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51.
  • Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary Intakes and Risk of Lymphoid and Myeloid Leukemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nutrition and Cancer. - Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. - 1532-7914. ; 66:1, s. 14-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The etiology of leukemias cannot entirely be explained by known risk factors, including ionizing radiation, benzene exposure, and infection with human T cell leukemia virus. A number of studies suggested that diet influences the risk of adult leukemias. However, results have been largely inconsistent. We examined the potential association between dietary factors and risk of leukemias among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Among the 477,325 participants with mean follow-up of 11.34yr (SD = 2.47), 773 leukemias (373 and 342 cases of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia, respectively) were identified. Diet over the previous 12 mo was assessed at baseline using a validated country-specific dietary questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to explore the association between dietary factors that have previously been associated with leukemia risk, including red and processed meat, poultry, offal, fish, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and seeds/nuts, and risk of both lymphoid and myeloid leukemias. No significant associations were observed between dietary measures and total, lymphoid, and myeloid leukemias. Additional subtype analyses showed no dietary association with risk of major subtypes of leukemias. In summary, this study did not support a possible link between selected dietary factors and risk of leukemias.
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52.
  • Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi, et al. (författare)
  • Soluble B-cell activation marker of sCD27 and sCD30 and future risk of B-cell lymphomas : a nested case-control study and meta-analyses
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 138:10, s. 2357-2367
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pre-diagnostic serum/plasma concentrations of B-cell activation markers have been associated with future risk of B-cell lymphomas (BCL) in HIV-infected patients and in the general population. Current evidence for the general population is however limited and relies on relatively small numbers of observations, especially for specific histologies. We carried out a nested case-control study, including 218 BCL and 218 matched controls, within two prospective cohorts, to investigate the association between plasma levels of soluble (s)CD27 and sCD30 and future risk of BCL, and main histologic subtypes separately. To expand the evidence further, we performed meta-analyses of the published data on these associations from prospective studies among the general population. Our study revealed a significant relationship between sCD30 concentration and BCL risk (OR=0.86, 1.53, 1.76, for the 2(nd) -4(th) quartiles respectively, P-trend=0.01). Similar increased risks were observed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Analyses of sCD27 blood concentrations did not show significant associations with BCL, (OR=0.90, 1.26, 1.65 for the 2(nd) -4(th) quartiles, respectively, P-trend=0.17), but significant associations were observed for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and for the group of 'other BCL' subtypes. Our findings involving sCD30 were confirmed within our meta-analyses of five prospective cohorts, while results were more heterogeneous for sCD27 with the exception of CLL which was found consistently in all studies. Data to date suggest that chronic B-cell stimulation might be an important mechanism involved in B-cell lymphomagenesis both in HIV-infected and in the general population.
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53.
  • Huerta, José María, et al. (författare)
  • Prospective study of physical activity and risk of primary adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus and stomach in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition) cohort
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Springer. - 1573-7225. ; 21:5, s. 657-669
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To analyse the association between types of physical activity (occupational, recreational and household, vigorous and overall) and risk of primary oesophageal (OAC) or gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). From nine European countries, 420,449 participants were recruited between 1991 and 2000 and followed-up for a mean of 8.8 years to register incident GAC and OAC. Information on physical activity (PA), diet, lifestyle and health-related variables was obtained at baseline. Helicobacter pylori infection status was considered in a subset of 1,211 participants. Analyses were repeated by tumour site (cardia/non-cardia) and histological type (intestinal/diffuse). During the follow-up, 410 GAC and 80 OAC occurred. A lower risk of overall and non-cardia GAC was found for increasing levels of a PA index which combined occupational PA with weekly time spent in sports and cycling. The hazard ratio (HR) of GAC was 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.94, for the comparison between active and inactive participants according to the PA index (HR = 0.44, 95% CI:0.26-0.74, for non-cardia GAC). No effect was found for cardia tumours or histological subtypes of GAC. PA of any kind was not associated with OAC. Overall and distal (non-cardia) gastric tumours were inversely associated with time spent on cycling and sports and a total PA index. No association was found for any type of PA and risk of cardia cancers of the stomach.
