OC use were generally not associated with breast cancer subtype risk. Conclusion: Our study provides possible evidence that age at menarche, and time between menarche and first full-term childbirth may be associated with the etiology of both HR-negative and HR-positive malignancies, although the associations with HR-negative breast cancer were only borderline significant.
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49.
  • Ros, Martine M., et al. (författare)
  • Fluid intake and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 128:11, s. 2695-2708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results from previous studies investigating the association between fluid intake and urothelial cell carcinomas (UCC) are inconsistent. We evaluated this association among 233,236 subjects in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had adequate baseline information on water and total fluid intake. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 513 first primary UCC occurred. At recruitment, habitual fluid intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking and lifetime intensity of smoking. When using the lowest tertile of intake as reference, total fluid intake was not associated with risk of all UCC (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.86-1.45, p-trend = 0.42) or with risk of prognostically high-risk UCC (HR 1.28; 95% CI 0.85-1.93, p-trend = 0.27) or prognostically low-risk UCC (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.65-1.33, p-trend = 0.74). No associations were observed between risk of UCC and intake of water, coffee, tea and herbal tea and milk and other dairy beverages. For prognostically low-risk UCC suggestions of an inverse association with alcoholic beverages and of a positive association with soft drinks were seen. Increased risks were found for all UCC and prognostically low-risk UCC with higher intake of fruit and vegetable juices. In conclusion, total usual fluid intake is not associated with UCC risk in EPIC. The relationships observed for some fluids may be due to chance, but further investigation of the role of all types of fluid is warranted.
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50.
  • Ros, Martine M., et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of aggressive and non-aggressive urothelial cell carcinomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0852 .- 0959-8049. ; 48:17, s. 3267-3277
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Many epidemiological studies have examined fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder, but results are inconsistent. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and UCC risk may vary by bladder tumour aggressiveness. Therefore, we examined the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of aggressive and non-aggressive UCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: After 8.9 years of follow-up, 947 UCC were diagnosed among 468,656 EPIC participants. Of these, 421 could be classified as aggressive UCC and 433 as non-aggressive UCC cases. At recruitment, fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by validated dietary questionnaires. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for smoking status, duration and intensity of smoking, and energy intake. Results: Total consumption of fruits and vegetables was not associated with aggressive UCC nor with non-aggressive UCC. A 25 g/day increase in leafy vegetables and grapes consumption was associated with a reduced risk of non-aggressive UCC (hazard ratio (HR) 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.00 and HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77-0.98, respectively), while the intake of root vegetables was inversely associated with risk of aggressive UCC (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77-0.98). Conclusion: Our study did not confirm a protective effect of total fruit and/or vegetable consumption on aggressive or non-aggressive UCC. High consumption of certain types of vegetables and of fruits may reduce the risk of aggressive or non-aggressive UCC; however chance findings cannot be excluded. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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