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51.
  • Roswall, Nina, et al. (författare)
  • Anthropometric measures and bladder cancer risk: A prospective study in the EPIC cohort
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 135:12, s. 2918-2929
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anthropometric measures have been related to risk of several cancers. For bladder cancer, however, evidence is sparse. Comparability of existing studies is hampered by use of different obesity-measures, inadequate control for smoking, and few female cases. This study examined associations between height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body mass index (BMI), recalled weight at age 20 and bladder cancer, and investigated effect modification by age, tumor aggressiveness and smoking. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in 390,878 participants. Associations were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. During follow-up, 1,391 bladder cancers (1,018 male; 373 female) occurred. Height was unrelated to bladder cancer in both genders. We found a small but significant positive association with weight [1.04 (1.01-1.07) per 5 kilo], BMI [1.05 (1.02-1.08) per 2 units], waist circumference [1.04 (1.01-1.08) per 5 cm], waist-hip ratio (1.07 (1.02-1.13) per 0.05 unit] and waist-height ratio [1.07 (1.01-1.13) per 0.05 unit] in men. Stratification by smoking status confined associations in men to former smokers. In never smokers, we found no significant associations, suggesting residual confounding by smoking. Results did not differ with tumor aggressiveness and age. Residual analyses on BMI/waist circumference showed a significantly higher disease risk with BMI in men (p=0.01), but no association with waist circumference. In conclusion, in this large study, height was unrelated to bladder cancer, whereas overweight was associated with a slightly higher bladder cancer risk in men. This association may, however, be distorted by residual confounding by smoking.
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52.
  • Roura, Esther, et al. (författare)
  • The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer: Results from the EPIC Cohort
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC).
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53.
  • Sanikini, Harinakshi, et al. (författare)
  • Anthropometric and reproductive factors and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer by subtype and subsite : Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 146:4, s. 929-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity has been associated with upper gastrointestinal cancers; however, there are limited prospective data on associations by subtype/subsite. Obesity can impact hormonal factors, which have been hypothesized to play a role in these cancers. We investigated anthropometric and reproductive factors in relation to esophageal and gastric cancer by subtype and subsite for 476,160 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox models. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 220 esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), 195 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 243 gastric cardia (GC) and 373 gastric noncardia (GNC) cancers were diagnosed. Body mass index (BMI) was associated with EA in men (BMI ≥30 vs. 18.5–25 kg/m2: HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.25–3.03) and women (HR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.15–6.19); however, adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attenuated these associations. After mutual adjustment for BMI and HC, respectively, WHR and waist circumference (WC) were associated with EA in men (HR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.99–6.06 for WHR >0.96 vs. <0.91; HR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.52–4.72 for WC >98 vs. <90 cm) and women (HR = 4.40, 95% CI: 1.35–14.33 for WHR >0.82 vs. <0.76; HR = 5.67, 95% CI: 1.76–18.26 for WC >84 vs. <74 cm). WHR was also positively associated with GC in women, and WC was positively associated with GC in men. Inverse associations were observed between parity and EA (HR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14–0.99; >2 vs. 0) and age at first pregnancy and GNC (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32–0.91; >26 vs. <22 years); whereas bilateral ovariectomy was positively associated with GNC (HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.04–3.36). These findings support a role for hormonal pathways in upper gastrointestinal cancers.
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54.
  • Sasamoto, Naoko, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting circulating CA125 levels among healthy premenopausal women
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 28:6, s. 1076-1085
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is the most promising ovarian cancer screening biomarker to date. Multiple studies reported CA125 levels vary by personal characteristics, which could inform personalized CA125 thresholds. However, this has not been well described in premenopausal women. Methods: We evaluated predictors of CA125 levels among 815 premenopausal women from the New England Case Control Study (NEC). We developed linear and dichotomous (-35 U/mL) CA125 prediction models and externally validated an abridged model restricting to available predictors among 473 premenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC). Results: The final linear CA125 prediction model included age, race, tubal ligation, endometriosis, menstrual phase at blood draw, and fibroids, which explained 7% of the total variance of CA125. The correlation between observed and predicted CA125 levels based on the abridged model (including age, race, and menstrual phase at blood draw) had similar correlation coefficients in NEC (r = 0.22) and in EPIC (r= 0.22). The dichotomous CA125 prediction model included age, tubal ligation, endometriosis, prior personal cancer diagnosis, family history of ovarian cancer, number of miscarriages, menstrual phase at blood draw, and smoking status with AUC of 0.83. The abridged dichotomous model (including age, number of miscarriages, menstrual phase at blood draw, and smoking status) showed similar AUCs in NEC (0.73) and in EPIC (0.78). Conclusions: We identified a combination of factors associated with CA125 levels in premenopausal women. Impact: Our model could be valuable in identifying healthy women likely to have elevated CA125 and consequently improve its specificity for ovarian cancer screening.