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54.
  • Jakobsen, Marianne U, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma Phospholipid Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Body Weight Change
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Obesity Facts. - Karger. - 1662-4033. ; 4:4, s. 312-318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers. Method: A total of 1,998 women and men participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a median of 4.9 years. The associations between the proportion of plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 PUFA and change in weight were investigated using mixed-effect linear regression. Results: The proportion of long-chain n-3 PUFA was not associated with change in weight. Among all participants, the 1-year weight change was -0.7 g per 1% point higher long-chain n-3 PUFA level (95% confidence interval: -20.7 to 19.3). The results when stratified by sex, age, or BMI groups were not systematically different. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the proportion of long-chain n-3 PUFA in plasma phospholipids is not associated with subsequent change in body weight within the range of exposure in the general population.
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55.
  • Jakszyn, Paula, et al. (författare)
  • Hepcidin levels and gastric cancer risk in the EPIC-EurGast study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 141:5, s. 945-951
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hepcidin is the main regulator of iron homeostasis and dysregulation of proteins involved in iron metabolism has been associated with tumorogenesis. However, to date, no epidemiological study has researched the association between hepcidin levels and gastric cancer risk. To further investigate the relationship between hepcidin levels and gastric cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study (EURGAST) within the multicentric European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. The study included 456 primary incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases and 900 matched controls that occurred during an average of 11 years of follow-up. We measured serum levels of hepcidin-25, iron, ferritin, transferrin and C-reactive protein. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of gastric cancer by hepcidin levels were estimated from multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Mediation effect of the ferritin levels on the hepcidin-gastric cancer pathway was also evaluated. After adjusting for relevant confounders, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between gastric cancer and hepcidin levels (OR 5 ng/l = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.93–0.99). No differences were found by tumor localization or histological type. In mediation analysis, we found that the direct effect of hepcidin only represents a nonsignificant 38% (95% CI: −69%, 91%). In summary, these data suggest that the inverse association of hepcidin levels and gastric cancer risk was mostly accounted by ferritin levels. Further investigation including repeated measures of hepcidin is needed to clarify their role in gastric carcinogenesis.
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56.
  • Jakszyn, Paula, et al. (författare)
  • Red Meat, Dietary Nitrosamines, and Heme Iron and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 20:3, s. 555-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent results for the association between red meat intake, nitrosamines [NDMA: N-nitrosodimethylamine, and ENOC (endogenous nitroso compounds)], and the risk of bladder cancer. We investigated the association between red meat consumption, dietary nitrosamines, and heme iron and the risk of bladder cancer among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer occurrence were available for a total of 481,419 participants, recruited in 10 European countries. Estimates of HRs were obtained by proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, gender, and study center and adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, lifetime intensity of smoking, duration of smoking, educational level, and BMI. Results: After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 1,001 participants were diagnosed with bladder cancer. We found no overall association between intake of red meat (log(2) HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.99-1.13), nitrosamines (log(2) HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.92-1.30 and HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.92-1.05 for ENOC and NDMA, respectively) or heme iron (log(2) HR: 1.05; 95 CI: 0.99-1.12) and bladder cancer risk. The associations did not vary by sex, high-versus low-risk bladder cancers, smoking status, or occupation (high vs. low risk). Conclusions: Our findings do not support an effect of red meat intake, nitrosamines (endogenous or exogenous), or heme iron intake on bladder cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 20(3); 555-9. (C)2011 AACR.
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57.
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58.
