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61.
  • Schumann, Gunter, et al. (författare)
  • KLB is associated with alcohol drinking, and its gene product beta-Klotho is necessary for FGF21 regulation of alcohol preference
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 113:50, s. 14372-14377
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Excessive alcohol consumption is a major public health problem worldwide. Although drinking habits are known to be inherited, few genes have been identified that are robustly linked to alcohol drinking. We conducted a genome-wide association metaanalysis and replication study among >105,000 individuals of European ancestry and identified beta-Klotho (KLB) as a locus associated with alcohol consumption (rs11940694; P = 9.2 x 10(-12)). beta-Klotho is an obligate coreceptor for the hormone FGF21, which is secreted from the liver and implicated in macronutrient preference in humans. We show that brain-specific beta-Klotho KO mice have an increased alcohol preference and that FGF21 inhibits alcohol drinking by acting on the brain. These data suggest that a liver-brain endocrine axis may play an important role in the regulation of alcohol drinking behavior and provide a unique pharmacologic target for reducing alcohol consumption.
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62.
  • Scott, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 44:9, s. 991-991
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes risk (q < 0.05). Loci influencing fasting insulin concentration showed association with lipid levels and fat distribution, suggesting impact on insulin resistance. Gene-based analyses identified further biologically plausible loci, suggesting that additional loci beyond those reaching genome-wide significance are likely to represent real associations. This conclusion is supported by an excess of directionally consistent and nominally significant signals between discovery and follow-up studies. Functional analysis of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control.
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63.
  • Scott, Robert A, et al. (författare)
  • No Interactions Between Previously Associated 2-Hour Glucose Gene Variants and Physical Activity or BMI on 2-Hour Glucose Levels
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 61:5, s. 1291-1296
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gene-lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) X BMI and SNP x physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (beta = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13-0.31], P = 1.63 X 10(-6)). All SNPs were associated with 2-h glucose (beta = 0.06-0.12 mmol/allele, P <= 1.53 X 10(-7)), but no significant interactions were found with PA (P > 0.18) or BMI (P >= 0.04). In this large study of gene-lifestyle interaction, we observed no interactions between genetic and lifestyle factors, both of which were associated with 2-h glucose. It is perhaps unlikely that top loci from genome-wide association studies will exhibit strong subgroup-specific effects, and may not, therefore, make the best candidates for the study of interactions. Diabetes 61:1291-1296, 2012
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64.
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65.
  • Ward, Heather A., et al. (författare)
  • Haem iron intake and risk of lung cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0954-3007. ; 8:73, s. 1122-1132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that haem iron, which is found predominantly in red meat and increases endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, may be positively associated with lung cancer. The objective was to examine the relationship between haem iron intake and lung cancer risk using detailed smoking history data and serum cotinine to control for potential confounding. Methods: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 416,746 individuals from 10 countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident lung cancer (n = 3731) risk relative to haem iron, non-haem iron, and total dietary iron intake. A corresponding analysis was conducted among a nested subset of 800 lung cancer cases and 1489 matched controls for whom serum cotinine was available. Results: Haem iron was associated with lung cancer risk, including after adjustment for details of smoking history (time since quitting, number of cigarettes per day): as a continuous variable (HR per 0.3 mg/1000 kcal 1.03, 95% CI 1.00–1.07), and in the highest versus lowest quintile (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02–1.32; trend across quintiles: P = 0.035). In contrast, non-haem iron intake was related inversely with lung cancer risk; however, this association attenuated after adjustment for smoking history. Additional adjustment for serum cotinine did not considerably alter the associations detected in the nested case–control subset. Conclusions: Greater haem iron intake may be modestly associated with lung cancer risk.
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66.
  • Weng, Lu Chen, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Interactions with Age, Sex, Body Mass Index, and Hypertension in Relation to Atrial Fibrillation : The AFGen Consortium
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is unclear whether genetic markers interact with risk factors to influence atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. We performed genome-wide interaction analyses between genetic variants and age, sex, hypertension, and body mass index in the AFGen Consortium. Study-specific results were combined using meta-analysis (88,383 individuals of European descent, including 7,292 with AF). Variants with nominal interaction associations in the discovery analysis were tested for association in four independent studies (131,441 individuals, including 5,722 with AF). In the discovery analysis, the AF risk associated with the minor rs6817105 allele (at the PITX2 locus) was greater among subjects ≤ 65 years of age than among those > 65 years (interaction p-value = 4.0 × 10-5). The interaction p-value exceeded genome-wide significance in combined discovery and replication analyses (interaction p-value = 1.7 × 10-8). We observed one genome-wide significant interaction with body mass index and several suggestive interactions with age, sex, and body mass index in the discovery analysis. However, none was replicated in the independent sample. Our findings suggest that the pathogenesis of AF may differ according to age in individuals of European descent, but we did not observe evidence of statistically significant genetic interactions with sex, body mass index, or hypertension on AF risk.
67.