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55.
  • Sluik, Diewertje, et al. (författare)
  • Lifestyle factors and mortality risk in individuals with diabetes mellitus: are the associations different from those in individuals without diabetes?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428 .- 0012-186X. ; 57:1, s. 63-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Thus far, it is unclear whether lifestyle recommendations for people with diabetes should be different from those for the general public. We investigated whether the associations between lifestyle factors and mortality risk differ between individuals with and without diabetes. Methods Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort was formed of 6,384 persons with diabetes and 258,911 EPIC participants without known diabetes. Joint Cox proportional hazard regression models of people with and without diabetes were built for the following lifestyle factors in relation to overall mortality risk: BMI, waist/height ratio, 26 food groups, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, smoking. Likelihood ratio tests for heterogeneity assessed statistical differences in regression coefficients. Results Multivariable adjusted mortality risk among individuals with diabetes compared with those without was increased, with an HR of 1.62 (95% CI 1.51, 1.75). Intake of fruit, legumes, nuts, seeds, pasta, poultry and vegetable oil was related to a lower mortality risk, and intake of butter and margarine was related to an increased mortality risk. These associations were significantly different in magnitude from those in diabetes-free individuals, but directions were similar. No differences between people with and without diabetes were detected for the other lifestyle factors. Conclusions/interpretation Diabetes status did not substantially influence the associations between lifestyle and mortality risk. People with diabetes may benefit more from a healthy diet, but the directions of association were similar. Thus, our study suggests that lifestyle advice with respect to mortality for patients with diabetes should not differ from recommendations for the general population.
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56.
  • Solans, Marta, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory potential of diet and risk of lymphoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition. - : Springer. - 1436-6207 .- 1436-6215. ; 59:2, s. 813-823
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in lymphomagenesis and several dietary factors seem to be involved its regulation. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: The analysis included 476,160 subjects with an average follow-up of 13.9 years, during which 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 2606 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 395 NOS) were identified. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated using 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory weights. The association between the ISD and lymphoma risk was estimated by hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated by multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: The ISD was not associated with overall lymphoma risk. Among lymphoma subtypes, a positive association between the ISD and mature B-cell NHL (HR for a 1-SD increase: 1.07 (95% CI 1.01; 1.14), p trend = 0.03) was observed. No statistically significant association was found among other subtypes. However, albeit with smaller number of cases, a suggestive association was observed for HL (HR for a 1-SD increase = 1.22 (95% CI 0.94; 1.57), p trend 0.13). Conclusions: Our findings suggested that a high ISD score, reflecting a pro-inflammatory diet, was modestly positively associated with the risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes. Further large prospective studies on low-grade inflammation induced by diet are warranted to confirm these findings.
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57.
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58.
  • Tikk, Kaja, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating prolactin and in situ breast cancer risk in the European EPIC cohort : a case-control study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction The relationship between circulating prolactin and invasive breast cancer has been investigated previously, but the association between prolactin levels and in situ breast cancer risk has received less attention.Methods We analysed the relationship between pre-diagnostic prolactin levels and the risk of in situ breast cancer overall, and by menopausal status and use of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) at blood donation. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess this association in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, including 307 in situ breast cancer cases and their matched control subjects.Results We found a significant positive association between higher circulating prolactin levels and risk of in situ breast cancer among all women [pre-and postmenopausal combined, ORlog2 = 1.35 (95% CI 1.04-1.76), P-trend = 0.03]. No statistically significant heterogeneity was found between prolactin levels and in situ cancer risk by menopausal status (P-het = 0.98) or baseline HT use (P-het = 0.20), although the observed association was more pronounced among postmenopausal women using HT compared to non-users (P-trend = 0.06 vs P-trend = 0.35). In subgroup analyses, the observed positive association was strongest in women diagnosed with in situ breast tumors <4 years compared to >= 4 years after blood donation (P-trend = 0.01 vs P-trend = 0.63; P-het = 0.04) and among nulliparous women compared to parous women (P-trend = 0.03 vs P-trend = 0.15; P-het = 0.07).Conclusions Our data extends prior research linking prolactin and invasive breast cancer to the outcome of in situ breast tumours and shows that higher circulating prolactin is associated with increased risk of in situ breast cancer.The relationship between circulating prolactin and invasive breast cancer has been investigated previously, but the association between prolactin levels and in situ breast cancer risk has received less attention.
