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171.
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172.
  • Wibom, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Glioma Gwas Hits - Markers for Risk or for Prognosis?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neuro-Oncology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1522-8517 .- 1523-5866. ; 16:Suppl. 2, s. ii109-ii110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One obstacle to developing new treatments for glioma is the generally poor understanding of glioma aetiology. The only generally accepted environmental risk factor or glioma is ionizing radiation. Glioma aetiology has also been shown to contain a genetic component, in part through observations that individuals in families with a history of glioma have an elevated risk of developing glioma themselves. The genetic component in glioma aetiology has been further substantiated through genome wide association studies (GWAS). These studies have identified associations between a number of common genetic variants and an increased glioma risk. However, the studies have all been of case-control design (i.e. including cases at diagnosis), and as such they presumably suffer from a degree of survival bias. Survival bias risks being introduced in a study when rapidly fatal cases are not included. This is an inherent risk of case-control designs, which is particularly pronounced when studying a disease with very poor prognosis, such as glioma. Ultimately, survival bias may result in erroneous conclusions, as it is impossible to separate associations with prognosis from associations with risk of disease. To accurately confirm previously identified glioma risk variants, and ascertain whether they are associated with risk or with prolonged survival, we investigated these variants in a set of pre-diagnostic serum samples (594 cases and 591 matched controls). Analyses of population based, pre-diagnostic samples eliminates the risk of survival bias, and enables distinction between genetic variants associated with glioma risk (i.e. aetiology) and genetic variants associated with prognosis. The serum samples were acquired through The Janus Serum Bank, a Norwegian population based biobank reserved for cancer research. Variant detection was achieved by means of cycling temperature capillary electrophoresis. Our investigation confirmed the association with glioma risk for the investigated variants within five genomic regions; 8q24.21 (CCDC26), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B-AS1), 11q23.3 (PHLDB1), 17p13.1 (TP53), and 20q13.33 (RTEL1). This is indicative of these variants being truly associated with glioma risk, and thus may impact gliomagenesis. However, previously identified risk variants within the 5p15.33 (TERT) and 7p11.2 (EGFR) could not be positively confirmed by this study. The lack of positive confirmation raises the question whether EGFR and TERT genetic variants are linked with prolonged survival, rather than with glioma aetiology.
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173.
  • Wibom, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of Established Genetic Risk Variants for Glioma in Prediagnostic Samples from a Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 24:5, s. 810-816
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although glioma etiology is poorly understood in general, growing evidence indicates a genetic component. Four large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked common genetic variants with an increased glioma risk. However, to date, these studies are based largely on a case-control design, where cases have been recruited at the time of or after diagnosis. They may therefore suffer from a degree of survival bias, introduced when rapidly fatal cases are not included.Methods: To confirm glioma risk variants in a prospective setting, we have analyzed 11 previously identified risk variants in a set of prediagnostic serum samples with 598 cases and 595 matched controls. Serum samples were acquired from The Janus Serum Bank, a Norwegian population-based biobank reserved for cancer research.Results: We confirmed the association with glioma risk for variants within five genomic regions: 8q24.21 (CCDC26), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B-AS1), 11q23.3 (PHLDB1), 17p13.1 (TP53), and 20q13.33 (RTEL1). However, previously identified risk variants within the 7p11.2 (EGFR) region were not confirmed by this study.Conclusions: Our results indicate that the risk variants that were confirmed by this study are truly associated with glioma risk and may, consequently, affect gliomagenesis. Though the lack of positive confirmation of EGFR risk variants may be attributable to relatively limited statistical power, it nevertheless raises the question whether they truly are risk variants or markers for glioma prognosis.Impact: Our findings indicate the need for further studies to clarify the role of glioma risk loci with respect to prolonged survival versus etiology.
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174.
  • Zheng, Hou-Feng, et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 526:7571, s. 112-117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been previously associated with common genetic variants, as well as rare, population-specific, coding variants. Here we identify novel non-coding genetic variants with large effects on BMD (ntotal = 53,236) and fracture (ntotal = 508,253) in individuals of European ancestry from the general population. Associations for BMD were derived from whole-genome sequencing (n = 2,882 from UK10K (ref. 10); a population-based genome sequencing consortium), whole-exome sequencing (n = 3,549), deep imputation of genotyped samples using a combined UK10K/1000 Genomes reference panel (n = 26,534), and de novo replication genotyping (n = 20,271). We identified a low-frequency non-coding variant near a novel locus, EN1, with an effect size fourfold larger than the mean of previously reported common variants for lumbar spine BMD (rs11692564(T), MAF = 1.6%, replication effect size = +0.20 s.d., Pmeta = 2 × 10(-14)), which was also associated with a decreased risk of fracture (odds ratio = 0.85; P = 2 × 10(-11); ncases = 98,742 and ncontrols = 409,511). Using an En1(cre/flox) mouse model, we observed that conditional loss of En1 results in low bone mass, probably as a consequence of high bone turnover. We also identified a novel low-frequency non-coding variant with large effects on BMD near WNT16 (rs148771817(T), MAF = 1.2%, replication effect size = +0.41 s.d., Pmeta = 1 × 10(-11)). In general, there was an excess of association signals arising from deleterious coding and conserved non-coding variants. These findings provide evidence that low-frequency non-coding variants have large effects on BMD and fracture, thereby providing rationale for whole-genome sequencing and improved imputation reference panels to study the genetic architecture of complex traits and disease in the general population.
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