  • Wormser, David, et al. (författare)
  • Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people : individual participant meta-analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 41:5, s. 1419-1433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain.MethodsWe calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual-participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies.ResultsFor people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5-1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96-0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93-0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03-1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90-0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12-1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80-0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators.ConclusionAdult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases.
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68.
  • Zanello, Marc, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of Epileptic Seizures and Ability to Work in Supratentorial Cavernous Angioma Located Within Eloquent Brain Areas
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neurosurgery. - 0148-396X .- 1524-4040. ; 85:4, s. E702-E713
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The postoperative outcomes and the predictors of seizure control are poorly studied for supratentorial cavernous angiomas (CA) within or close to the eloquent brain area.OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictors of preoperative seizure control, postoperative seizure control, and postoperative ability to work, and the safety of the surgery.METHODS: Multicenter international retrospective cohort analysis of adult patients benefitting from a functional-based surgical resection with intraoperative functional brain mapping for a supratentorial CA within or close to eloquent brain areas.RESULTS: A total of 109 patients (66.1% women; mean age 38.4 ± 12.5 yr), were studied. Age &gt;38 yr (odds ratio [OR], 7.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-35.19; P = .013) and time to surgery &gt; 12 mo (OR, 18.21; 95% CI, 1.11-296.55; P = .042) are independent predictors of uncontrolled seizures at the time of surgery. Focal deficit (OR, 10.25; 95% CI, 3.16-33.28; P &lt; .001) is an independent predictor of inability to work at the time of surgery. History of epileptic seizures at the time of surgery (OR, 7.61; 95% CI, 1.67-85.42; P = .003) and partial resection of the CA and/or of the hemosiderin rim (OR, 12.02; 95% CI, 3.01-48.13; P &lt; .001) are independent predictors of uncontrolled seizures postoperatively. Inability to work at the time of surgery (OR, 19.54; 95% CI, 1.90-425.48; P = .050), Karnofsky Performance Status ≤ 70 (OR, 51.20; 95% CI, 1.20-2175.37; P = .039), uncontrolled seizures postoperatively (OR, 105.33; 95% CI, 4.32-2566.27; P = .004), and worsening of cognitive functions postoperatively (OR, 13.71; 95% CI, 1.06-176.66; P = .045) are independent predictors of inability to work postoperatively.CONCLUSION: The functional-based resection using intraoperative functional brain mapping allows safe resection of CA and the peripheral hemosiderin rim located within or close to eloquent brain areas.
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69.
  • Agogo, George O., et al. (författare)
  • A method for sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of measurement error in multiple exposure variables using external validation data
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology. - 1471-2288. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Measurement error in self-reported dietary intakes is known to bias the association between dietary intake and a health outcome of interest such as risk of a disease. The association can be distorted further by mismeasured confounders, leading to invalid results and conclusions. It is, however, difficult to adjust for the bias in the association when there is no internal validation data. Methods: We proposed a method to adjust for the bias in the diet-disease association (hereafter, association), due to measurement error in dietary intake and a mismeasured confounder, when there is no internal validation data. The method combines prior information on the validity of the self-report instrument with the observed data to adjust for the bias in the association. We compared the proposed method with the method that ignores the confounder effect, and with the method that ignores measurement errors completely. We assessed the sensitivity of the estimates to various magnitudes of measurement error, error correlations and uncertainty in the literature-reported validation data. We applied the methods to fruits and vegetables (FV) intakes, cigarette smoking (confounder) and all-cause mortality data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Results: Using the proposed method resulted in about four times increase in the strength of association between FV intake and mortality. For weakly correlated errors, measurement error in the confounder minimally affected the hazard ratio estimate for FV intake. The effect was more pronounced for strong error correlations. Conclusions: The proposed method permits sensitivity analysis on measurement error structures and accounts for uncertainties in the reported validity coefficients. The method is useful in assessing the direction and quantifying the magnitude of bias in the association due to measurement errors in the confounders.
70.
  • Best, Myron G., et al. (författare)
  • Swarm Intelligence-Enhanced Detection of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using Tumor-Educated Platelets
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Cell. - Elsevier. - 1535-6108. ; 32:2, s. 238-252
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Blood-based liquid biopsies, including tumor-educated blood platelets (TEPs), have emerged as promising biomarker sources for non-invasive detection of cancer. Here we demonstrate that particle-swarm optimization (PSO)-enhanced algorithms enable efficient selection of RNA biomarker panels from platelet RNA sequencing libraries (n = 779). This resulted in accurate TEP-based detection of early- and late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (n = 518 late-stage validation cohort, accuracy, 88%; AUC, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.96; p &lt; 0.001; n = 106 early-stage validation cohort, accuracy, 81%; AUC, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95; p &lt; 0.001), independent of age of the individuals, smoking habits, whole-blood storage time, and various inflammatory conditions. PSO enabled selection of gene panels to diagnose cancer from TEPs, suggesting that swarm intelligence may also benefit the optimization of diagnostics readout of other liquid biopsy biosources.
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