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59.
  • Tikk, Kaja, et al. (författare)
  • Prolactin Determinants in Healthy Women : A Large Cross-Sectional Study within the EPIC Cohort
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 23:11, s. 2532-2542
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest that higher circulating prolactin is associated with breast cancer risk; however, how various risk factors for breast cancer influence prolactin levels in healthy women is not clear. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional associations between several suggested reproductive and lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer and circulating prolactin among pre- and postmenopausal women, taking into account the use of current postmenopausal hormone therapy, among 2,560 controls from a breast cancer nested case-control study within the EPIC cohort. Results: Adjusted geometric mean prolactin levels were significantly higher among premenopausal women, and among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy compared with nonusers (8.2, 7.0, and 6.3 ng/mL, respectively; P-cat = <0.0001). Furthermore, prolactin levels were significantly higher among users of combined estrogen-progestin hormone therapy compared with users of estrogen-alone hormone therapy (6.66 vs. 5.90 ng/mL; P-cat = 0.001). Prolactin levels were lower among parous women compared with nulliparous women (8.61 vs. 10.95 ng/mL; P-cat = 0.0002, premenopausal women); the magnitude of this difference depended on the number of full-term pregnancies (22.1% lower, >= 3 vs. 1 pregnancy, P-trend = 0.01). Results for parity were similar but lower in magnitude among postmenopausal women. Prolactin did not vary by other studied factors, with the exception of lower levels among postmenopausal smokers compared with never smokers. Conclusions: Our study shows that current hormone therapy use, especially the use of combined hormone therapy, is associated with higher circulating prolactin levels in postmenopausal women, and confirms prior findings of lower circulating prolactin in parous women. Impact: Our study extends the knowledge linking various breast cancer risk factors with circulating prolactin.
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60.
  • van Boeckel, Petra G. A., et al. (författare)
  • No association between educational level and pancreatic cancer incidence in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology. - : Elsevier. - 1877-7821 .- 1877-783X. ; 34:6, s. 696-701
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Until now, studies examining the relationship between socioeconomic status and pancreatic cancer incidence have been inconclusive. Aim: To prospectively investigate to what extent pancreatic cancer incidence varies according to educational level within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: In the EPIC study, socioeconomic status at baseline was measured using the highest level of education attained. Hazard ratios by educational level and a summary index, the relative indices of inequality (Rh), were estimated using Cox regression models stratified by age, gender, and center and adjusted for known risk factors. In addition, we conducted separate analyses by age, gender and geographical region. Results: Within the source population of 407, 944 individuals at baseline, 490 first incident primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases were identified in 9 European countries. The crude difference in risk of pancreatic cancer according to level of education was small and not statistically significant (RII = 1.14, 95% CI 0.80-1.62). Adjustment for known risk factors reduced the inequality estimates to only a small extent. In addition, no statistically significant associations were observed for age groups (adjusted RII <= (60) (years) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.44-1.64, adjusted RII> 60 years = 1.18, 95% CI 0.73-1.90), gender (adjusted RIImale = 1.20, 95% CI 0.68-2.10, adjusted RIIfemale = 0.96, 95% CI 0.56-1.62) or geographical region (adjusted RIINorthern Europe = 1.14, 95% CI 0.81-1.61, adjusted RIIMiddle (Europe) = 1.72, 95% CI 0.93-3.19, adjusted RIISouthern Europe = 0.75, 95% CI 0.32-1.80). Conclusion: Despite large educational inequalities in many risk factors within the EPIC study, we found no evidence for an association between educational level and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer in this European cohort. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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