  • Jenab, Mazda, et al. (författare)
  • CDH1 gene polymorphisms, smoking, Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST)
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - IFAC & Elsevier Ltd.. - 1879-0852. ; 44:6, s. 774-780
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite declining incidence rates, gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of death worldwide. E-Cadherin is an adhesion molecule that is thought to be involved in GC. Germline mutations in the E-Cadherin gene (CDH1) have been identified in hereditary diffuse GC. Also, a promoter polymorphism at position 160 C/A has been suggested to lead to transcriptional down regulation and has been shown to affect GC risk in some studies. However, very little information exists on the GC risk association of other CDH1 polymorphisms and it is unclear whether any associations may be different by GC anatomical sites or histological types. Thus, a case-control study (cases = 245/controls = 950) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort was conducted to assess the GC risk association of eight CDH1 gene polymorphisms. None of the CDH1 polymorphisms or haplotypes analysed were associated with GC risk and no differences of effect were observed by Helicobacter pylori infection status. However, three CDH1 polymorphisms in the same haplotype block, including the CDH1-160C/A, interacted with smoking to increase GC risk in smokers but not in never smokers. These findings should be confirmed in larger independent studies.
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59.
  • Jenab, Mazda, et al. (författare)
  • Consumption and portion sizes of tree nuts, peanuts and seeds in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts from 10 European countries
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - Cambridge University Press. - 1475-2662. ; 96:1, s. 12-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tree nuts, peanuts and seeds are nutrient dense foods whose intake has been shown to be associated with reduced risk of some chronic diseases. They are regularly consumed in European diets either as whole, in spreads or from hidden sources (e.g. commercial products). However, little is known about their intake profiles or differences in consumption between European countries or geographic regions. The objective of this study was to analyse the population mean intake and average portion sizes in subjects reporting intake of nuts and seeds consumed as whole, derived from hidden sources or from spreads. Data was obtained from standardised 24-hour dietary recalls collected from 36 994 subjects in 10 different countries that are part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Overall, for nuts and seeds consumed as whole, the percentage of subjects reporting intake on the day of the recall was: tree nuts=4 center dot 4%, peanuts=2 center dot 3 % and seeds=1 center dot 3 %. The data show a clear northern (Sweden: mean intake=0 center dot 15 g/d, average portion size=15 center dot 1 g/d) to southern (Spain: mean intake=2 center dot 99 g/d, average portion size=34 center dot 7 g/d) European gradient of whole tree nut intake. The three most popular tree nuts were walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts, respectively. In general, tree nuts were more widely consumed than peanuts or seeds. In subjects reporting intake, men consumed a significantly higher average portion size of tree nuts (28 center dot 5 v. 23 center dot 1 g/d, P < 0 center dot 01) and peanuts (46 center dot 1 v. 35 center dot 1 g/d, P < 0 center dot 01) per day than women. These data may be useful in devising research initiatives and health policy strategies based on the intake of this food group.
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60.
  • Jenab, Mazda, et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin D receptor and Calcium sensing receptor Polymorphisms and the risk of Colorectal Cancer in European populations
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965. ; 18, s. 2485-2491
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased levels of vitamin D and calcium may play a protective role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. It has been suggested that these effects may be mediated by genetic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the calcium sensing receptor (CASR). However, current epidemiologic evidence from European populations for a role of these genes in CRC risk is scarce. In addition, it is not clear whether these genes may modulate CRC risk independently or by interaction with blood vitamin D concentration and level of dietary calcium intake. A case-control study was conducted nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. CRC cases (1,248) were identified and matched to 1,248 control subjects. Genotyping for the VDR (BsmI: rs1544410; Fok1: rs2228570) and CASR (rs1801725) genes was done by Taqman, and serum vitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were measured. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (RR). Compared with the wild-type bb, the BB genotype of the VDR BsmI polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of CRC [RR, 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-0.98). The association was observed for colon cancer (RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.45-0.95) but not rectal cancer (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.62-1.49). The Fok1 and CASR genotypes were not associated with CRC risk in this study. No interactions were noted for any of the polymorphisms with serum 25OHD concentration or level of dietary calcium. These results confirm a role for the BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene in CRC risk, independent of serum 25OHD concentration and dietary calcium intake. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(9):2485-91).
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